Dynasty

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This article is about the general concept of a line of rulers. For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation).
Charles I of England and his son, the future James II

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers considered as members of the same family. Historians traditionally consider many sovereign states' history within a framework of successive dynasties, e.g., Ancient Egypt, Persian Empire, and Imperial China. Much of European political history is dominated by dynasties such as the Carolingians, the Capetians, the Habsburgs, the Stuarts, the Hohenzollerns and the Romanovs. Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to increase the territory, wealth and power of family members.[1]

A dynasty is also often called a "house" (e.g., the "House of Saud" or "House of Windsor"), and may be described as imperial, royal, ducal, princely or comital depending upon the chief title borne by its rulers. A "dynasty" may also refer to the era during which a family reigned, as well as to events, trends, and artifacts of that period (e.g., a "Ming dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" often is dropped from such references, and the name of the dynasty used adjectivally (e.g., "Tudor style", "Ottoman expansion", "Romanov decadence").

While contemporary English includes references to an array of prominent or influential families as "dynasties", in much of the world, the word has been associated with monarchy and defined patrilineally. Kinship and inheritance were predominantly viewed and legally calculated through descent from a common ancestor in the male line. However, men descended from a dynasty through females have sometimes adopted the name of that dynasty while claiming its position or inheritance (e.g., House of Orange, House of Bagration, House of Habsburg-Lorraine).

Japan has the longest surviving dynasty; the Yamato dynasty consisting of an extended imperial family and the reigning Emperor. The dynasty is founded in 660 BC and lasts up to the present day. Its power, however, has fluctuated from being an absolute monarchy to a ceremonial figurehead and today a constitutional monarchy.

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Etymology[edit]

The word "dynasty" derives (via Latin) from Greek δυναστεία (dunasteia), "power, lordship, domination",[2] which comes from δυνάστης (dunastēs), "lord, master, ruler",[3] itself from δύναμις (dunamis), "power",[4] and ultimately from δύναμαι (dunamai), " to be able".[5]

Dynasts[edit]

A ruler in a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a dynastic member of the House of Windsor.

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support and parliamentary approval. Thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Max was bypassed for the Austrian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Max and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister, Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown: in that sense is a British dynast. Yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (born 1954), a male-line descendant of George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to re-claim the once-royal dukedom of Cumberland), was born in the line of succession to the British crown and is bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained formal permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. But immediately upon marriage he forfeited his right to the British throne because the English Act of Settlement 1701 dictates that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession.[6]

Dynasties by region[edit]

Africa[edit]

Chad[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Guinea[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Senegal and Gambia (Senegambia)[edit]

Senegambian[edit]

Somalia[edit]

Swaziland[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

Bhutan[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

China[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Middle East[edit]

India[edit]

Iran[edit]

Israel/ Palestine[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Japan[edit]

Ryūkyū[edit]

Korea[edit]

Kuwait[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Myanmar[edit]

Philippines[edit]

Royal families

Sri Lanka[edit]

Anuradhapura[edit]
Polonnaruwa[edit]
Jaffna[edit]
Kandy[edit]
British Ceylon[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Tibet[edit]

Thailand[edit]

  • Haripunchai dynasty (663 – 1293)
  • Phra Ruang dynasty (1237–1438)
  • Mangrai dynasty (1261–1578)
  • Ou Thong dynasty (1350–1370), (1388–1409)
  • Suphanabhumi dynasty (1370–1350), (1409–1569)
  • Sukhothai Dynasty (1569–1629)
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (1629–1688)
  • Baan Plu Luang dynasty (1688–1767)
  • Tipchakratiwong dynasty (Seven princes dynasty) (Lanna Kingdom) (1732–1932)
  • Thonburi dynasty (1767–1782)
  • Chakri dynasty (1782 onwards)

Turkey[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Champa[edit]
  • 1st dynasty (192 – 336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336 – 420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420 – 529)
  • 4th dynasty (529 – 758)
  • 5th dynasty (758 – 854)
  • 6th dynasty (854 – 989)
  • 7th dynasty (989 – 1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • vacant (1471–1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)

Europe[edit]

Austria[edit]

Albania[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Barbarians[edit]

Bavarii[edit]
Franks[edit]
Huns[edit]

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360 - 378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378 - 390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390 - 410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410 - 412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412 - 422
  • Octar[1] 422 - 432
  • Rugila 432-434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434-c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434-453
  • Ellac 453-c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c.460-463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469-503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390-503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
Scirii[edit]
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
Avars[edit]
Lombards[edit]
See Early kings of the Lombards.
Ostrogoths[edit]
Suebi[edit]
Vandals[edit]
Visigoths[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Denmark[edit]

France[edit]

Georgia[edit]

Germany[edit]

Bavaria[edit]
Saxony[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Monaco[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

County of Portugal[edit]
Kingdom of Portugal[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Before the Unification[edit]
Aragon[edit]
Asturias[edit]
Barcelona[edit]
Castile[edit]
León[edit]
Navarre[edit]
After the Unification (1516)[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Two Sicilies[edit]

Sicily[edit]

British Isles[edit]

England[edit]
Wales[edit]
Ireland[edit]
Scotland[edit]
Kingdoms after the Union of the Crowns (1603-1707)[edit]

The crown of the Kingdom of England and Ireland merged with that of the Kingdom of Scotland to form a personal union between England-Ireland and Scotland (the former a personal union itself)

Personal Union between Great Britain and Ireland (1707-1801)[edit]
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801-1921)[edit]
Personal Union of the UK [of GB and NI] and several other Irish states (1921-1949)[edit]
UK [of GB and NI] (Without the personal union with Ireland) (1949-present)[edit]

North America[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Central America[edit]

Mayan States[edit]

South America[edit]

Peru[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Chile[edit]

Caribbean[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

New Zealand Māori[edit]

Tahiti[edit]

Tonga[edit]

Political families in Republics[edit]

Though in elected governments rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals in republics. Eminence, influence, tradition, genetics, and nepotism may contribute to this phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a different concept, in which political power passes within a family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

Some political dynasties:

Influential/wealthy families[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomson, David (1961). "The Institutions of Monarchy". Europe Since Napoleon. New York: Knopf. pp. 79–80. "The basic idea of monarchy was the idea that hereditary right gave the best title to political power...The dangers of disputed succession were best avoided by hereditary succession: ruling families had a natural interest in passing on to their descendants enhanced power and prestige...Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, were alike infatuated with the idea of strengthening their power, centralizing government in their own hands as against local and feudal privileges, and so acquiring more absolute authority in the state. Moreover, the very dynastic rivalries and conflicts between these eighteenth-century monarchs drove them to look for ever more efficient methods of government" 
  2. ^ δυναστεία, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ δυνάστης, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. ^ δύναμις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. ^ δύναμαι, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  6. ^ "Monaco royal taken seriously ill". BBC News (London). 8 April 2005. Retrieved January 27, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b The Times Atlas of World History (second/third edition), ISBN, 0-7230-0304-1
  8. ^ The State of Yue