Dutch Braille

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Dutch Braille
Netherland Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Dutch
Creator Vlaams-Nederlandse Braille-commissie (1946–1947)[citation needed]
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Dutch alphabet

Dutch Braille is the braille alphabet used for the Dutch language in the Netherlands. It is apparently not used in Flanders.

History[edit]

In the Netherlands, braille was introduced in 1890. In Belgium, braille has been in use at least since the foundation of the Brailleliga in 1922, but probably earlier.

Over the course of time, five different braille alphabets have been in use. One of these early alphabets was based on the pronunciation of Dutch. It is still used for example by office clerks and students for making notes.[clarification needed]

In 1946, the Vlaams-Nederlandse Braille-commissie (Flemish–Netherlands Braille Committee) was founded to decide on a uniform braille alphabet for the Dutch language. This was introduced in 1947. It is supposed to be the standard for both countries,[citation needed] but a different alphabet continues in use in Flanders.

Alphabet[edit]

Netherland Braille assigns international y to the vowel ij. Three letters for print digraphs follow German Braille (though Dutch oe [u] is pronounced very differently from German oe/ö).[1][2]

⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a, 1
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b, 2
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c, 3
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
d, 4
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e, 5
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
f, 6
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g, 7
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h, 8
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i, 9
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
j, 0
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
q
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
x
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
ij
⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
z
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
oe
⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
ch
⠱ (braille pattern dots-156)
sch

For letters with diacritics in foreign words, French Braille is used. Where this conflicts with Dutch values (y/ij, ö/oe, ô/ch, û/sch), a dot-6 prefix is used to specify the French reading: y, û.

Unesco (2013) presents a Dutch Braille alphabet that is identical to the French. It appears that this is Belgian Dutch Braille.[3]

Punctuation[edit]

⠂ (braille pattern dots-2)
,
⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
;
⠒ (braille pattern dots-25)
:
⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)
.[4]
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
?
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
!
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)
( )
⠦ (braille pattern dots-236)
⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)
⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
-
⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
/
⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
*
⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
&

Unesco (2013) has the opposite assignments for parentheses and quotation marks, and respectively. They also add and for square brackets, [ ].[5] This appears to be Belgian usage.[3]

Formatting[edit]

⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
(Cap)
⠘ (braille pattern dots-45)
(CAPS)
⠸ (braille pattern dots-456)
(italic)
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
(num.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Het brailleschrift
  3. ^ a b See, for example, the Dutch braille chart provided by the Flemish Vereniging van Blinden en Slechtzienden (Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired) here.
  4. ^ And thus the ellipsis,
  5. ^ UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.