Frost et al., 2006
Duttaphrynus is a genus of true toads. It is endemic to southwestern and southern China (including Taiwan and Hainan) and throughout southern Asia from northern Pakistan and Nepal through India to Sri Lanka, Andaman Island, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali.
These toads are characterized by heads with prominent bony ridges, such as a canthal, a pre-orbital, a supraorbital, and a postorbital ridge, and a short orbito-tympanic ridge. The snout is short and blunt; the interorbital space is broader than the upper eyelid; the tympanum is very small, not half the diameter of eye, and generally indistinct. The first finger of these toads extends beyond the second; the toes are half webbed with single subarticular tubercles, two moderate metatarsal tubercles, and no tarsal fold. The tarsometatarsal articulation reaches the eye, or between the eye and the tip of the snout. The upper surface features are irregular and distinctly porous warts with prominent parotoids. These are elliptical and two, or two and a half, times as long as they are broad. The toads are brown above and yellow beneath, marbled with brown. Males have a subgular vocal sac and are typically three inches long.
This genus was previously assigned to Bufo melanostictus group. Frost et al. suggested that Duttaphrynus is only distantly related to other Asiatic bufonids and consequently moved these species in 2006 to a separate genus.
|Binomial Name and Author||Common Name|
|Duttaphrynus crocus (Wogan, Win, Thin, Lwin, Shein, Kyi & Tun, 2003)|
|Duttaphrynus cyphosus (Ye, 1977)||Projective-occiputed Toad|
|Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Günther, 1864)||Himalayan Broad-skulled Toad|
|Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)||Common Indian Toad|
|Duttaphrynus microtympanum (Boulenger, 1882)||Small-eared Toad|
|Duttaphrynus noellerti (Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda, 1998)|
- "Amphibian Species of the World - Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006". research.amnh.org. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Boulenger, G. A. (1890) Fauna of British India. Reptilia and Batrachia
- Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006: The Amphibian Tree of Life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 364-365
- Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 (10 October, 2007). Duttaphrynus. Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. (Accessed: May 02, 2008).