Examples of dz
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The Bulgarian digraph дз, corresponding to dz, represents a single phoneme as in Polish and Hungarian. It is equivalent to the Cyrillic character Ѕ (not based on the Latin letter S) which is used in the closely related Macedonian language (although the two are not recognised by everybody as separate languages). It is treated for collation purposes as an extra grapheme: the only sound and letter in the Bulgarian alphabet to not have an equivalent in the alphabets of Serbo-Croatian.
- medzi = between, among
- hrádza = dam, dike
The digraph may never be divided by hyphenation:
- medzi → me-dzi
- hrádza → hrá-dza
However, when d and z come from different morphemes, they are treated as separate letters, and must be divided by hyphenation:
- odzemok = type of folk dance → od-ze-mok
- nadzvukový = supersonic → nad-zvu-ko-vý
In both cases od- (from) and nad- (above) are a prefix to the stems zem (earth) and zvuk (sound).
Closeup of a Hungarian keyboard
|Hungarian and English|
In several words, it is pronounced long, e.g.
- bodza, madzag, edz, pedz
In some other ones, short, e.g.
- brindza, ódzkodik, dzadzíki, dzéta, Dzerzsinszkij
In several verbs ending in -dzik (approx. 50), it can be pronounced either short or long, e.g.
- csókolódzik, lopódzik, takaródzik
These are verbs where the dz can be replaced by z (and is replaced by some speakers): csókolózik, lopózik, takarózik.
In some of these verbs, there is no free variation: birkózik, mérkőzik (only with z) but leledzik, nyáladzik (only with dz, pronounced long). In some other verbs, there is a difference in meaning: levelez(ik) (correspond with sb.) but leveledzik (to leaf [like a tree]).
It is only doubled in writing when an assimilated suffix is added to the stem: eddze, lopóddzon.
Usage of this letter is similar to that of Polish and Slovak languages. In Hungarian, even if these two characters are put together to make a different sound, they are considered one letter, and even acronyms keep the letter intact.
- These examples are Hungarian words that contain the letter dz, with the English translation following.
- bodza = elderberry
- edzés = (physical) training
- edző = coach
- nyáladzik = salivate
Some Esperanto grammars, notably Plena Analiza Gramatiko de Esperanto, consider dz to be a digraph for the voiced affricate [d͡z], as in "edzo" "husband". The case for this is "rather weak". Most Esperantists, including Esperantist linguists (Janton, Wells), reject it.
DZ is represented in Unicode as three separate glyphs within the Latin Extended-B block. It is one of the rare characters that has separate glyphs for each of its uppercase, title case, and lowercase forms.
||Ǳ||Latin Capital Letter DZ|
||ǲ||Latin Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z|
||ǳ||Latin Small Letter DZ|
- Kalocsay & Waringhien (1985) Plena analiza gramatiko de Esperanto, §17, 22
- van Oostendorp, Marc (1999). Syllable structure in Esperanto as an instantiation of universal phonology. Esperantologio / Esperanto Studies 1, 52 80. p. 68
- Pierre Janton, Esperanto: Language, Literature, and Community. Translated by Humphrey Tonkin et al. State University of New York Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1254-7.
- J. C. Wells, Lingvistikaj Aspektoj de Esperanto, Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1978. ISBN 92 9017 021 2.