Dutch rijksdaalder

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Rijksdaalder (1622)

The rijksdaalder (Dutch, "national dollar") was a Dutch coin first issued by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in the late 16th century during the Dutch Revolt. Featuring an armored half bust of the William the Silent, rijksdaalder was minted to the Saxon reichsthaler weight standard - 448 grains of .885 fine silver.[1] Friesland, Gelderland, Holland, Kampen, Overijssel, Utrecht, West Friesland, Zeeland, and Zwolle minted armored half bust rijksdaalders until the end of the 17th century.

17th century rijksdaalder was set to be equal to from 48 to 50 stuivers (the Dutch equivalent of shillings) and circulated along with silver florins (28 stuivers), daalders (30 stuivers), leeuwendaalders (36 to 42 stuivers), silver ducats (48 stuivers), and ducatons (60 stuivers). While liondaalders were made of less pure silver at 427.16 grain of .750 fineness,[2] silver ducats and rijksdaalders were almost of the same size and quality. With the disappearance of the original armored half bust rijksdaalder design, silver ducats and later 2½ guilders were started to be called rijksdaalders.

Unification of the Dutch monetary system in the beginning 18th century introduced guilder and set rijksdaalders and silver ducats to be worth 2½ guilders. Following decimalization (in 1816), 2½ guilder coins were no longer produced because a 3 guilder coin was thought to better fit in the series of denominations. This turned out to be a mistake (due to the high silver price) and from 1840 onward 2½ guilder coins were produced again. Production stopped in 2002 due to the introduction of the euro. 2½ guilder coins continued to be called by their nicknames rijksdaalder, riks, and knaak until the introduction of euro.

The Royal Dutch Mint still mints a silver ducat today.[3]

Mintage since 1840[4][edit]

The first rijksdaalder of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, issued in 1840
Year Mintage Mint Mint marks Monarch Notes
1840 44,409 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William I Diameter: 38mm; silver content: 94.5%
1841 53,542 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William II
1842 1,009,807 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1843 642,659 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1844 278,535 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1845 3,928,381 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1846 3,629,712 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1847 9,465,005 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1848 8,333,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1849 2,049,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
439,307 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark William III
1850 5,008,210 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1851 3,647,493 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1852 4,547,764 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1853 234,128 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1854 4,334,526 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1855 2,082,046 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1856 909,345 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1857 3,353,072 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1858 8,357,486 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1859 4,306,594 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1860 847,104 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1861 876,003 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1862 3,304,118 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1863 50,652 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1864 2,033,644 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1865 2,287,612 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1866 3,652,608 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1867 4,984,886 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1868 4,040,021 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1869 5,046,192 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1870 6,639,847 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1871 6,875,035 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1872 13,416,378 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1873 5,515,073 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1874 12,795,726 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1875-1897: No rijksdaalders minted
1898 100,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Wilhelmina
1899-1928: No rijksdaalders minted
1929 4,400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Silver content reduced to 72.0%
1930 11,600,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1931 4,720,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1932 6,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1933 3,560,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1934-1936: No rijksdaalders minted
1937 4,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1938 2,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1939 3,760,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1940 4,640,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1941-1942: No rijksdaalders minted
1943 2,000,000 Denver Letter D, privy mark
1944-1958: No rijksdaalders minted
Juliana
1959 7,200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Diameter reduced to 33mm
1960 12,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1961 10,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1962 5,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1963 4,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1964 2,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1965: No rijksdaalders minted
1966 5,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1967-1968: No rijksdaalders minted
1969 15,720,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Silver content removed. Diameter reduced to 29mm
1970 22,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1971 8,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1972 20,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1972-1978: No rijksdaalders minted
1978 5,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1979 5,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Union of Utrecht circulating commemorative
1980 37,300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
30,500,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark Beatrix and Juliana Abdication circulating commemorative
1981: No rijksdaalders minted Beatrix
1982 14,300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1983 3,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1984 5,200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1985 3,100,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1986 5,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1987 2,500,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1988 6,800,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1989 4,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1990 1,000,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1991 400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1992 400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1993 400,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1994 420,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1995 150,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1996 150,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1997 180,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1998 200,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
1999 240,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2000 300,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2001 600,000 Utrecht Utrecht Mint, privy mark
2002 none Discontinued due to introduction of the euro.

Former colonies[edit]

The Dutch rijksdaalder or the local versions of the 2½ gulden coin (or paper) were circulating in Dutch East India from 1602 until 1949. In this year the Netherlands Indies gulden was replaced by the Indonesian rupiah.

The The Netherlands United East India Company (VOC) issued the rijksdaalder in the Cape Colony in the sixteenth century. The Dutch monetary system over seas of a rijksdaalder - or rix-dollar - of 48 stuiver was continued in the Cape Province by the British in the early nineteenth century.

In Ceylon, the VOC issued coins during the 18th century in denominations of ⅛ and 1 duit, ¼, 1, 2 and 4¾ stuiver and 1 rijksdaalder. The currency derived from the Dutch rijksdaalder, although again the Dutch rijksdaalder was worth 50 stuiver and the Ceylon version 48 stuiver. After the British took over Ceylon, the rixdollar was the currency of Ceylon until 1828. The rixdollar was then replaced by the British pound at a rate of 1 rixdollar = 1 shilling 6 pence.

In Suriname the Surinamese Rijksdaalder circulated until 2004, when the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar. In the former Netherlands Antilles the rijksdaalder circulated until 2011. In that year the Netherlands Antillean guilder will be replaced by the American dollar and the Caribbean guilder.

Similar coins[edit]

The similarly named Reichsthaler, riksdaler and rigsdaler were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, respectively.

The American dollar is named after the Dutch daalder, the little brother of the rijksdaalder, with a value of 30 stuiver.

References[edit]