E. Franklin Frazier
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Edward Franklin Frazier (September 24, 1894 - May 17, 1962), was an American sociologist. His 1932 Ph.D. dissertation The Negro Family in Chicago, later released as a book The Negro Family in the United States in 1939, analyzed the historical force that influenced the development of the African-American family from the time of slavery. The book was awarded the 1940 Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for the most significant work in the field of race relations. This book was among the first sociological works on blacks researched and written by a black person. He helped draft the UNESCO statement The Race Question in 1950.
E. Franklin Frazier was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on September 24, 1894. Frazier was one of five children of James H. Frazier, a bank messenger, and Mary Clark Frazier, a housewife. Edward Franklin Frazier attended Baltimore public schools. Upon his graduation from Colored High School, June 1912, Frazier was awarded the school's annual scholarship to Howard University in Washington, DC, from where he graduated with honors in 1916. E. Franklin Frazier was an excellent scholar, pursuing Latin, Greek, German and mathematics. He also found time to participate in extracurricular activities involving drama, political science, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. His leadership skills were evidenced in his class presidencies of 1915 and 1916.
Frazier spent 1920-1921 as a Russell Sage Foundation fellow at the New York School of Social Work (later Columbia University School of Social Work).
In 1941 Frazier embarked on a year-long study of family life in Brazil, supported by a Guggenheim Fellowship. He spent the next twenty years associated with Howard University where his work focused on the environment of black colleges, especially that of Howard University.
Frazier's position formed one half of the debate with Melville J. Herskovits on the nature of cultural contact in the Western Hemisphere, specifically with reference to Africans, Europeans, and their descendants.  Frazier's Black Bourgeoisie, the 1957 translation of a work first published in French in 1955, was a critical examination of the adoption by middle-class African Americans of a subservient conservatism.
Frazier died on May 17, 1962, at the age of 68, in Washington, D.C. He has been ranked among the top African Americans for his influence on institutions and practices to accept the demands by African Americans for economic, political and social equality in American life.
Some of Frazier's writings caused controversy among the black community for their focus on the impact of slavery and how it divided the black family. His support for African-American civil rights during the McCarthy era and his membership of the Council on African Affairs resulted in his being acknowledged not for his brilliant work but as a traitor.
Frazier was also known for his numerous feuds with fellow academics, most notably Charles Johnson and Melville Herskovits. He was also briefly alienated from his mentor W. E. B. Du Bois in the 1930s.
- The Free Negro Family: a Study of Family Origins Before the Civil War (Nashville: Fisk University Press, 1932)
- The Negro Family in Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932)
- The Negro Family in the United States (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939)
- Negro Youth at the Crossways: Their Personality Development in the Middle States (Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1940)
- The Negro Family in Bahia, Brazil (1942)
- The Negro in the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1949)
- The Integration of the Negro into American Society (editor) (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1951.
- Bourgeoisie noire (Paris: Plon, 1955)
- Black Bourgeoisie (translation of Bourgeoisie noire)(Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1957)
- Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World (New York: Knopf, 1957)
- The Negro Church in America (New York: Schocken Books, 1963)
- On Race Relations: Selected Writings, edited and with an introduction by G. Franklin Edwards, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968)
- Lee. D. Baker. From Savage to Negro: Anthropology and the Construction of Race 1896-1954. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
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- NASW Celebrates Black History Month 2005! "Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962)".
- Teele (ed), E. Franklin Frazier and the Black Bourgeoisie, University of Missouri, 2002.
- Jackson, E. R. Frazier, E. Franklin. American National Biography Online. February 2000.
- Washington Post, September 6, 1966.
- Robert K. Merton, The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations, edited with an introduction by Norman W. Storer, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973, p. 136.
- Biography and bibliography, Howard University.
- "Edward Franklin Frazier", African American Registry.
- "Edward Franklin Frazier", American Sociological Association.
- Bibliography of E. Franklin Frazier, Sociologist, Educator, Author, Scholar
- National Association of Social Workers Award for Black History Month