E. K. Nayanar
|E. K. Nayanar|
|Former Chief Minister of Kerala|
|Constituency||Palakkad, Irikkur, Malampuzha, Thrikkarippur, Thalassery.|
December 9, 1918|
Kalliasseri, Madras Presidency, British India
|Died||19 May 2004(aged 85)|
|Political party||Communist Party of India (Marxist)|
|Spouse(s)||K. P. Sarada|
|Children||2 sons and 2 daughters|
|As of November 2, 2007
Source: Government of Kerala
Erambala Krishnan Nayanar (Malayalam: ഏറമ്പാല കൃഷ്ണൻ നായനാർ) (December 9, 1918 – May 19, 2004) was a prominent Indian political leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). He held the post of Chief Minister of Kerala three times; during 1980–81, 1987–91 and 1996–2001. He is the longest serving Chief Minister of Kerala, having been in office for a total of 3999 days, spanning 11 years. He was a member of the Politburo of CPI(M).
E K Nayanar was born on 9 December 1918 in Kalliasseri. Despite his father, Govindan Nambiar, being a believer in the feudalism, Nayanar took to the national movement of the time at a very young age under the influence of his cousin, K.P.R. Gopalan. Nayanar was influenced by the events following the admission of a Dalit girl to local school under the leadership of K.P.R. Gopalan. Nayanar was a participant in student movements in the Malabar region as a part of Balasangham and consequently dropped out of school. He was drawn towards the socialist ideology guided by leaders like P. Krishna Pillai. Nayanar famously helped in the establishment of a library and named it Shri Harshan Library, after Harshan, a member of the oppressed caste who was tortured to death at the Kannur Central Jail for his participation in the national movement.
Nayanar joined Communist Party of India in 1939. As a youth leader, Nayanar organized several movements. He led the forty six day long Aaron Mill workers' protest against dismissal of thirty workers by the mill management in 1940. He was jailed for six months as a consequence. Nayanar was one of the organizers of Morazha rally on September 15, 1940 in protest of rising prices. Two policemen were killed in the rally and Nayanar went into hiding for six years without knowing that he was not one of the accused. He also organized peasant uprisings in Kayyur. A policeman was stoned by protesters and subsequently died in Kayyur. Communist leaders were actively pursued by police following the incident, forcing Nayanar to go into hiding in forest areas in Eleri. Later on, as Chief Minister, he set up a Government College in the area in 1981. The college was renamed to E.K.Nayanar Memorial Government college. While in hiding in Travancore, he worked as a journalist for Kerala Kaumudi.
After Independence, cases against Nayanar were dropped. He continued working actively for Communist Party of India. He was elected Kannur taluk secretary in 1948. He again was forced to go into hiding following 'Calcutta Thesis' proclamation that lead to banning Communist Party in India. During Sino-Indian War, Nayanar was accused of being pro-China and was imprisoned in 1964 under the Preventive Detention Act. He was the secretary of Kozhikode district committee of the united CPI from 1956 to 1964.
Nayanar was also one of the 32 CPI national council members who walked out and formed CPIM in 1964. He was a central committee of the CPI(M) from the 7th Congress in 1964. He served as the Secretary of the Kerala State Committee of the CPI(M) from 1972 to 1980 and again from 1992 to 1996. He was elected to the Polit Bureau at the 14th Congress in 1992.
In 1967, he was elected to the Lok Sabha from Palakkad. He became an MLA for the first time from Irikkur legislative assembley in 1974. Since he has been elected as an MLA five more times (twice each from Malampuzha(1980 and 1982) and Thrikkarippur(1987 and 1991) and once from Thalasseri(1996)), losing only once.
Nayanar became the Chief Minister of Kerala for the first time in 1980. He formed government with the support of Congress (A) under A. K. Antony and Kerala Congress under K. M. Mani. But both the parties left for United Democratic Front and the Government was dissolved on October 20, 1981. K. Karunakaran conquently formed government, and Nayanar became the leader of the opposition. He served as the leader of the opposition from 1981 to 1987.
Nayanar became the chief Minister for a second time in 1987. But he did not complete his term of five years as CPIM decided to contest elections early in 1991 assuming political climate to be favourable. But the left lost the elections and Nayanar became the leader of the opposition yet again. He resigned from that post the very next year and was succeeded by V. S. Achuthanandan.
Nayanar initially had not contested the 1996 assembly elections. V S Achudanandan who was projected as the Chief Ministerial candidate lost in Mararikkulam. A faction in the party wanted Susheela Gopalan to be the Chief Minister, but when the matter was put to vote in the state secretariat, Nayanar was selected to be the CM. He contested and won by-elections in Thalasseri.
Nayanar introduced several reforms during his tenures as Chief Minister like The Kerala Coir workers Welfare Fund Act, 1987, The Kerala Khadi Workers’ Welfare Fund Act, 1989, The Kerala Abkari Workers Welfare Fund Act, 1989, The Kerala Construction workers’ Welfare Fund Act, 1989 and the Kerala Ration Dealer’s Welfare Fund Act, 1998. The Kannur University was also established during his tenure. It was during his last stint as Chief Minister that the LDF launched the People's Planning Campaign in 1996.
Nayanar has authored several works in both English and Malayalam. He was also an occasional poet. A few notable works are:
- My Struggle (Autobiography, translated to Malayalam by himself as Samaratheechoolayil)
- Doha Diary
- Marxism-Oru Mukhavara (Marxism-An introduction)
- Nehru-Gandhi Oru Padanam (Nehru-Gandhi A Study)
- Karl Marx
- American Diary
- Ente China Diary (My China Diary)
- Parliamentum Chila Vasthuthakalum (Parliament and Some Facts)
In Popular Culture
Nayanar was renowned for his humorous remarks and speeches. During his third term as Chief Minister, Nayanar also used to conduct a public interaction show, "Mukhya Mantriyodu Chothikyuka" ("Ask the Chief Minister") in Asianet TV channel.
Nayanar was admitted to the AIIMS on April 26 for advanced treatment of diabetes, after a brief stay at the Medical College Hospital in Thiruvananthapuram earlier. His condition became worse following kidney and heart failure on May 6 when he was put on the life support system. He died on May 19, 2004.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to E. K. Nayanar.|
- "Comrade E K Nayanar". People's Democracy.
- "The people's leader". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Chief Ministers and Leaders of Opposition of Kerala". Secretariat of the Kerala legislature.
- "Nayanarude Jeevitham". OneIndia. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Nayanar: Crowd puller of Lefitst forces". Times of India. May 19, 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Vajpayee, Jinnah are two sides of the same coin: Nayanar". Rediff. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Facing the arc lights". The Hindu. July 11, 2007.
- "Ask the Chief Minister!". Rediff.
C.H. Mohammed Koya
|Chief Minister of Kerala
|Chief Minister of Kerala
A. K. Antony
|Chief Minister of Kerala
A. K. Antony