GM Family 1 engine
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
The Family 1 is a straight-4 piston engine that was developed by Opel, a subsidiary of General Motors to replace low-displacement versions of GM Family II engine for use on mid-range cars from Opel/Vauxhall.
- 1.6 L (1598 cc): 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 109 hp (80 kW).
This was the first engine in this family, featuring a Lotus-developed 16-valve cylinder head and a cast-iron cylinder block which was essentially the same as in Opel's 8-valve engines. C16XE was available only in Corsa GSi, model years 1993 and 1994. C16XE was not yet badged Ecotec, and for later model Corsas and Opel Tigras it was replaced with X16XE Ecotec engine. The main difference between C16XE and X16XE Ecotec is emission control, C16XE lacks EGR and AIR-system, although the cylinder head is designed to enable these features. Other differences between C16XE and later versions of the engine include intake manifold, C16XE has a plastic upper intake manifold, which was replaced with a cast aluminium manifold, and fuel injection system, C16XE uses Multec fuel injection with MAF sensor and later models used Multec fuel injection with MAP sensor. Also, while C16XE had its own exhaust front section design, for X16XE it was replaced with a front section used also in Opel Astra, probably as a cost-saving measure.
Family 1 C16XE engine is used in:
- 1993–1994 Opel Corsa
- X14XE'1.4 L' (1389 cc): 10.5:1 compression, 90 hp (66 kW) and 92 lb·ft (125 N m) of torque.
- X14SZ'1.4 L' (1389 cc) (Latin America): 9.3:1 compression, 60 hp and 52 lb·ft of torque.
- X16XEL'1.6 L' (1598 cc): 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 100 hp (74 kW) and 111 lb·ft (150 N m) of torque.
- X16XE'1.6 L' (1598 cc): 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 106 hp (78 kW) and 111 lb·ft (150 N m) of torque.
- X18XE1'1.8 L' (1796 cc): 80.5 mm (3.17 in) bore, 88.2 mm (3.47 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 115 hp (85 kW) and 123 lb·ft (167 N m) of torque
- Z18XE'1.8 L' (1796 cc): 80.5 mm (3.17 in) bore, 88.2 mm (3.47 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 122 hp (90 kW) or 125 hp (92 kW) and 123 lb·ft (167 N m) of torque featuring variable intake technology.
Family 1 Ecotec engines are used in:
- 1994–2000 Opel Corsa
- 1994–2000 Opel Tigra
- 1999–2005 Opel Zafira
- Opel Astra
- Opel Vectra
- Saab 9-3
- 2004–2008 Chevrolet Viva
- Opel Zafira
- 2007–2008 Chevrolet Niva
- Fiat Stilo
Updated version introduced in 2002, with lighter cast-iron cylinder block and camshaft driven by toothed belt. Features EGR valve and TwinPort variable intake geometry - twin intake ports with a choke closing one of the ports at low RPM, providing strong air swirl pattern for higher torque levels and better fuel economy. The drive belt for the camshafts is wider and stronger than before, and water pump is not driven by it anymore which improves reliability.
- 1.6 L (1598 cc): TwinPort, 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 105 hp (77 kW) and 111 lb·ft (150 N m) of torque.
Ecotec TwinPort Family 1 engine is used in:
A variant of 1.8L Family 1 engine featuring Euro IV compliancy, DCVCP (Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing technology, a variant of VVT) and integrated catalytic converter, entered production in Spring 2005. It was based on the lighter cast-iron block, although there's no TwinPort in this version.
An updated 1.6 L TwinPort engine with DCVCP was introduced in 2006.
In 2011, the new Gen III block has been introduced which features DCVCP, TwinPort and piston cooling by oil jets, as well as higher compression ratio.
These engines are manufactured at Szentgotthárd, Hungary, Bupyeoung, Korea and Toluca, Mexico.
- A18XER: 1.8 L (1796 cc): DCVCP, 80.5 mm (3.17 in) bore, 88.2 mm (3.47 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 140 hp (103 kW) and 129 lb·ft (175 Nm) of torque, combined fuel economy 7.0 L/100 km (40 mpg-imp; 34 mpg-US)
- A16XER: 1.6 L (1598 cc): DCVCP, TwinPort, 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 10.5:1 compression, 115 hp (85 kW) @ 6000 rpm, 155 N·m (114 lbf·ft) @4000 rpm, combined fuel economy 6.3 L/100 km (45 mpg-imp; 37 mpg-US).
- A18XER (LUW): 1.8 L (1796 cc): DCVCP, TwinPort, 10.5:1 compression, 138 hp (102.9 kW; 139.9 PS) @6300 rpm, 125 lb·ft (169 N·m) @3800 rpm.
- A18XER (2H0): 1.8 L (1796 cc): DCVCP, TwinPort, 10.8:1 compression.
- A16XER (LDE): 1.6 L (1598 cc): DCVCP, TwinPort, 10.8:1 compression, 116 hp (85 kW) @ 6000 rpm.
Ecotec DCVCP engines are used in:
- 2005–present Opel Zafira
- 2007–presentOpel Astra
- 2008–2009 Saturn Astra (1.8L LUW)
- 2008–present Chevrolet Cruze (1.8L LUW/2H0)
- 2009–present Opel Insignia
- 2012–present Chevrolet Sonic (1.6 L in Europe, 1.8L LUW in North America)
Turbocharged versions of the 1.6 L engine have been available since 2007, and are produced in Szentgotthárd, Hungary.
- A16LEL: 1.6 L (1598 cc): turbocharged, 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 8.8:1 compression, 150 PS (110.3 kW; 147.9 hp) @5000 rpm, 210 N·m (150 lbf·ft) @1850-5000 rpm.
- A16LET: 1.6 L (1598 cc): turbocharged, 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 8.8:1 compression, 180 PS (132.4 kW; 177.5 hp) @5500 rpm, 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft) @2200-5400 rpm.
- A16LER: 1.6 L (1598 cc): turbocharged, 79 mm (3.11 in) bore, 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke, 8.8:1 compression, 192 PS (141.2 kW; 189.4 hp) @5000 rpm, 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft) @1980-5800 rpm.
TwinPort was not used in these engines, although VVT was used on the intake camshaft.
In 2011, the engines have been updated to use the Gen III block and now feature DCVCP (double continuous cam phasing) and TwinPort:
- A16LET (LLU): DCVCP, TwinPort, 180 PS (132.4 kW; 177.5 hp) @5500 rpm, 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft) @2200-5500 rpm.
- A16LER (LDW): DCVCP, TwinPort, 192 PS (141.2 kW; 189.4 hp) @5850 rpm, 230 N·m (170 lbf·ft) (overboost 266 (196)) @1980-5850 rpm.
- A16LES : DCVCP, TwinPort, 210 PS (154.5 kW; 207.1 hp) @5850 rpm, 250 N·m (180 lbf·ft) (overboost 280 (210)) @2250-5850 rpm.
Turbocharged Family 1 engines are used in:
- 2007 Vauxhall Corsa VXR
- 2007 Opel Astra H
- 2008 Opel Corsa OPC
- 2008 Opel Corsa
- 2009 Opel Insignia
- 2010 Saab 9-5
- 2010 Opel Astra J
- 2012 Chevrolet Cruze (China)
 GM Daewoo
Daewoo Motors licensed an older variant of Family 1 SOHC/DOHC engine for their range of Opel-derived cars such as Daewoo Espero and Daewoo Nexia. These engines were built exclusively at Bupyeong engine plant and marketed as D-TEC or E-TEC II.
With the release of Chevrolet Cruze, the factory has been converted to produce the Ecotec Family 1 Gen III block.
- 1.3 L SOHC - Daewoo Lanos
- 1.5 L SOHC/DOHC - Daewoo Lanos, Daewoo Espero, Daewoo Nexia
- 1.6 L SOHC - Daewoo Nexia
- 1.6 L DOHC - Daewoo Nexia, Daewoo Lanos
 E-TEC II
- 1.4 L SOHC - European Chevrolet Kalos/Chevrolet Aveo
- 1.5 L (1498cc) SOHC, Euro II - Asian, Middle Eastern and South African versions Chevrolet Lacetti, Chevrolet Nubira and Chevrolet Aveo, CKD kits of Aveo assembled by ZAZ
- 1.4 L (1398cc) DOHC - European Chevrolet Kalos/Chevrolet Aveo, Chevrolet Lacetti and Chevrolet Nubira
- 1.6 L (1598cc) DOHC- L91/LXT, 103 hp (77 kW) and 107 lb·ft (145 N·m) of torque, U.S. version of Chevrolet Aveo, Canadian Pontiac Wave; European Chevrolet Lacetti and Chevrolet Nubira, Korean Daewoo Kalos and Daewoo Gentra
- 1.6 L (1598cc) DOHC VVT - LXV
This is the 1.6 L—1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)—variant of the engines, featuring a 79 mm (3.1 in) bore and 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke and a compression ratio of 9.5:1. Power is 103 horsepower (77 kW) at 5800 rpm and torque is 107 lb·ft (145 N·m) at 3400 rpm.
The engine is used in
This is a 1.6 L—1,598 cc (97.5 cu in)—variant of the engines, featuring a 79 mm (3.1 in) bore and 81.5 mm (3.21 in) stroke and a compression ratio of 10.8:1. The major difference from the L91 is the addition of variable valve timing. Power is 106 hp (79 kW) at 6400 rpm and torque is 105 lb·ft (142 N·m) at 3800 rpm. Fuel economy is 6.8 L/100 km (35 mpg-US)
- Daewoo Gentra X/Chevrolet Aveo
- Chevrolet Cruze/Daewoo Lacetti Premiere/Holden Cruze(2009-2011 Korean-made models)
 GM do Brasil
- X10YFH - 1.0 L SOHC FlexPower - Chevrolet Celta, Chevrolet Corsa C and Chevrolet Classic (Corsa B sedan 4 doors).
- X14YFH - 1.4 L SOHC FlexPower - Chevrolet Prisma, Chevrolet Corsa C and Chevrolet Meriva.
- X18XE - 1.8 L SOHC FlexPower - Chevrolet Corsa, Chevrolet Montana, and Chevrolet Meriva; Fiat Palio, Fiat Siena, Fiat Palio Weekend, Fiat Strada, Fiat Idea, Fiat Punto and Fiat Stilo.
GM Brasil also made 16-valve versions of the 1.0, 1.6 and 1.8-liter engines.
The 1.0 L 16v was available in the Corsa line-up from 1999 to 2001. The 1.6 L 16v was available in the Corsa GSi hatchback and the Chevrolet Corsa sedán and station wagon GLS trim. Finally, the 122 hp 1.8 16v was available in the Chevrolet Meriva and Fiat Stilo.