E-Governance

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Several dimensions and factors influence the definition of e-governance or electronic governance. The word “electronic” in the term e-governance implies technology driven governance. E-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.[1] Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses/interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries.[2]

Generally four basic models are available – government-to-citizen (customer), government-to-employees, government-to-government and government-to-business.[2]

Difference between E-Government and E-Governance[edit]

Both the terms are treated to be the same, however, there is some difference between the two. "E-government" is the use of the ICTs in public administration - combined with organizational change and new skills - to improve public services and democratic processes and to strengthen support to public. The problem in this definition to be congruence definition of e-governance is that there is no provision for governance of ICTs. As a matter of fact, the governance of ICTs requires most probably a substantial increase in regulation and policy-making capabilities, with all the expertise and opinion-shaping processes among the various social stakeholders of these concerns. So, the perspective of the e-governance is "the use of the technologies that both help governing and have to be governed".[3] The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) based e-governance projects are hugely successful in India. United Telecoms Limited known as UTL is a major player in India on PPP based e-governance projects . Each project had mammoth state wide area networks in these states.

E-governance is the future, many countries are looking forward to for a corruption-free government. E-government is one-way communication protocol whereas e-governance is two-way communication protocol. The essence of e-governance is to reach the beneficiary and ensure that the services intended to reach the desired individual has been met with. There should be an auto-response to support the essence of e-governance, whereby the Government realizes the efficacy of its governance. E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the governed.

Establishing the identity of the end beneficiary is a challenge in all citizen-centric services. Statistical information published by governments and world bodies does not always reveal the facts. The best form of e-governance cuts down on unwanted interference of too many layers while delivering governmental services. It depends on good infrastructural setup with the support of local processes and parameters for governments to reach their citizens or end beneficiaries. Budget for planning, development and growth can be derived from well laid out e-governance systems

Government to customer[edit]

The goal of Government to Customer (G2C) e-Governance to is offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology.

There are several methods of Government to Customer e-Governance. Two-way communication allows citizens to instant message directly with public administrators, and cast remote electronic votes (electronic voting) and instant opinion voting. Transactions such as payment of services, such as city utilities, can be completed online or over the phone. Mundane services such as name or address changes, applying for services or grants, or transferring existing services are more convenient and no longer have to be completed face to face.[4]

G2C e-Governance is unbalanced across the globe as not everyone has Internet access and computing skills, but the United States, European Union, and Asia are ranked the top three in development.

The Federal Government of the United States has a broad framework of G2C technology to enhance citizen access to Government information and services. Benefits.Gov is an official US government website that informs citizens of benefits they are eligible for and provides information of how to apply assistance. US State Governments also engage in G2C interaction through the Department of Transportation, Department of Public Safety, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of Education, and others.[5] As with e-Governance on the global level, G2C services vary from state to state. The Digital States Survey ranks states on social measures, digital democracy, e-commerce, taxation, and revenue. The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utah in the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores.[5] Municipal governments in the United States also use Government to Customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology's "Best of the Web 2012" named Louisville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals.[6]

European countries were ranked second among all geographic regions. The Single Point of Access for Citizens of Europe supports travel within Europe and eEurope is a 1999 initiative supporting online government. Main focuses are to provide public information, allow customers to have access to basic public services, simplify online procedures, and promote electronic signatures.[5]

Asia is ranked third in comparison, and there are diverse G2C programs between countries. Singapore’s eCitizen Portal is an organized single access point to government information and services. South Korea’s Home Tax Service (HTS) provides citizens with 24/7 online services such as tax declaration. Taiwan has top ranking G2C technology including an online motor vehicle services system, which provides 21 applications and payment services to citizens.[5]

G2C Concerns[edit]

A full switch to Government to Customer e-Governance will cost a large amount of money in development and implementation.[4] In addition, Government agencies do not always engage citizens in the development of their e-Gov services or accept feedback. Customers identified the following barriers to Government to Customer e-Governance: not everyone has Internet access, especially in rural or low income areas, G2C technology can be problematic for citizens who lack computing skills, some G2C sites have technology requirements (such as browser requirements and plug-ins) that wont allow access to certain services, language barriers, the necessity for an e-mail address to access certain services, and a lack of privacy.[7]

Government to employees[edit]

E-Governance to Employee partnership (G2E) Is one of four main primary interactions in the delivery model of E-Governance. It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees maintain communication with the government and their own companies. E-Governance relationship with Employees allows new learning technology in one simple place as the computer. Documents can now be stored and shared with other colleagues online.[8] E-governance makes it possible for employees to become paperless and makes it easy for employees to send important documents back and forth to colleagues all over the world instead of having to print out these records or fax[9] G2E services also include software for maintaining personal information and records of employees. Some of the benefits of G2E expansion include:

E-Payroll- maintaining the online sources to view paychecks, pay stubs, pay bills, and keep records for tax information.

E-benefits- be able to look up what benefits an employee is receiving and what benefits they have a right to.

E-training- allows for new and current employees to regularly maintain the training they have through the development of new technology and to allow new employees to train and learn over new materials in one convenient location. E-learning is another way to keep employees informed on the important materials they need to know through the use of visuals, animation, videos, etc. It is usually a computer based learning tool, although not always. It is also a way for employees to learn at their own pace (distance learning) . Although, it can be instructor lead.

Maintaining records of personal information- Allows the system to keep all records in one easy location to update with every single bit of information that is relevant to a personal file. Examples being social security numbers, tax information, current address, and other information[10]

Government to Government[edit]

E-Government[edit]

From the start of 1990s e-commerce and e-product, there has rampant integration of e-forms of government process. Governments have now tried to use their efficiencies of their techniques to cut down on waste. E-government is a fairly broad subject matter, but all relate to how the services and representation are now delivered and how they are now being implemented.

Many governments around the world have gradually turned to Internet Technologies (IT) in an effort to keep up with today’s demands. Historically, many governments in this sphere have only been reactive but up until recently there has been a more proactive approach in developing comparable services such things as e-commerce and e-business.[11]

Before, the structure emulated private-like business techniques. Recently that has all changed as e-government begins to make its own plan. Not only does e-government introduce a new form of record keeping, it also continues to become more interactive to better the process of delivering services and promoting constituency participation.

The framework of such organization is now expected to increase more than ever by becoming efficient and reducing the time it takes to complete an objective. Some examples include paying utilities, tickets, and applying for permits. So far, the biggest concern is accessibility to Internet technologies for the average citizen. In an effort to help, administrations are now trying to aid those who do not have the skills to fully participate in this new medium of governance, especially now as e-government progressing to more e-governance terms

An overhaul of structure is now required as every pre-existing sub-entity must now merge under one concept of e- government. As a result Public Policy has also seen changes due to the emerging of constituent participation and the Internet. Many governments such as Canada’s have begun to invest in developing new mediums of communication of issues and information through virtual communication and participation. In practice this has led to several responses and adaptations by interest groups, activist, and lobbying groups. This new medium has changed the way the polis interacts with government.

Municipal[edit]

The purpose to include e-governance to government is to make means more efficient in various aspects. Whether it means to reduce cost by reducing paper clutter, staffing cost, or communicating with private citizens or public government. E-government brings many advantages into play such as facilitating information delivery, application process/renewal between both business and private citizen, and participation with constituency. There are both internal and external advantages to the emergence of IT in government, though not all municipalities are alike in size and participation.

In theory, there are currently 4 major levels of E-government in municipal governments:[12]

  • the establishment of a secure and cooperative interaction among governmental agencies;
  • Web-based service delivery;
  • the application of e-commerce for more efficient government transactions activities,;
  • and digital democracy.

These, along with 5 degrees of technical integration and interaction of users include:

  • simple information dissemination (one-way communication);
  • two- way communication (request and response);
  • service and financial transactions;
  • integration (horizontal and vertical integration);
  • political participation

The adoption of e-government in municipalities evokes greater innovation in e- governance by being specialized and localized. The level success and feedback depends greatly on the city size and government type. A council-manager government municipality typically works the best with this method, as opposed to mayor-council government positions, which tend to be more political. Therefore, they have greater barriers towards its application. Council-Manager governments are also more inclined to be effective here by bringing innovation and reinvention of governance to e- governance.

The International City/County Management Association and Public Technology Inc. have done surveys over the effectiveness of this method. The results are indicating that most governments are still in either the primary stages (1 or stage 2), which revolves around public service requests. Though application of integration is now accelerating, there has been little to no instigating research to see its progression as e-governance to government. We can only theorize it’s still within the primitive stages of e-governance.

Government to business[edit]

The Main Goal of Government to Business- is to increase productivity by giving business more access to information in a more organize manner while lowering the cost of doing business as well as the ability to cut “red tape”, save time, reduce operational cost and to create a more transparent business environment when dealing with government.

  • Lowering cost of doing business- electronic transaction save time compared to conducting business in person.
  • Cutting red tape- rules and regulation placed upon business normally take time and are most likely to cause a delay- in (G2B) will allow a much faster process with less delays and decreasing the number of rules and regulations
  • Transparency- More information will be available, making G2B easier to communicate.

Government to business Key points:

  1. Reduce the burden on business by adopting a process that enables collecting data once for multiple uses and streamlining redundant data.
  2. Key lines of business: regulations, economic development, trade, permits/licenses, grants/loans, and asset management.

Difference between G2B and B2G

  • Government to business (G2B)- Refers to the conducting of transactions between government bodies and business via internet.
  • Business to government (B2G)- Professional affairs conducted between companies and regional, municipal, or federal governing bodies. B2G typically encompasses the determination and evaluation of proposal and completion of contract.

Conclusion:

The overall benefit of e-governance when dealing with business is that it enables business to perform more efficiently.

Challenges Before E-Governance- International Position[edit]

E-governance is facing numerous challenges world over. These challenges are arising from administrative, legal, institutional and technological factors.

India[edit]

E-governance is a wonderful tool to bring transparency, accountability and whistle blowing in India. [13] However, it has its own share of challenges that include administrative, legal and technological challenges. There may be instances where e-governance can itself be a source of corruption. [14]Use of e-governance in India would also require an efficient mechanism to deal with e-waste. [15] Absence of privacy [16] and data protection laws [17]has also created many hurdles before successful implementation of e-governance in India. However, the biggest hurdle before Indian e-governance initiatives comes from poor cyber security in India. [18] According to techno legal experts, e-governance without cyber security is useless in India. [19] In fact, that makes the critical infrastructure of India vulnerable to sophisticated cyber attacks. [20] Absence of mandatory e-governance services in India is the main reason for apathy towards this crucial field. [21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saugata, B., and Masud, R.R. (2007. Implementing E-Governance Using OECD Model(Modified) and Gartner Model (Modified) Upon Agriculture of Bangladesh. IEEE. 1-4244-1551-9/07.
  2. ^ a b Garson, D.G. (2006). Public Information Technology and E-Governance. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
  3. ^ Rossel, Pierre, and Matthias Finger. “Conceptualizing e-Governance.” Management (2007) : 399-407.
  4. ^ a b Miller, W & Walling, J, (2013). "Government in the twenty-first century: New Avenues of Study". Taking Sides. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  5. ^ a b c d Lee, (2004). "Communications of the ACM". Association for Computing Machinery.
  6. ^ Best of the Web, (2012). Government Technologies. http://www.govtech.com/e-government/2012-Best-of-the-Web-Award-Winners-Announced.html.
  7. ^ Bertot, Jaegar, and McClure, (2008). "Citizen Centered E-Government Services: Benefits, Costs, and Research Needs". Montreal, Canada.
  8. ^ Fang, Zhiyuan. "E-government in Digital Era: Concept, Development, and Practice." International Journal of the Computer 10.2 (2002): 1-22. Web. 2 Apr. 2014.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.133.9080&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  9. ^ Carter, Lemuria, and France Belanger. "Citizen Adoption of Electronic Government Initiatives. IEEE Xplore. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, n.d.
  10. ^ Dawes, Sharon S. "The Evolution and Continuing Challenges of E-Governance." - Dawes. Wiley Online Library, n.d.
  11. ^ Marche, S. and McNiven, J. D. (2003), E-Government and E-Governance: The Future Isn't What It Used To Be. CAN J ADM SCI, 20: 74–86. doi: 10.1111/j.1936-4490.2003.tb00306.x
  12. ^ Moon, M. J. (2002), The Evolution of E-Government among Municipalities: Rhetoric or Reality?. Public Administration Review, 62: 424–433. doi: 10.1111/0033-33523
  13. ^ "Technology Is The Best Whistleblower In India". Global ICT Policies And Strategies And Indian Perspective. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  14. ^ "Why E-Governance Has Failed In India And How To Make It Successful: Praveen Dalal". Ground Report. 08 June 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "E-Waste In India". WWF India. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  16. ^ "Privacy Laws In India And Privacy Rules And Regulations In India". Privacy Rights In India And Privacy Rights In The Information Era And Internet. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  17. ^ "Data Protection Laws In India And Privacy Rights In India". Civil Liberties Protection In Cyberspace. 05 January 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  18. ^ "ICT Trends in India-2006". Perry4Law’s Techno-Legal Base (PTLB). 20 February 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  19. ^ "Critical Infrastructure Protection In India: The Problems, Challenges And Solutions". Centre Of Excellence For Cyber Security Research And Development In India (CECSRDI). 06 January 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Mandatory E-Governance Services In India Are Urgently Needed". IfG.CC - The Potsdam eGovernment Competence Center. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.