Dynastic order of knighthood
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An order of knighthood which belongs to a reigning monarch or the head of a former royal family is generally called a dynastic order or a house order. These orders are frequently seen as part of the patrimony of the Royal Family involved. Unlike military, religious, and merit orders supported by existing sovereign states, dynastic orders were created to reward service to a monarch or his family. An example of this difference is seen between the Royal Victorian Order, which is a personal gift of the sovereign (and thus is a dynastic order), and the Order of the British Empire, which is bestowed by the sovereign on the basis of recommendations by the Prime Minister (and thus is a national order).
Personal gift of the sovereign
Dynastic orders are under the exclusive control a monarch and are bestowed without the advice of the political leadership (prime minister or cabinet). A recent report by the British government mentioned that there is "one remaining exercise that has been identified of the Monarch's truly personal, executive prerogative: that is, the conferment of certain honours that remain within her gift (the Orders of Merit, of the Garter, of the Thistle and the Royal Victorian Order)." Generally, dynastic or house Orders are granted by the monarch for whatever reason the monarch may deem appropriate whereas other orders, often called Merit Orders, are granted on the recommendation of government officials to recognize individual accomplishments or services to the nation.
The term dynastic order is also used for those orders which continue to be bestowed by former monarchs and their descendants after they have been removed from power. For instance, the website of Duarte Pio de Bragança, a pretender to the throne of Portugal using the title Duke of Braganza, asserts that the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, "being a Dynastic Order of the House of Bragança and not an Order of State, continued to be conferred by the last King Dom Manuel II, in the exile." On the basis of his succession to King Manuel II, Duarte Pio continues to award those orders of the Kingdom of Portugal which were not taken over by the Portuguese Republic. The Portuguese Republic views things somewhat differently, regarding all the royal orders as extinct following the 5 October 1910 revolution with some of them revived in republican form in 1918. For official purposes, Portugal simply ignores the orders awarded by the royal pretender, Duarte Pio. Although no one is prosecuted for accepting orders from Dom Duarte, including himself, Portuguese law requires government permission to accept any official award, either from Portugal or foreign powers, and the awards of Dom Duarte simply do not appear anywhere on either list.
A similar situation exists in Italy where the Republican Government regards the orders of the former kings to have been abolished but the last king's heir continues to award them. The Italian situation differs from that in Portugal in that Italy forbids the public wearing of the former royal orders in Italy. Nevertheless, the last Italian Crown Prince Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia widely distributes the orders that he claims to have inherited from his father. As is the situation in Portugal, the Italian pretender asserts that control of the Savoy dynastic orders exists separate from the Kingdom of Italy so that he retains the right to award the orders, and accompanying privileges, despite his recognition that "the Italian throne was formally abolished by referendum in 1946 and a republic was instituted in its place."
A third situation of mutual co-existence is maintained in Russia, where, since the fall of communism, the orders of St. Andrew, St. George, and St. Catherine have been reinvented as State Orders of Merit of the Russian Federation. However, the "Russian Imperial Orders" of St. Andrew, St. George, St. Catherine, St. Anna, St. Vladimir, and St. Stanislaus have continued to be awarded since the revolution by the successive heads of the Imperial House Grand Duke Kirill Vladimiriovich, Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich, and Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna. In addition, Dynastic Orders of Knighthood were revived and new ones created under Grand Duke Kirill (Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker), Grand Duke Vladimir (Order of St. Michael the Archangel), and Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna (Order of St. Anastasia). These "Russian Imperial Orders" are allowed to be worn in Russia, and enjoy semi-official recognition by the church and the state; for example, on 14 December 2001 the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation legalized the wearing of the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker in Russia by military persons on active duty.
Various dynastic orders
There are many dynastic orders of knighthood, which exist primarily in Europe. Today, dynastic orders include those still bestowed by a reigning monarch, those bestowed by a head of a royal house in exile, and those that have become extinct. Although it is sometimes asserted that the heads of former reigning houses retain the right to their dynastic orders but cannot create new ones, that view is challenged by others who believe that the power to create orders remains with a dynasty forever. In a few cases, formerly reigning families are accused of "fudging" the issue by claiming to revive long extinct orders or by changing non-dynastic state orders into dynastic ones. One example of this is the Order of Saint Michael of the Wing which is sometimes described as a revival of a long dormant order last awarded in the eighteenth century but also described as a new order created in 2004. Another example concerns the Royal Order of Francis I of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. One branch of the family (led by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro) claims that the Order of Francis I was attached to the crown not the state, and thus awards it as a dynastic order. The other branch (led by Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria) regards the Order of Francis I as a state order that became extinct when the Borbon-Two Sicilies royal family accepted the abolition of their monarchy and the state's inclusion in the Kingdom of Italy. Finally, there is the example of a Russian pretender Maria Vladimirovna who published a decree on 20 August 2010 to create the entirely new Imperial Order of the Holy Great Martyr Anastasia.
Although some former royal families and their supporters claim that Roman Catholic Church formally recognizes their right to award various orders, the Vatican denies all such assertions. On 16 October 2012, the Vatican Secretary of State renewed its formal announcement that it only recognizes the orders issued by the Pope, namely: the Supreme Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur, the Pian Order, the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester, plus the Sovereign Military Order of Malta – also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta – and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The Secretary of State declared "other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See...To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called 'ceremonies of investiture.'"
Bestowed by a reigning royal head
- The Order of the Garter (United Kingdom)
- The Noble Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain)
- The Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau (The Netherlands as well as Luxembourg)
- The Royal Victorian Order (United Kingdom)
- The Order of the Elephant (Denmark)
- The Order of Merit (United Kingdom)
- The Order of the House of Orange (The Netherlands)
- The Order of the Thistle (United Kingdom)
Bestowed by non-reigning head of a house
- The Order of St. George (Bavaria-Wittelsbach)
- The Order of St. Hubert (Bavaria-Wittelsbach)
- The Imperial Ethiopian Order of Saint Mary of Zion (Ethiopia)
- The Order of the Holy Spirit (France
- The Order of Saint Michael (France)
- The Order of the Eagle of Georgia and the Seamless Tunic of Our Lord Jesus Christ (Georgia, Bagrationi Dynasty) 
- The House Order of Hohenzollern (Hohenzollern, Germany)
- The Imperial Austrian Order of Elizabeth (Habsburg-Lorraine)
- The Noble Order of the Golden Fleece (Habsburg-Lorraine)
- The Order of the Starry Cross (Habsburg-Lorraine)
- The Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary (Hungary)
- The Order of Prince Danilo I (Montenegro)
- The Order of Petrovic Njegos (Montenegro)
- The Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje (Montenegro)
- The Order of Saint George of Parma (Parma)
- The Order of the Saint Louis for Civil Merit (Parma)
- The Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa (Portugal, House of Braganza)
- The Order of Saint Isabel (Portugal, House of Braganza)
- The Order of Saint Michael of the Wing (Portugal, House of Braganza)
- The Order of Carol I (Romania, order founded in 1906 and discontinued with King Michael's abdication in 1947, and then revived by him on 5 January 2005 as a dynastic order)
- The Order of the Crown (Romania), founded as a state order it was revived by King Michael I as a Dynastic Order in 2011.
- The Order of St. Andrew (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of St. Catherine (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of St. Alexander Nevsky (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of the White Eagle (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of Saint Anna (Imperial House of Russia) 
- The Order of St. Vladimir (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker (Imperial House of Russia, a modern order created in exile on 1 August 1929 by the pretender Cyril Vladimirovich, a cousin of the last Tsar, Nicholas II of Russia)
- The Order of St. Stanislas (Imperial House of Russia)
- The Order of St. Anastasia (Imperial House of Russia), a modern order created in exile in 2010 by the Head of the Imperial House.
- The Order of St. Michael the Archangel (Imperial House of Russia, a modern order created in exile in 1988 by the Head of the Imperial House Vladimir Cyrillovich.)
- The Royal Order of the Intare (Rwanda)
- The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation (Savoy)
- The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Savoy)
- The Order of Parfaite Amitié (Thurn and Taxis)
- The Order of Saint Joseph (Tuscany)
- The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George (Two Sicilies)
- The Royal & Illustrious Order of St. Januarius (Two Sicilies)
- Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene (31 December 1985). Orders of Knighthood Awards, and the Holy See. Chester Springs, PA: Dufour Editions, Inc. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-905715-26-1. "Dynastic Orders of Knighthood are a category of Orders belonging to the heraldic patrimony of a dynasty, often held by ancient right. These differ from the early military and religious Orders and from the later Orders of Merit belonging to a particular State, having been instituted to reward personal services rendered to a dynasty or an ancient Family of princely rank"
- Geller, Jonny (24 June 2010). "Bonington awarded the Royal Victorian Order". News. Curtis Brown Literary and Talent Agency. Retrieved 27 November 2012. "The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign"
- Covert, Glen (15 May 2008). The Habsburg Most Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece: Its potential relevance on modern culture in the European Union (PDF). Ljubljana, Slovenia: The Historical Seminar, Scientific Research Center, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. pp. 40–41. Retrieved 27 November 2012. "But the world has changed somewhat since 1430 including that the Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece is not a reigning monarch: Archduke Karl of Austria....Nevertheless, only briefly in Der österreichische Orden vom Goldenen Vlies. Geschichte und Probleme (1971) did Annemarie Weber characterize its nature as an entity with an Austria-recognized international legal personality, its existence dependent upon its recognition in international politics."
- "Governance of Britain: Review of the Executive Royal Prerogative Powers: Final Report". Ministry of Justice. 2009-10-15. p. 6. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- Duren, Peter Bander van (1987). The cross on the sword : supplement to 'Orders of Knighthood, awards and the Holy See' [third edition]. Gerrards Cross: Van Duren. pp. 2–17. ISBN 9780905715322.
- "Royal Honours, Other Honours". Chancellery of the Netherlands Orders. 2001-08-15. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
- "Royal Honours, Civil Orders and the Civil Honours Advisory Commission". Chancellery of the Netherlands Orders. 2001-08-15. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
- Duren, Peter Bander van (1995). Orders of knighthood and of merit : the pontifical, religious and secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See. Gerrards Cross: Smythe. p. 217. ISBN 9780861403714.
- Conservatória dos Registos Centrais - Registo fraudulento de nacionalidade, accessed 20 January 2011.
- Serafin, Thomas J. "Knighthood Bestowed". Saints Alive. USA Territorial Headquarters of the ICHR/USA. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- Real Ordem de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Vila Viçosa, Casa Real Portuguesa, 1998–2010, retrieved 2011-01-20
- Rodrigues Lima, Carlos (2009-01-09). "Nuno da Câmara Pereira ganha batalha judicial a D. Duarte". Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2011-01-21. "No processo cível, a Casa Real invocou que a expressão..."o uso das insígnias e denominações das Ordens Dinásticas são pertença da Casa Real portuguesa e do senhor D. Duarte". (In civil proceedings, the Royal House has argued..."the use of emblems and names of the Dynastic Orders are owned by the Portuguese Royal House and Dom Duarte.")"
- "REGULAMENTO DAS ORDENS HONORÍFICAS PORTUGUESAS". Chancelaria das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas, Presidência da República. 2006–2010. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "AS ORDENS HONORÍFICAS PORTUGUESAS". Chancelaria das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas, Presidência da República. 2006–2010. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "Cidadãos Portugueses com Condecorações Estrangeiras, 1926-2007". Chancelaria das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas, Presidência da República. 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20., "ANUÁRIO ORDENS HONORÍFICAS PORTUGUESAS, 1975-2007". Chancelaria das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas, Presidência da República. 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "L. 3 marzo 1951, n. 178 (1). Istituzione dell'Ordine "Al merito della Repubblica italiana" e disciplina del conferimento e dell'uso delle onorificenze (2)". Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- John Hooper (2006-06-23). "The fall of the house of Savoy". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "Dynastic orders that are the prerogative of His Royal Highness the Prince of Naples, Victor Emmanuel of Savoy". Association Internationale des Chevaliers des Ordres Dynastiques de la Maison Royale de Savoie. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "A Brief History of the Orders of Saint Maurice and Lazarus". Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- Sainty (Ed.), Guy Stair (2006). World Orders of Knighthood and Merit. Burke's. ISBN 0-9711966-7-2.
- Lantz, Gunnar Boalt, Robert Eriksson, Harry Glück, Herman (1972). The European orders of chivalry. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U.P. pp. 1–17. ISBN 978-0809305063.
- Trost, Ernst & Franz Goëss (1983). Das blieb vom Doppeladler: 04-Der Orden vom Goldenen Vlies (Videocassette) (in German). Vienna, Austria: Österreichischer Rundfunk. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- See, for instance, the website of Maria Vladimirovna, a pretender to the throne of Russia announcing the creation of an entirely new order of knighthood in 2010, "The Head of the House of Romanoff has established for women the Imperial Order of St. Anastasia in Honor of the First Tsaritsa of the Romanoff Family, Anastasia Romanovna". www.imperialhouse.ru/. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- For an example of such discussions see, Anderson, James (1732). Royal genealogies: or, The genealogical tables of emperors, kings and princes, from Adam to these times; in two parts. London: James Bettenham. pp. ix. Retrieved 9 December 2011. "St Michael's Wing in Portugal founded by the said King Alphonse 1165 or 1171 after his obtaining a notable Victory over Moors and Alberto King of Seville in which Battle MICHAEL the Arch Angel is said to appear on the right Side of Alphonse and fight against them. This Order is now out of use. (1732)", Gieseler, John C. L. (also known as Johann K.L. Gieseler (2009). A Text-Book of Church History. BiblioBazaar. pp. 447–48. ISBN 978-1-116-21129-0., and Almeida, Gomes Abrunhosa Marques de and Manuel Ângelo (2007). Precedentes histórico-teóricos dos regionalismos dos Açores e da Galiza. Santiago de Compostela: Univ Santiago de Compostela. p. 187.
- Velde, François R (2003-11-24). "Royal Order of Francis I". rec.heraldry. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "It is an order of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, a political entity that disappeared 143 years ago. There are currently rival claimants to be head of the dynasty that once ruled the Two Sicilies, and one claimant has of late begun to bestow that order, although it had been discontinued. The fact that it was clearly a state order, and that it fell into disuse for so long before being resurrected by one claimant, makes it a little odd."
- Rodrigues Lima, Carlos (2009-01-09). "Nuno da Câmara Pereira ganha batalha judicial a D. Duarte". Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2011-01-21. "Juíza vinca que Portugal é uma República, desvalorizando herança. O Tribunal Cível de Lisboa acaba de dar razão a Nuno da Câmara Pereira num conflito que o opunha a D. Duarte de Bragança, obrigando este último a desistir da denominação Real Ordem de São Miguel de Ala, uma ordem que criou em 2004. (Judge stresses that Portugal is a Republic, and values heritage. The Civil Court of Lisbon has just ruled in favor of Nuno da Câmara Pereira in a conflict with Dom Duarte de Bragança, forcing the latter to give up the name the Royal Order of Saint Michael of the Wing, an order created in 2004.)"
- Sainty, Guy Stair. "A Summary of the Use of the Royal Prerogative, Its Use by the Heirs to Former Thrones, and by Republican or Revolutionary Regimes". www.chivalricorders.org. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "re-established a long dormant Order, that of Saint Michael of the Wing, with members across Europe and a handful in the United States (now reformed as an Association rather than an Order)"
- Rodrigues Lima, Carlos (2009-01-09). "Nuno da Câmara Pereira ganha batalha judicial a D. Duarte". Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2011-01-21. "Real Ordem de São Miguel de Ala, uma ordem que criou em 2004. (Royal Order of Saint Michael of the Wing, an order created in 2004.)"
- "The Royal Order of Francis (Francesco) I". Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland. 2008. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "Royal Order of Francis I remains an ancient, dynastic and internationally recognised institution. The Order, which is neither a state decoration of the Italian Republic or the Holy See, has continued to be conferred long after the overthrow of King Francesco II, in 1861. Today the Order is bestowed by HRH The Duke of Castro, as Head of the Royal Houseof Bourbon of the Two Sicilies, and a great-great-great grandson of the Order's founder."
- "Royal Order of Francis I". The Royal House of the Two Sicilies. 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "The Order was not awarded after 1920, however, and as a state merit award was allowed to become extinct"
- "The Head of the House of Romanoff has established for women the Imperial Order of St. Anastasia in Honor of the First Tsaritsa of the Romanoff Family, Anastasia Romanovna". www.imperialhouse.ru/. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- "Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State". news.va. Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. "Vatican City, (VIS) – In response to frequent requests for information concerning the recognition by the Holy See of Equestrian Orders dedicated to the saints or to holy places, the Secretariat of State considers it opportune to reiterate what has already been published, namely that, other than its own Equestrian Orders (the Supreme Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur, the Pian Order, the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester), the Holy See recognises and supports only the Sovereign Military Order of Malta – also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta – and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The Holy See foresees no additions or innovations in this regard. All other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See. Furthermore, the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures. To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture"."
- Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene (31 December 1985). Orders of Knighthood Awards, and the Holy See. Chester Springs, PA: Dufour Editions, Inc. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-905715-26-1.
- Information and Press Service of the Luxembourg Government. "Honorary distinctions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg". Ministry of State/Information and Press Service of the Luxembourg Government. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "The brevet is awarded in agreement with the head of the Ottonian branch of the House of Nassau (The Netherlands)."
- The Royal House of Denmark. "The Royal Orders of Chivalry". The Danish Monarchy. http://kongehuset.dk/. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "Now, as always, the decision to award an Order remains with the Master of the Order, HM The Queen, and is hers alone."
- The Government Information Service (RVD) (2011-01-13). "Orders for services to the Royal House". Dutch Royal House. Ministry of General Affairs of the Netherlands. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "There are two such orders...the Order of the House of Orange... conferred on persons who have rendered special service to the Royal House...The Queen is Grand Master of the Order of the House of Orange."
- Arnold, Clarisa Sands (2009). Four girls in europe : four girls in europe. [S.l.]: Iuniverse Inc. p. 231. ISBN 9781440186585. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
- Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene: edited and revised by Peter Bander van Duren (1984). "The Royal House of Bavaria (Wittelsbach)". Orders of knighthood, awards and the Holy See (Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire: Van Duren): 152–53. ISBN 0905715233. "The Royal House of Bavaria (Wittelsbach)...The Order of St George, Defender of the Faith in the Immaculate Conception...The Order of St Hubert"
- Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene: edited and revised by Peter Bander van Duren (1984). "The Royal House of Bourbon-Orleans". Orders of knighhood, awards and the Holy See (Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire: Van Duren): 154–56. ISBN 0905715233. "The Royal House of Bourbon-Orleans, The Order of the Holy Ghost...The Order of St. Michael of France"
- État présent de la maison de Bourbon. Quatrième édition. Paris, Le Léopard d’or, 1991; p. 222: « Louis XIX, Henri V, Charles XI et Jaques I continuèrent à donner l’ordre dans la discrétion et en 1972, Jacques-Henri VI suivit leur exemple, sont fils Alphonse II faisant de même. L’État présent… donne ensuite le nom de quatre chevaliers, créés par lettres patentes de 1972 et 1973.
- Warner, Gerald (29 May 2010). "French royalists celebrate the birth of twin sons to Louis XX, rightful King of France". The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 December 2012. "The Duke and Duchess of Anjou and their daughter were recently received in private audience by Pope Benedict XVI, when the head of the Bourbon dynasty wore the cordon and plaque of the Order of the Holy Ghost, of which he claims to be hereditary Grand Master. This news will give immense pleasure to French legitimists and traditionalists who have never abandoned the principles of Throne and Altar and for whom Louis XX is the embodiment of the France of Saint Louis and his descendants, the Most Christian Kings."
- "Biographie de Monseigneur le Duc d’Anjou". Institut du Duc d'Anjou. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2012. "En qualité de chef de la Maison de Bourbon, il est le Grand-maître des ordres de Saint-Michel (fondé par Louis XI) et du Saint-Esprit (fondé par Henri III)."
- "Archduchess Regina von Habsburg". The Telegraph. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Archduchess Regina von Habsburg....was Protectress of the Order of the Starry Cross, an all-female Roman Catholic order founded in the 17th century; Grand Mistress of the Order of Elisabeth, a similar organisation"
- Opfell, Olga S (2001). Royalty Who Wait: The 21 Heads of Formerly Regnant Houses of Europe. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-7864-0901-3.
- "Archduchess Regina von Habsburg". The Telegraph. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Although Otto was the heir to the Austrian Empire, he was unusual among "pretenders" in electing to ignore his aristocratic title, preferring to style himself Dr Otto von Habsburg; in 1979 he was voted into the European Parliament as Christian Democrat member for North Bavaria and served for the next 20 years, becoming the highly-regarded Father of the House and its only member to have been born before the First World War. He never claimed the throne of Austria, and in 2000 renounced his sovereignty of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the last sign of his leadership of the Imperial Family."
- "Archduchess Regina von Habsburg". The Telegraph. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "She herself was Protectress of the Order of the Starry Cross, an all-female Roman Catholic order founded in the 17th century"
- Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (2004-01-17). Uncrowned emperor: the life and times of Otto von Habsburg. London: Hambledon & London. p. 234. ISBN 978-1-85285-439-3. "'After Regina, she will be the head of our Order!'"
- "Constantinian Order knights decreed into Royal Order of Danilo I of Montenegro". The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George: Delegation for Great Britain and Ireland. London: The Chancery of Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, Delegation of Great Britain and Ireland. 31 December 2007. Retrieved 27 November 2012. "Podgorica – December 2007. HRH Crown Prince Nicholas II of Montenegro has decreed three delegation Knights into the Royal Order of Danilo I. The awards of Knight Grand Cross have been awarded to the Constantinian Order’s Grand Magistral Delegate for Inter-Religious Relations, HE Anthony Bailey, and to HE Ambassador Dr Peter Löw. Dr Martin Vorderwülbecke was decreed to the rank of Knight Commander. The awards were made in recognition of their contribution to interfaith and charitable work within Montenegro.The Montenegro dynasty ruled from 1711 and in 2007 Montenegro regained its full independence following a referendum to separate from Serbia. The first Montenegrin state Order was established by HRH Prince Danilo Petrovic in 1853, as the Order of Danilo I for the independence of Montenegro in 1852-53. This Decoration is still awarded to prominent champions of the preservation of Montenegrin independence and the conditions by which the Order is awarded were defined by Statute. Many deserving men and women have been awarded the Order of Prince Danilo I over time including foreigners. The illustrious list includes many decorated servicemen during the World Wars and a host of other notables, including Queen Victoria and King Edward VII of Great Britain. Recent recipients include HE The President of the Republic of Montenegro, HMEH Fra’ Andrew Bertie, Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta, HSH Sovereign Prince Albert II of Monaco, HRH The Duke of Braganza, HRH The Count of Paris and other senior members of reigning and non-reigning dynasties. The Order is recognised by the Republic of Montenegro."
- "Order of Petrović-Njegoš". orderofdanilo.org. Cetinje, Montenegro: Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro. 5 March 2009. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2012. "The Order is given to members of the Dynasty and kinsmen exclusively and is not an Order that is generally given beyond that. The Order was not bestowed in 1996 while Montenegro remained a non-sovereign state. In 2008, celebrating the passage of 300 years since the first Petrovic Njegoš rulers ascent, the Crown Prince of Montenegro bestowed the Order in recognition of this landmark."
- "Order of Saint Peter". orderofdanilo.org. Cetinje, Montenegro: Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro. 2 May 2006. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2012. "The Order of Saint Peter is the House Order of the Royal House of Montenegro and the present Grand Master is H.R.H. Crown Prince Nikola of Montenegro and the Grand Chancellor is John Gvozdenović Kennedy. The Order consists of a single class, and is normally reserved for members of the Royal Family and their kinsmen and in exceptional circumstances prominent foreign citizens."
- "HRH Prince Carlos Hugo". The Telegraph. 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "He also claimed to be head of the Constantinian Order of St George."
- Conforti, Paolo (2007). I Borbone Parma Gran Maestri del Sacro Angelico Imperiale Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio. www.borboneparma.it.
- "Ordine del Merito di San Lodovico". Reale e Ducale Casa di Borbone Parma (in Italian). www.borboneparma.it. 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
- Haffner, Paul; Foreword by Dom Duarte, Duke of Braganza (2004). "Foreword". The Mystery of Mary. Chicago, Illinois: Liturgy Training Publications. pp. xi–xii. ISBN 978-1-59525-008-7. "I have the honour of being the Grand Master of the order of Our Lady of Conception."
- "Ordinul Carol I" (in Romanian). www.familiaregala.ro. 2009-12-30. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "Alin 1. La data de 5 ianuarie 2005 a fost reinviat "Ordinul Carol I", ca Ordin dinastic, de familie. (On 5 January 2005, the Order of Carol I was revived as a dynastic-family Order.)"
- "Heads of the Order". Order of Saint Anna (in Mixture of broken English and Russian). [www.saintanna.ru]. 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-26. "Heads of the Order...Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna"
- "Decree №1/Nic.-2001". www.imperialhouse.ru. 2001-08-04. Retrieved 2011-01-21. "On 1 August (19 July O.S) 1929, in fulfilment of the intentions of the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II and in honor of his memory as the Supreme Commander of the valiant Imperial Army and Navy of old, Our Grandfather the Emperor Kirill I of blessed memory, established the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, the purpose of which was to award the veterans of the Great War of 1914-1918."
- Cardinale, Hyginus Eugene: edited and revised by Peter Bander van Duren (1984). "Catholic dynastic orders bestowed by a sovereign in exile". Orders of knighthood, awards and the Holy See (Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire: Van Duren): 135–39. ISBN 0905715233. "Two examples of Catholic Dynastic Orders conferred by a Sovereign in exile are "the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation" and the "Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus", both belonging to the Royal House of Savoy and taken by ex-King Umberto of Italy into exile (1946)....King Umberto II died in exile on 18 March 1983. The Grand Mastership of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation and the Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus passed to the King's son, Prince Victor Emmanuel, who became the Head of the Royal House of Savoy on the death of his father. Both Orders belong now in the category of Catholic Dynastic Orders bestorwed by a legitimate successor of a Sovereign in exile."