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This article is about the primordial state in Tibetan Buddhism and Bön. For the monastery, see Dzogchen Monastery.
Tibetan name
Tibetan རྫོགས་ཆེན་
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 大究竟、
Simplified Chinese 大究竟、

Dzogchen, (Rdzogs chen or Atiyoga, or "Great Perfection"), is a central teaching of Bön and the Tibetan Buddhist Nyingma school. Dzogchen is the natural, primordial state or natural condition, and a body of teachings and meditation practices aimed at realizing that condition.

According to Dzogchen literature, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path to enlightenment.[1]


The Tibetan term dzogchen may be a rendering of the Sanskrit term mahāsandhi,[2] and is also used to render the Sanskrit term ati yoga (primordial yoga).[3] It has been translated variously as Great Perfection, Great Completeness, Total Completeness, and Supercompleteness.[citation needed] These terms convey the idea that our nature is complete and without taints.

The term dzogchen also designates a school of Tibetan buddhism, with a distinct practice and a body of teachings aimed at helping an individual to recognize the Dzogchen state, to become sure about it, and to develop the capacity to maintain the state continually.[4][note 1]

Origins and history[edit]

Dzogchen is part of both the Nyingma and Bon traditions, and both claim to be the originator. According to Alexander Berzin, three possibilities can be discerned:[web 1]

  1. Dzogchen developed very early in Buddhism; it was transmitted in the Zhang-zhung area via Iran and Central Asia. In this case, Bön Dzogchen had a Buddhist origin, though not a directly Indian;
  2. Buddhism became the state religion of Tibet in 779. In 784, a persecution of Bonpos took place. Followers of Bon learned Dzogchen from Guru Rinpoche. When the Zhang-zhung Bon faction went into exile in 784, their tradition, including the Dzogchen elements, remained alive in Tibet;
  3. The Zhang-zhung Bonpos learned of Dzogchen when they were in exile, separate from Guru Rinpoche.

According to Berzin, no decisive conclusion is possible.[web 1]


Bön is a pre-Buddhist tradition, according to its own traditional accounts founded in Tazig (sTag-gzig), an Iranian cultural area of Central Asia, and brought to Zhang-zhung (western Tibet) in the 11th century BCE.[web 1] Zhang-zhung was conquered by Yarlung (Central Tibet) in 645 CE, taking over Bön rituals. No Dzogchen teachings were known at that time in Tibet.[web 1]

In the Bön religion, three separate Dzogchen traditions are attested and continue to be practiced: A-tri,[note 2] Dzogchen,[note 3] and Shang Shung Nyen Gyu.[note 4] All are traced back to the founder of Bön, Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.[note 5][citation needed]


Buddhism was introduced into Tibet by Emperor Tri Songdetsen (Khri Srong sde-btsan), who was opposed to Zhang-zhung. In 761 he invited Shantarakshita to Tibet, who was deported by the Zhang-zhung faction. Next the Emperor invited Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava), who is traditionally regarded as having established Buddhism in Tibet.[web 1] The Nyingma-tradition considers Padmasambhava[note 6] to be the transmittor of the Buddhist Dzogchen teachings in Tibet, which already existed in India.

According to one Nyingma tradition, the first master of the Buddhist Dzogchen lineage in our world was Garab Dorje(1th century CE)[5] from Uddiyana.[note 7][6][7] According to Garab Dorje, Dzogchen is said to have been passed down as listed below. Often, practitioners are said to have lived for hundreds of years, and there are inconsistencies in the lifespan dates given, making it impossible to construct a sensible timeline.

  1. Prahevajra[note 8] 184 BCE to 57 CE
  2. Mañjuśrīmitra[note 9] 2nd century BCE (elder contemporary of Prahevajra)
  3. Śrī Siṃha[note 10] 3rd century CE (500 years before Vimalamitra)[8]
  4. Padmasambhava[note 11] fl. mid-8th CE
  5. Vimalamitra[note 12] fl. late 8th CE
  6. Vairotsana[note 13] fl. late 8th CE.


Dzogchen has also been practiced in the Kagyu[note 14] lineage, beginning with Milarepa[note 15] and most notably by the Third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje.[note 16]


The Fifth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth (present) Dalai Lamas[note 17] are also noted Dzogchen masters, although their adoption of the practice of Dzogchen has been a source of controversy among more conservative members of the Gelug[note 18] tradition.[9]


Nine vehicles[edit]

Tibetan Buddhism discerns nine "vehicles": three sutra, vehicles, three outer tantra vehicles, and three inner tantra vehicles. The Dzogchen teachings are the highest of the nine yana,[note 19] of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism and the Tibetan Bön tradition.[10]

Three series[edit]

Garab Dorje's direct disciple Manjushrimitra[note 20] classified all the Dzogchen teachings transmitted by his master into three series:

  1. Semde (Wylie: sems sde; Skt: cittavarga), the series of Mind, that focuses on the introduction to one's own primordial state;
  2. Longde (Wylie: klong sde; Skt: abhyantaravarga), the series of Space, that focuses on developing the capacity to gain familiarity with the state and remove doubts; and
  3. Menngagde (Wylie: man ngag sde, Skt: upadeshavarga), the series of secret Oral Instructions, focusing on the practices in which one engages after gaining confidence in knowledge of the state.[note 21]

Parallel with Mahamudra[edit]

Up to and including tregchöd, Dzogchen meditative practices are parallel to and seen by some to be identical with those of essence Mahamudra.[12]

Non-religious character[edit]

Although Dzogchen cannot be separated from the Buddhist or Bön tradition, very often teachers emphasize the non religious character of Dzogchen. However, the Buddhist or Bön traditional framework is never negated. Namkhai Norbu Rinpoche says that, as our primordial nature, Dzogchen has existed since the beginning of time and is pointed to by various masters throughout the Universe.[13]


Three principles[edit]

Garab Dorje epitomized the Dzogchen teaching in three principles, known as the Three Statements of Garab Dorje (Tsik Sum Né Dek):

  1. Direct introduction to one's own nature (Tib. ngo rang thog tu sprod pa)
  2. Not remaining in doubt concerning this unique state (Tib. thag gcig thog tu bcad pa)
  3. Continuing to remain in this state (Tib. gdeng grol thog tu bca' pa)

According to Sogyal Rinpoche, the Dzogchen teachings focus on three terms: View, Meditation, and Action.

  • To see directly the absolute state of our mind is the View;
  • the way of stabilizing that View and making it an unbroken experience is Meditation;
  • and integrating that View into our daily life is what is meant by Action.

The instructions that point to the Dzogchen state are sometimes described as a set of "inner" or "heart" (Wylie: snying thig) teachings. Tibetan Buddhist ascetics consider that the state pointed to by these teachings is very difficult to describe, and can only be discovered through the esoteric transmission and pointing-out instruction by an authentic Vajra Master.[14]

True nature[edit]

Unbounded wholeness[edit]

In Dzogchen Reality is seen as a limitless wholeness, a multiplicity which is yet all of one "taste", a borderless wholeness. According to Lopon Tenzin Namdak, it is unconditioned and permanent, changeless, not originated from causes and conditions, blissful, and the base or support of numerous exalted qualities.[15] It is at once base, path, and fruit,[16] and "unbounded wholeness," which is naturally complete.[16] This inbounded wholeness is one's true nature, to which Dzogchen point, "the true primordial state of every individual",[17] comparable to the Buddha nature,[18] yet it is not any transcendent reality.[17]

Klein and Wangyal comment on the ultimate "one taste" and dynamic stillness of the Dzogchen state:

... cause and effect, sentient beings and Buddhas, subjects and objects, path and goal are ultimately revealed to be of one taste: movement from one to the other is no movement at all, really, but a dynamic stillness.[19]


According to Klein and Wangyal:

[...] the essence and base of self-arisen wisdom is the allbase, that primordial open awareness is the base, and that recognition of this base is not separate from the primordial wisdom itself [...] that open awareness is itself authentic and its authenticity is a function of it being aware of, or recognizing itself as, the base [...] The reflexively self-aware primordial wisdom is itself open awareness (rigpa), inalienably one with unbounded wholeness."[20]

This open awareness of Dzogchen, or rigpa, is said to lie at the heart of all things and indeed of all Dzogchen practice and is

[...] primordial wisdom's recognition of itself as unbounded wholeness [...] the incorruptible mindnature.[18]

Namkhai Norbu compares rigpa to Kunjed Gyalpo, the "primordial Buddha", which is beyond dualism:

The transmission of knowledge comes from the state of rigpa that has never been stained and has never been hindered. This is Adibuddha, or "primordial Buddha", Kunjed Gyalpo [...] The state of Kunjed Gyalpo is knowledge, and in knowledge there is not even the concept of "one and two", otherwise we have already entered into dualism. Also, the concept of "individual" presupposes dualistic vision. But Samantabhadra is beyond all this.[21]

The analogy given by Dzogchen masters is that one's true nature is like a mirror which reflects with complete openness, but is not affected by the reflections; or like a crystal ball that takes on the colour of the material on which it is placed without itself being changed. The knowledge that ensues from recognizing this mirror-like clarity (which cannot be found by searching nor identified)[22] is called rigpa.[23]

The reflexive awareness of Enlightenment is said to be inherent within all beings, but not to be attainable by thought.[24]


According to Norbu, energy of an individual is essentially totally formless and free from any duality. It is maintained that there is nothing external or separate from the individual. What appears as a world of apparently external phenomena, is the energy of the individual him/her self. Everything that manifests in the individual's field of experience is a continuum (Sanskrit: santana; Tibetan: rgyud). This is the Great Perfection that is discovered in the Dzogchen practice.[25]


karmic traces, contained in the storehouse consciousness of the individual's mindstream[note 22] give rise to two kinds of forms:

  • forms that the individual experiences as his or her body, voice and mind and
  • forms that the individual experiences as an external environment.


Dzogchen practices aim to attain rigpa and integrate this into everyday life:

The practical training of the Dzogchen path is traditionally, and most simply, described in terms of View, Mediation and Action. To see directly the Absolute state, the Ground of our being is the View; the way of stabilising that view, and making it an unbroken experience is Meditation; and integrating the View into our entire reality, and life, is what is meant by Action.[26]

The Menngagde or 'Instruction Class' of Dzogchen teachings are divided into two parts: Trekchö and Tögal (thod rgal). Ron Garry:

The practice is that of Cutting through Solidity (khregs chod), which is related to primordial purity (ka dag); and Direct Vision of Reality (thod rgal), which is related to spontaneous presence (Ihun grub).[27]


The practice of Trekchö means "Cutting through Solidity".[27][note 23]

Preliminary practices[edit]

Many lamas require their students to complete the conventional tantric ngondro before starting Dzogchen practice.[29] Trekchöd starts with nine preliminary practices, to prepare the student for the main practice.[30][29]


Trekchöd has a specific preliminary practice,[note 24], rushan, which may be rendered into English as "differentiating saṃsāra and nirvāṇa".[note 25][29] Rushan involves "going to a solitary spot and acting out whatever comes to your mind."[31]


The Dzogchen preliminaries also include a series of exercises known as Semdzin (sems dzin).[32] Semdzin literally means "to hold the mind" or "to fix mind."[33] Semdzins are found in all three series of Dzogchen (Semde, Longde and Mennagde), but the twenty-one semdzins found in the latter are common; Longchenpa divides them into three series of seven.[34] According to Longchenpa as reported by Reynolds,

[T]he first group enables the practitioner to find him- or herself in a calm state, and thus the exercises are similar to the practice of Shamatha [...] [T]he exercises in the second group enable the practitioner to discover the relationship between body and mind. And those in the third group enable one to discover the nature of one's own condition."[35]

Exercises in the first category include "fixating on a white Tibetan letter A on the tip of one's nose. Linking the letter with one's breathing, it goes out into space with each exhalation and returns to the tip of the nose with each inhalation. This fixation inhibits the arising of extraneous thoughts . . . however, the second exercise in the same category involves the sounding of the syllable PHAT! which instantly shatters one's thoughts and attachments. Symbolically, the two parts of the syllable indicate the two aspects of enlightenment, that is, PHA signifies Means (thabs) and TA signifies Wisdom (shes rab)."[36]

Main practice[edit]

The main practice starts with zhiné, concentration meditation.[37] Zhiné develops from a forced practice into a natural, effortless state.[38] There-after the "true nature" is pointed out[39] by a qualified teacher,[40] and leads to insight.[41] Thödgal represents more a fruition than a practice itself.[42]

The main trekchö instructions in the Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo state:

This instant freshness, unspoiled by the thoughts of the three times,

You directly see in actuality by letting be in naturalness.[43]

Drubwang Tsoknyi Rinpoche states:

Trekchö is the thorough cut of cutting through, cutting the obscurations completely to pieces, like slashing through them with a knife. So the past thought has ceased, the future thought hasn't yet arisen, and the knife is cutting through this stream of present thought. But one doesn't keep hold of this knife either; one lets the knife go, so there is a gap. When you cut through again and again in this way, the string of thought falls to pieces. If you cut a rosary in a few places, at some point it doesn't work any longer.[44]

Insight leads to nyamshag, "being present in the state of clarity and emptiness".[45]

Lhundrub Tögal[edit]

See also: Ösel (yoga)

Lhundrub Tögal is the compassionate or skillful means aspect of rigpa.[web 2][46] Lhündrub Tögal[note 26] means "spontaneous presence",[47][48] "direct crossing",[49] or "direct crossing of spontaneous presence".[50] The literal meaning is "to proceed directly to the goal without having to go through intermediate steps."[51] It is a training to enhance the realization of the view,[52] the practice of the unity of appearance and emptiness.[53]

Thod rgal is also called "the practice of vision",[web 3] or "the practice of the Clear Light ('od-gsal)".[web 3] The Clear Light is a phenomenological description of the true nature, and a positive counterweight against the negatively perceived "emptiness" of the Madhyamaka philosophy.[54] The practice entails progressing through the four visions,[55] using visual manifestations[53] and various kinds of light.[49] The tögal teachings in the Zhang Zhung Nyan Gyud describe the clear light and the natural arising visions, and how they can be used in the training.[56] Mandalas, tiglés, white points, circular rainbows, images of Buddhas, deities, and Buddha dimensions may also appear.[57]

Sky gazing[edit]

In both the Bön and Buddhist Dzogchen traditions, sky gazing is considered to be an important part of tregchöd.[58]

Thödgal represents more a fruition than a practice itself. There are methods prepared in the event of a psychotic break to bring the practitioner back to sanity.[59]

In contrast to other kinds of tantric practices, there is no intentional visualization; rather, imagery appears spontaneously using secondary conditions such as darkness or light. Eventually a practitioner has experiences which are viewed as knowing the subtle energies of one's being. These have the qualities of earth, water, fire, air and space (see Classical element). Throughout the retreat, a practitioner is believed to be approaching an experience which is entirely unconditioned.[60]

Rainbow Body[edit]

Lhun grub practice may lead to full enlightenment and the transformation of the human body into a rainbow body[note 27] at the moment of death,[61] when all the fixation and grasping has been exhausted.[62] It is a nonmaterial body of light with the ability to exist and abide wherever and whenever as pointed by one's compassion.[27][63][64] It is a manifestation of the Sambhogakāya.[63]

Some exceptional practitioners such as Padmasambhava and Vimalamitra are held to have realized a higher type of rainbow body without dying. Having completed the four visions before death, the individual focuses on the lights that surround the fingers. His or her physical body self-liberates into a nonmaterial body of light (a Sambhogakāya) with the ability to exist and abide wherever and whenever as pointed by one's compassion.[65]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ John Pettit: "Great Perfection" variously indicates the texts (āgama, lung) and oral instructions (upadeśa, man ngag) that indicate the nature of enlightened wisdom (rdzogs chen gyi gzhung dang man ngag), the verbal conventions of those texts (rdzogs chen gyi chos skad), the yogis who meditate according to those texts and instructions (rdzogs chen gyi rnal 'byor pa), a famous monastery where the Great Perfection was practiced by monks and yogis (rdzogs chen dgon sde), and the philosophical system (siddhānta, grub mtha') or vision (darśana, lta ba) of the Great Perfection.[4]
  2. ^ Wylie: a khrid
  3. ^ Wylie: rdzogs chen, here referring narrowly to the specific lineage within the Bön tradition
  4. ^ Wylie: zhang zhung snyan rgyud
  5. ^ Wylie: ston pa gshen rab mi bo che
  6. ^ Tib. Pema Jugne or Guru Rinpoche, Wylie: padma 'byung gnas, gu ru rin po che
  7. ^ Wylie:. o rgyan
  8. ^ Tib. Garab Dorje, Wylie: dga' rab rdo rje
  9. ^ Tib. Jampal Shenyen, Wylie: 'jam dpal bshes gnyen
  10. ^ Tib. Palgyi Senge, Wylie: dpal gyi senge
  11. ^ Tib. Pema Jungne or Guru Rinpoche
  12. ^ Tib. Drime Shenyen, Wylie: dri med bshes gnyen
  13. ^ Tib. Nampar Nangdze Lotsawa, Wylie: rnam par snang mdzad lo tsa ba
  14. ^ Wylie: bka' brgyud
  15. ^ Wylie: mi la ras pa
  16. ^ Wylie:. rang byung rdo rje
  17. ^ Wylie: ta la'i bla ma
  18. ^ Wylie: dge lugs
  19. ^ Tibetan theg pa, vehicle
  20. '^ Tib. jam dpal bshes gnyen
  21. ^ Tulku Urgyen explains what is meant by "gaining confidence in liberation": "The third analogy of the liberation of thoughts is described as being like a thief entering an empty house. This is called stability or perfection in training. A thief entering an empty house does not gain anything, and the house does not lose anything. All thought activity is naturally liberated without any harm or benefit whatsoever. This is the meaning of gaining confidence in liberation."[11]
  22. ^ Sanskrit: citta santana; Tibetan: sems rgyud
  23. ^ Karma Chagme associates Trekchö with Semde.[28] He further equates Trekchö with Mahāmudrā,[28] which is more typical.
  24. ^ Wylie: sngon 'gro
  25. ^ Korday Rushen; Tibetan: འཁོར་འདས་རུ་ཤནWylie: 'khor 'das ru shan
  26. ^ Tibetan: ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ཐོད་རྒལ།Wylie: lhun grub thod rgal
  27. ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jalü


  1. ^ Keown, Damien (2003), A Dictionary of Buddhism, p. 82. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860560-9.
  2. ^ Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection by the [14th] Dalai Lama, Snow Lion, 2004. ISBN 1-55939-219-3. pg 208
  3. ^ Keown, Damien. (2003). A Dictionary of Buddhism, p. 24. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860560-9.
  4. ^ a b Pettit, John Whitney (1999). Mipham's beacon of certainty: illuminating the view of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Somerville, MA, USA: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-157-2 (alk. paper) p.4
  5. ^ (Wylie: dga' rab rdo rje, Sanskrit *prahevajra
  6. ^ Nirmanakaya Garab Dorje
  7. ^ Joyful Vajra Garab Dorje
  8. ^ The Tantra that Reveals the Intrinsic Buddha Mind, translated in :- Erik Pema Kunsang (translator) : Wellsprings of the Great Perfection. Rangjung Yeshe Publications, Hong Kong, 2006. p. 215
  9. ^ "The Shugden Affair: Origins of a Controversy (Part I)" by Georges Dreyfus. Official website of the Office of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.[1]
  10. ^ Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection by the Dalai Lama, trans. by Thupten Jinpa & Richard Barron, fore. by Sogyal Rinpoche, ed. by Patrick Gaffney. Snow Lion. 1559392193
  11. ^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 314.
  12. ^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 304.
  13. ^ Norbu (1999)
  14. ^ Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, The Essence of the Three Statements of Garab Dorje: Based on an Oral Advice given by Khyenrab Chökyi Özer, pp.39-57, 66-70
  15. ^ Klein & Wangyal 2006, p. 68-69.
  16. ^ a b Klein & Wangyal 2006, p. 118.
  17. ^ a b Ray 2001, p. 297.
  18. ^ a b Ray 2001, p. v.
  19. ^ Klein & Wangyal 2006, p. 48.
  20. ^ Klein and Wangyal, 2006, p.109
  21. ^ Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, Adriano Clemente, The Supreme Source: The Fundamental Tantra of the Dzogchen Semde Kunjed Gyalpo, Snow Lion Publications, New York, 1999, p. 235
  22. ^ Third Dzogchen Rinpoche. Great Perfection. Volume II. Snow Lion Publications 2008, page 152.
  23. ^ Namdak, Tenzin. Bonpo Dzogchen Teachings. Vajra Publications 2006, page 97.
  24. ^ Klein & Wangyal 2006, p. vi.
  25. ^ Norbu (1999), pp. 99, 101
  26. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche (1992), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, p.151
  27. ^ a b c Dudjom Rinpoche. Wisdom Nectar. Snow Lion 2005, page 296.
  28. ^ a b Karma Chagme, Gyatrul Rinpoche & Wallace 1998, p. 180.
  29. ^ a b c Pettit 1999, p. 81.
  30. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001.
  31. ^ Germano, David F. (1994). "Architecture and Absence in the Secret Tantric History of rDzogs Chen". In The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, vol. 17.2, p 262
  32. ^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81 [2]
  33. ^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81 [3]
  34. ^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81 [4]
  35. ^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81 [5]
  36. ^ Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996). The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master. Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-050-6 pg 81 [6]
  37. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001, p. 75-86.
  38. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001, p. 65.
  39. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001, p. 66, 83-86.
  40. ^ Batchelor 2010.
  41. ^ Newman 2004, p. 54.
  42. ^ Ray 2001, p. 318-319.
  43. ^ Schmidt, Erik. (2001). The Light of Wisdom Vol IV. Kathmandu: Rangjung Yeshe Publications. p.77
  44. ^ Schmidt 2002, p. 38.
  45. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001, p. 87.
  46. ^ Dalai Lama 2004, p. 32.
  47. ^ Rinpoche Dzogchen Ponlop 2003.
  48. ^ Dalai Lama 2004.
  49. ^ a b Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 44.
  50. ^ Schmidt 2002.
  51. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 224.
  52. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 170.
  53. ^ a b Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 2004, p. 77.
  54. ^ Garfield & Edelglass 2011, p. 272.
  55. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 38.
  56. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2000, p. 166.
  57. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2000, p. 167.
  58. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2002), p. 130
  59. ^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 318-319.
  60. ^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, pages 319-322.
  61. ^ >Dalai Lama 2004, p. 204.
  62. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 233.
  63. ^ a b Matthieu, Richard. 2001. The Life of Shakbar. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. pg. 153
  64. ^ Reginald Ray, Secret of the Vajra World. Shambhala 2001, page 323.
  65. ^ Matthieu, Richard. 2001. The Life of Shakbar. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. pg. 153


Published sources[edit]

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  • Ray, Reginald (2001), Secret of the Vajra World, Shambhala 
  • Sogyal Rinpoche (2009), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Harper Collins, Kindle Edition 
  • Surya Das (2007). Natural Radiance: Awakening to Your Great Perfection. Sounds True. ISBN 1-59179-612-1
  • Tarthang Tulku (1977). Time, Space, and Knowledge: A New Vision of Reality. Berkeley, CA: Dharma Publishing. ISBN 0-913546-08-9
  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2000), Wonders of the Natural Mind: The Essence of Dzogchen in the Native Bon Tradition of Tibet, Snow Lion Publications 
  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2001), Het wonder van onze oorspronkelijke geest. Dzokchen in de bontraditie van Tibet (Dutch translation of "Wonders of the Natural Mind"), Elmar BV 
  • Wangyal, Tenzin (Rinpoche) (2002). Healing with Form, Energy, and Light. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-176-6
  • Wangyal, Tenzin (Rinpoche) and Klein, Anne C.(2006). Unbounded Wholeness: Dzogchen, Bon and the Logic of the Nonconceptual. Oxford University. ISBN 0-19-517850-5


External links[edit]