|Possible time of origin||approx 18,600 years BP|
|Possible place of origin||Northeastern Africa: the region of Egypt and Libya or northern Sudan|
|Defining mutations||V68, L539, L546|
In human genetics, E-V68, is a major Y chromosome haplogroup found in Africa, Western Asia and Europe, and is in turn part of the larger haplogroup known as E-M35. It is identified by the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation on the Y chromosome known as V68. It is a subject of discussion and study in genetics as well as genetic genealogy, archaeology, and historical linguistics.
E-V68 is dominated by its longer-known subclade E-M78. In various publications, both E-V68 and E-M78 have been referred to by other names, especially phylogenetic names such as "E3b1a" which are designed to show their place on the family tree of all humans. These various names change as new discoveries are made and are discussed below.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Age
- 3 Family tree
- 4 Distribution
- 5 E-V12
- 6 E-V13
- 7 E-V22
- 8 E-V65
- 9 E-M521
- 10 Phylogenetics
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
E-M78, like its parent clade E-V68, is thought to have an African origin. Based on genetic STR variance data, Cruciani et al. (2007) suggests that this subclade originated in "Northeastern Africa", which in the study refers specifically to the region of Egypt and Libya.
Prior to Cruciani et al. (2007), Semino et al. (2004) had proposed a place of origin for E-M78 further south in East Africa. This was because of the high frequency and diversity of E-M78 lineages in the region of Ethiopia. However, Cruciani et al. (2007) were able to study more data, and concluded that the E-M78 lineages in the Horn of Africa were dominated by relatively recent branches (see E-V32 below). They concluded that the region of Egypt was the likely place of origin of E-M78 based on "the peripheral geographic distribution of the most derived subhaplogroups with respect to northeastern Africa, as well as the results of quantitative analysis of UEP and microsatellite diversity".
Cruciani et al. (2007) also note this as evidence for "a corridor for bidirectional migrations" between Northeast Africa (Egypt and Libya in their data) on the one hand and East Africa on the other. Because Cruciani et al. (2007) also proposed that E-M35, the parent clade of E-M78, originated in East Africa during the paleolithic and subsequently spread to the region of Egypt. E-M78 in East Africa, is therefore the result of a back migration. The authors believe there were "at least 2 episodes between 23.9–17.3 ky and 18.0–5.9 ky ago".
Another probable migration to the south from Egypt was noted by Hassan et al. (2008) based upon their survey of Sudan. Specifically E-V12 and E-V22, "might have been brought to Sudan from North Africa after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000-8,000 years ago".
Northwards from Egypt and Libya, E-M78 migrated into the Middle East, but additionally Trombetta et al. (2011) proposed that the earlier E-V68 carrying population may have migrated by sea directly from Africa to southwestern Europe, because they observed cases of E-V68* (without the M78 mutation) only in Sardinia, and not in the Middle Eastern samples. Concerning E-M78, like other forms of E-V68 there is evidence of multiple routes of expansion out of an African homeland.
On the other hand, while there were apparently direct migrations from North Africa to Iberia and Southern Italy (of people carrying E-V68*, E-V12, E-V22, and E-V65), the majority of E-M78 lineages found in Europe belong to the E-V13 sub-clade which appears to have entered Europe at some time undeterminded from the Near East, where it apparently originated, via the Balkans.
Coming to similar conclusions as the Cruciani and Trombetta team, Battaglia et al. (2008), writing prior to the discovery of E-V68, describe Egypt as "a hub for the distribution of the various geographically localized M78-related sub-clades" and, based on archaeological data, they propose that the point of origin of E-M78 (as opposed to later dispersals from Egypt) may have been in a refugium which "existed on the border of present-day Sudan and Egypt, near Lake Nubia, until the onset of a humid phase around 8500 BC. The northward-moving rainfall belts during this period could have also spurred a rapid migration of Mesolithic foragers northwards in Africa, the Levant and ultimately onwards to Asia Minor and Europe, where they each eventually differentiated into their regionally distinctive branches".
The division of E-V68 into sub-clades such as E-V12, E-V13, etc. has largely been the work of an Italian team including Fulvio Cruciani, Beniamino Trombetta, Rosario Scozzari and others. They started on the basis of STR studies in 2004, and then in 2006 they announced the discoveries of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations which could define most of the main branches with better clarity, which was then discussed further in 2007. These articles were the basis of the updated phylogenies found in Karafet (2008), and ISOGG, which is in turn the basis of the phylogeny given below.
No separate calculation has been done for the age of E-V68, but as it is approximately identical to E-M78, any approximation of its age is also approximately identical.
The M78 mutation has been estimated to have occurred up to 18,600 years ago (17,300–20,000 years ago), with some possibility that it may have been more recent. Cruciani et al. (2007) use two calculation methods for estimating the age of E-M78 which give very different results. For the main 18,600 years ago, the ASD method is used, while for a second "ρ method", used as a check, gives 13.7kya with a standard deviation of 2.3kya, but the difference between the two methods is only large for the age estimation of E-M78, not its sub-clades. The authors state the big difference is "attributable to the relevant departure from a star-like structure because of repeated founder effects".
Battaglia et al. (2007) estimated that E-M78 (called E1b1b1a1 in that paper) has been in Europe longer than 10,000 years. And more recently, Lacan et al. (2011) found that human remains excavated in a Spanish funeral cave dated to approximately 7000 years ago were in the E-V13 branch of E-M78.
This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree and subsequent published research as summarized by ISOGG in 2013. There is a new ISOGG 2014 Y-tree, which pushes many of these subclades into different names.
So far, three individuals who are in E-V68 but not E-M78 have been reported in Sardinia, by Trombetta et al. (2010), when announcing the discovery of V68.
The most basal and rare E-M78* paragroup has been found at its highest frequencies in Egyptians from the Gurna Oasis (5.88%), with lower frequencies also observed in Moroccan Arabs, Sardinians, the Balkans, and Andalusians from Huelva.
The highest frequencies of all the defined E-M78 sub-clades is found amongst populations in the large area stretching from northern Kenya (amongst the Borana people) to Southern Egypt, and including all of the Horn of Africa and most of Sudan.
Outside of the areas where it is most common in Africa (North Africa and the Horn of Africa), E-V68 is also observed in other parts of Africa, in lower frequencies, for example in Guinea-Bissau, where its presence has been tentatively attributed to trans-Saharan movements of people from North Africa.
The European distribution, dominated by E-V13 except in Iberia, has a frequency peak centered in parts of the Balkans (approximately 20% in southern areas; up to almost 50% is some particular places and populations) and Italy and declining frequencies evident toward western, central, and northeastern Europe. This is discussed in more detail below.
|Europe||Kosovar Albanians||114||45.60||1.75||43.85||Peričic et al. (2005)|
|Europe||Macedonian Arumanians||57||29.82||29.82||Peričic et al. (2005)|
|Europe||Serbians||113||20.35||1.77||18.58||Peričic et al. (2005)|
|Europe||Croatians||108||5.60||5.60||Peričic et al. (2005)|
|Europe||Crete||193||6.7||6.7||King et al. (2008)|
|Europe||Greeks from Nea Nikomedeia||57||15.8||1.8||14.0||King et al. (2008)|
|Europe||Greeks from Sesklo/Dimini||57||38.6||3.5||35.1||King et al. (2008)|
|Europe||Greeks from Lerna/Franchthi||57||35.1||35.1||King et al. (2008)|
|Europe||Sicilians||236||11.43||1.27||5.93||3.81||0.42||Di Gaetano et al. (2008)|
|Europe||Huelva Andalusians||167||6.59||1.20||4.19||0.60||0.60||Ambrosio et al. (2010)|
|Europe||Sicilians||153||13.07||0.65||7.19||4.58||0.65||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Northern Portuguese||50||4||4||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Southern Portuguese||49||4.08||4.08||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Pasiegos from Cantabria||56||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Asturians||90||10||5.56||4.44||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Southern Spaniards||62||3.23||3.23||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Spanish Basques||55||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||French Basques||16||6.25||6.25||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||French||225||4.44||0.44||4||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||English||28||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Danish||35||2.86||2.86||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Germans||77||3.9||3.9||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Polish||40||2.5||2.5||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Czechs||268||4.85||4.85||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Slovaks||24||8.33||8.33||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Slovenians||104||2.88||2.88||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Northern Italians||94||7.45||5.32||2.13||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Central Italians||356||7.87||0.28||5.34||1.97||0.28||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Southern Italians||141||10.64||0.71||8.51||1.42||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Sardinians||374||3.48||0.27||0.27||1.07||0.8||1.07||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Estonians||74||4.05||4.05||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Belarusians||40||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Northern Russians||82||3.66||3.66||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Southern Russians||92||2.17||2.17||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Ukrainians||11||9.09||9.09||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Moldovians||77||7.79||7.79||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Hungarians||106||9.43||9.43||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Rumanians||265||7.55||7.17||0.38||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Macedonians||99||18.18||17.17||1.01||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Continental Greeks||147||19.05||17.69||0.68||0.68||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Greeks from Crete||215||6.51||0.93||5.58||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Greeks from Aegean Islands||71||16.9||15.49||1.41||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Bulgarians||204||16.67||0.49||16.18||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Europe||Albanians||96||32.29||32.29||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Moroccan Arabs||55||40||3.64||7.27||29.09||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Asni Berbers||54||3.7||3.7||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Bouhria Berbers||67||1.49||1.49||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Moyen Atlas Berbers||69||10.14||10.14||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Marrakech Berbers||29||6.9||3.45||3.45||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Moroccan Jews||50||12||2||2||8||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northwestern Africa||Mozabite Berbers||20||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Libyan Jews||25||8||4||4||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Libyan Arabs||10||20||20||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Northern Egyptians (Delta)||72||23.61||5.56||1.39||13.89||2.78||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Egyptian Berbers||93||6.45||2.15||4.3||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Egyptians from Bahari||41||41.46||14.63||2.44||21.95||2.44||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Egyptians from Gurna Oasis||34||17.65||5.88||8.82||2.94||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Northeastern Africa||Southern Egyptians||79||50.63||44.3||1.27||3.8||1.27||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Dinka||26||15.38||3.85||11.54||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Shilluk||15||13.33||13.33||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Nuer||12||16.67||16.67||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Borgu||26||15.38||3.85||11.54||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Nuba||28||25||3.57||3.57||7.14||10.71||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Masalit||32||71.88||3.13||15.63||53.13||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Fur||32||59.38||18.75||40.63||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Nubians||39||15.38||12.82||2.56||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Fulani||26||34.62||30.77||3.85||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Hausa||32||3.13||3.13||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Copts||33||15.15||15.15||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Beja||42||35.71||4.76||30.95||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Gaalien||50||18.00||6.00||6.00||6.00||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Meseria||28||14.29||3.57||10.71||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Arakien||24||16.67||8.33||4.17||4.17||Hassan et al. (2008)|
|Eastern Africa||Amhara||34||8.82||8.82||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Ethiopian Jews||22||9.09||9.09||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Mixed Ethiopians||12||33.33||25||8.33||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Borana/Oromo (Kenya/Ethiopia)||32||40.63||40.63||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Wolayta||12||16.67||8.33||8.33||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Somalia||23||52.17||4.35||47.83||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Nilotic from Kenya||18||11.11||11.11||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Bantu from Kenya||28||3.57||3.57||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Western Africa||123||0.81||0.81||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Central Africa||150||0.67||0.67||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Eastern Africa||Southern Afric||105||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Istanbul Turkish||35||8.57||2.86||5.71||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Southwestern Turkish||40||2.5||2.5||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Northeastern Turkish||41||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Southeastern Turkish||24||4.17||4.17||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Erzurum Turkish||25||4||4||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Central Anatolian||61||6.56||1.64||4.92||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Turkish Cypriots||46||13.04||10.87||2.17||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Sephardi Turkish||19||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Palestinians||29||10.34||3.45||6.9||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Druze Arabs||28||10.71||10.71||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Bedouin||28||3.57||3.57||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Syrians||100||2||2||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Kurds from Iraq||20||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Arabs from United Arab Emirates||40||2.5||2.5||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Omanite||106||0.94||0.94||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Adygei||18||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
|Western Asia||Azeri||97||2.06||2.06||Cruciani et al. (2007)|
Undifferentiated E-V12* lineages
Undifferentiated E-V12* lineages (not E-V32 or E-M224, so therefore named "E-V12*") are found at especially high levels (44.3%) in Southern Egyptians, but also scattered widely in small amounts in both Northern Africa and Europe, but with very little sign in Western Asia, apart from Turkey. These E-V12* lineages were formerly included (along with many E-V22* lineages[Note 1]) in Cruciani et al.'s original (2004) "delta cluster", which he had defined using Y-STR profiles. With the discovery of the defining SNP, Cruciani et al. (2007) reported that V-12* was found in its highest concentrations in Egypt, especially Southern Egypt. Hassan et al. (2008) report a significant presence of E-V12* in neighboring Sudan, including 5/33 Copts and 5/39 Nubians. E-V12* made up approximately 20% of the Sudanese E-M78. They propose that the E-V12 and E-V22 sub-clades of E-M78 might have been brought to Sudan from their place of origin in North Africa after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000–8,000 years ago. Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to migrate northward to the Mediterranean and southward to the Sahel and the Nile Valley. The E-V12* paragroup is also observed in Europe (e.g. amongst French Basques) and Eastern Anatolia (e.g. Erzurum Turks).
Sub-clades of E-V12
E-M224 has been found in Israel among Yemeni population (5%) and appears to be a minor subclade.
Its discovery was announced in Underhill et al. (2001) and Shen et al. (2004) found 1 out of their 20 Yemeni Israelis they tested. Cruciani et al. (2006) called M224 "rare and rather uninformative" and they found no exemplars.
Cruciani et al. (2007) suggest that this sub-clade of E-V12 originated in North Africa, and then subsequently expanded further south into the Horn of Africa, where it is now prevalent.[Note 3] Before the discovery of V32, Cruciani et al. (2004) referred to the same lineages as the "gamma cluster", which was estimated to have arisen about 8,500 years ago. They stated that "the highest frequencies in the three Cushitic-speaking groups: the Borana from Kenya (71.4%), the Oromo from Ethiopia (32.0%), and the Somali (52.2%). Outside of eastern Africa, it was found only in two subjects from Egypt (3.6%) and in one Arab from Morocco". Sanchez et al. (2005) found it extremely prominent in Somali men and stated that "the male Somali population is a branch of the Horn African population – closely related to the Oromos in Ethiopia and North Kenya (Boranas)" and that their gamma cluster lineages "probably were introduced into the Somali population 4000–5000 years ago". More recently, Tillmar et al. (2009) typed 147 males from Somalia for 12 Y-STR loci, and observed that 77% (113/147) had typical E-V32 haplotypes. This is currently the highest frequency of E-V32 found in any single sample population. Similarly, Hassan et al. (2008) in their study observed this to be the most common of the sub-clades of E-M78 found in Sudan, especially among the Beja, Masalit and Fur. The Beja, like Somalis and Oromos, speak an Afro-Asiatic language and live along the "corridor" from the Horn of Africa to Egypt. Hassan et al. (2008) interpret this as reinforcing the "strong correlation between linguistic and genetic diversity" and signs of relatedness between the Beja and the peoples of the Horn of Africa such as the Amhara and Oromo. On the other hand, the Masalit and Fur live in Darfur and speak a Nilo-Saharan language. The authors observed in their study that "the Masalit possesses by far the highest frequency of the E-M78 and of the E-V32 haplogroup", which they believe suggests "either a recent bottleneck in the population or a proximity to the origin of the haplogroup." However, More recently, Tillmar et al. (2009) typed 147 males from Somalia for 12 Y-STR loci, and observed that 77% (113/147) had typical E-V32 haplotypes. This is the highest frequency of E-V32 found in any single sample population.
The STR data from Cruciani et al. (2007) concerning E-V12 can be summarized as follows.
The E-V13 clade is equivalent to the "alpha cluster" of E-M78 reported in Cruciani et al. (2004), and was first defined by the SNP V13 in Cruciani et al. (2006). Another SNP is known for this clade, V36, reported in Cruciani et al. (2007). All known positive tests for V13 are also positive for V36. So E-V13 is currently considered "phylogenetically equivalent" to E-V36.
Haplogroup E-V13 is the only lineage that reaches the highest frequencies out of Africa. In fact, it represents about 85% of the European E-M78 chromosomes with a clinal pattern of frequency distribution from the southern Balkan peninsula (19.6%) to western Europe (2.5%). The same haplogroup is also present at lower frequencies in Anatolia (3.8%), the Near East (2.0%), and the Caucasus (1.8%). In Africa, haplogroup E-V13 is rare, being observed only in northern Africa at a low frequency (0.9%).
Within Europe, E-V13 is especially common in the Balkans and some parts of Italy. In different studies, particularly high frequencies have been observed in Kosovar Albanians (45.6%) (Peričic et al. (2005)), Macedonian Albanians (34.4% reported in Battaglia et al. (2008)), and in some parts of Greece (about 35% in some of the areas studied by King et al. (2008). More generally, high frequencies have also been found in other areas of Greece, and amongst Bulgarians, Romanians, Macedonians and Serbs.
Within Italy, frequencies tend to be higher in Southern Italy, with particularly high results sometimes seen in particular areas; for example, in Santa Ninfa and Piazza Armerina in Sicily. High frequencies appear to exist also in some northern areas[Note 4] for example around Venice,[Note 5] Genoa and Rimini, as well as on the island of Corsica, which is to the west of mainland northern Italy.
E-V13 is also found in scattered and small amounts in Libya (in the Jewish community) and Egypt, but this is considered most likely to be a result of migration from Europe or the Near East.
E-V13 and ancient migrations
The apparent movement of E-M78 lineages from the Near East to Europe, and their subsequent rapid expansion, make its E-V13 sub-clade a particularly interesting subject for speculation about ancient human migrations.
Phylogenetic analysis have suggested to some researchers that these lineages have spread through Europe, from the Balkans in a "rapid demographic expansion". Before then, the SNP mutation, V13 apparently first arose in West Asia around 10 thousand years ago, and although not widespread there, it is for example found in high levels (>10% of the male population) in Turkish Cypriot and Druze Arab lineages. The Druze are considered a genetically isolated community, and are therefore of particular interest. The STR DNA signature of some of the E-V13 men amongst them was actually originally classified in the delta cluster in Cruciani et al. (2004). This means that Druze E-V13 clustered together with most E-V12 and E-V22, and not with European E-V13, which was mostly in the alpha cluster. This can be summarized in a table format...
Early migration from the Middle East to Europe
The distribution and diversity of V13 are often thought to represent the introduction of early farming technologies, during the Neolithic expansion, into Europe by way of the Balkans. The haplogroup J2b (J-M12) has also frequently been discussed in connection with V13, as a haplogroup with a seemingly very similar distribution and pre-history. (There is no consensus regarding the circumstances or timing of its evolution.)
Cruciani et al. (2007) says there were at least four major demographic events which have been envisioned for this geographic area:
- The "post-Last Glacial Maximum expansion (about 20 kya)"
- The "Younger Dryas-Holocene reexpansion (about 12 kya)"
- The "population growth associated with the introduction of agricultural practices (about 8 kya)"
- The "development of Bronze technology (about 5kya)"
The last two seem within the timespan possible for V13 given its STR age of arise putatively in the Middle East. In favor of the agricultural connection, human remains excavated in a Spanish funeral cave dating from approximately 7000 years ago were shown to be in this haplogroup.
However, earlier entry into Europe is also possible. Battaglia et al. (2008), for example, propose that the E-M78* lineage ancestral to all modern E-V13 men moved rapidly out of a Southern Egyptian homeland, in the wetter conditions of the early Holocene; arrived in the Balkans with only Mesolithic technologies and then only subsequently integrated with Neolithic cultures which arrived later in the Balkans.
E-V13 is in any case often described in population genetics as one of the components of the European genetic composition which shows a relatively recent link of populations from the Middle East, entering Europe and presumably associated with bringing new technologies. As such, it is also sometimes remarked that it is a relatively recent genetic movement out of Africa into Eurasia, and has been described as "a signal for a separate late-Pleistocene migration from Africa to Europe over the Sinai ... which is not manifested in mtDNA haplogroup distributions".
After its initial entry in Europe, there was then a dispersal from the Balkans into the rest of Europe. Also for this movement, a wide range of possibilities exists. Battaglia et al. (2008) suggest that the E-V13 sub-clade of E-M78 originated in situ in Europe, and propose that the first major dispersal of E-V13 from the Balkans may have been in the direction of the Adriatic Sea with the Neolithic Impressed Ware culture often referred to as Impressa or Cardial. The above-mentioned find of archaic E-V13 in Spain supports this suggestion.
In contrast, Cruciani et al. (2007) suggest that the movement out of the Balkans may have been more recent than 5300 years ago. The authors suggest that for the most part, modern E-V13 descends from a population which remained in the Balkans until the Balkan Bronze age. They consider that "the dispersion of the E-V13 and J-M12 haplogroups seems to have mainly followed the river waterways connecting the southern Balkans to north-central Europe". Peričic et al. (2005) propose the Vardar-Morava-Danube rivers as a possible route of Neolithic dispersal into central Europe. Bird (2007) proposes a still more recent dispersal out of the Balkans, around the time of the Roman empire.
In contrast, another major discovery relevant to the study of E-V13 origins was the announcement in Lacan et al. (2011) that a 7000 year old skeleton in a Neolithic context in a Spanish funeral cave, was an E-V13 man. (The other specimens tested from the same site were in haplogroup G2a, which has been found in Neolithic contexts throughout Europe.) Using 7 STR markers, this specimen was identified as being similar to modern individuals tested in Albania, Bosnia, Greece, Corsica, and Provence. The authors therefore proposed that, whether or not the modern distribution of E-V13 of today is a result of more recent events, E-V13 was already in Europe within the Neolithic, carried by early farmers from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Western Mediterranean, much earlier than the Bronze age.
Greek soldiers in Pakistan
An extensive analysis of Y diversity within Greeks and three Pakistani populations – the Burusho, Kalash and Pathan – who claim descent from Greek soldiers allowed us to compare Y lineages within these populations and re-evaluate their suggested Greek origins. This study as a whole seems to exclude a large Greek contribution to any Pakistani population, confirming previous observations. However, it provides strong evidence in support of the Greek origins for a small proportion of Pathans, as demonstrated by the clade E network and the low pairwise genetic distances between these two populations.
This study however tested only for M78, and not V13, the typical type of M78 from the Balkans. More recent and detailed analyses of E-V13 in this region have however concluded that this hypothesis is incorrect, and that the variants found there are not the types typical of the Balkans. Instead "Afghanistan's lineages are correlated with Middle Easterners and Iranians but not with populations from the Balkans"
Roman soldiers in Britain
Significant frequencies of E-V13 have also been observed in towns in Wales, Chester (ancient Deva Victrix) in England, and Scotland. The old trading town of Abergele on the northern coast of Wales in particular showed 7 out of 18 local people tested were in this lineage (approximately 40%), as reported in Weale et al. (2002). Bird (2007) attributes the overall presence of E-V13 in Great Britain, especially in areas of high frequency, to settlement during the 1st through 4th centuries CE by Roman soldiers of Thracian and Dacian ancestry from the Balkan peninsula. Bird proposes a connection to the modern region encompassing Kosovo, southern Serbia, northern Republic of Macedonia, and extreme northwestern Bulgaria (a region corresponding to the Roman province of Moesia Superior), which was identified by Peričic et al. (2005) as harboring the highest frequency worldwide of this sub-clade.[Note 6]
However, according to data published so far,[Note 7] E-V13 appears to be notably absent in Central England, a fact which Bird (2007) suggests reflects a genuine population replacement of Romano-British people with Anglo-Saxons:[Note 8]
The "E3b hole" suggests that either (a) a massive displacement of the native Romano-British population by invasion or, (b) the substantial genetic replacement of Romano-British Y-DNA through an elite dominance ("apartheid") model [ Thomas et al. (2006) ], has occurred in Central England. Regardless of the mechanism, the Central England region of Britain, with its lack of E3b haplotypes, is the area having the most "striking similarity in the distribution of Y-chromosomes" with Friesland.
Sub-clades of E-V13
Although most E-V13 individuals do not show any known downstream SNP mutations, and are therefore categorized as E-V13* there are several recognized sub-clades, all of which may be very small. These are one of two cases where Karafet et al. (2008) remarked that at the time of that article, it was not certain that the two clades were truly separate ("the positions of these mutations have not been resolved because of a lack of a DNA sample containing the derived state at V27").
This clade comprises most of those classified in the "delta cluster" of Cruciani et al. (2004). Cruciani et al. (2006) later noted that "E-V22 and E-V12* chromosomes are intermingled and not clearly differentiated by their microsatellite haplotypes".
This sub-clade of E-M78 is "relatively common" in the Horn of Africa and Egypt, with higher microsatellite variance (0.35 vs. 0.46, respectively) in Egypt. In the article announcing this first information, Cruciani et al. (2007) described it as uncommon in Western Asia and they proposed Northeast Africa (Libya/Egypt) as this sub-clade's likely place of origin. Hassan et al. (2008) also reported a significant presence in neighboring Sudan, making up about 30% of the diverse range of the country's E-M78 lineages in their study, including 8 out of 26 Fulani (about 31%), a widely-dispersed pastoral people.[Note 9] E-V22 was also present in much smaller frequencies amongst the Shilluk (2 of 15 samples, 13%) and Dinka (3 of 26, 11.5%) Nilotes of Southern Sudan. Hassan et al. suggest that E-V22, like E-V12, might have entered Sudan from North Africa "after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000–8,000 years ago". They add that the gene flow to Sudan "is not only recent (Holocene onward) but also largely of focal nature", and that "most speakers of Nilo-Saharan languages, the major linguistic family spoken in the country, show very little evidence of gene flow and demonstrate low migration rate, with exception of the Nubians, who appear to have sustained considerable gene flow from Asia and Europe together with the Beja."
Other frequencies reported by Cruciani et al. (2007) include Asturians (4.44% out of 90 people), Sicilians (4.58% out of 153 people), Moroccan Arabs (7.27%, 55 people), Moroccan Jews (8%, 50 people), Istanbul Turkish (5.71% out of 35 people), and Palestinians (6.9% out of 29 people). Cadenas et al. (2007) found a 6.7% presence in the UAE.
Sub-clades of E-V22
There are two recognized sub-clades, which are apparently separate, although Karafet (2008) remarked that at the time of that article, "the positions of these mutations have not been resolved because of a lack of a DNA sample containing the derived state at [...] V19".
This sub-clade, equivalent to the previously classified "beta cluster", is found in high levels in the Maghreb regions of far northern Africa. Cruciani et al. (2007) report levels of about 20% amongst Libyan Arab lineages, and about 30% amongst Moroccan Arabs. It appears to be less common amongst Berbers, but still present in levels of >10%. The authors suggest a North African origin for this lineage. In Europe, only a few individuals were found in Italy and Greece. The results from the article can be summarized as follows...
Capelli et al. (2009) studied the beta cluster in Europe. They found small amounts in Southern Italy, but also traces in Cantabria, Portugal and Galicia, with Cantabria having the highest level in Europe in their study, at 3.1% (5 out of 161 people).
This sub-clade's discovery was announced in Battaglia et al. (2008) They found 2 out of 92 Greeks to have this mutation.
Prior to 2002, there were in academic literature at least seven naming systems for the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic tree. This led to considerable confusion. In 2002, the major research groups came together and formed the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC). They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The table below brings together all of these works at the point of the landmark 2002 YCC Tree. This allows a researcher reviewing older published literature to quickly move between nomenclatures.
|YCC 2002/2008 (Shorthand)||(α)||(β)||(γ)||(δ)||(ε)||(ζ)||(η)||YCC 2002 (Longhand)||YCC 2005 (Longhand)||YCC 2008 (Longhand)||YCC 2010r (Longhand)||ISOGG 2006||ISOGG 2007||ISOGG 2008||ISOGG 2009||ISOGG 2010||ISOGG 2011||ISOGG 2012|
The following research teams per their publications were represented in the creation of the YCC tree.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Haplogroup E-V68|
- African admixture in Europe
- Genetic genealogy
- Haplogroup D (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup DE (Y-DNA)
- Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
- Molecular phylogeny
- Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations
- Y-DNA haplogroups by ethnic groups
- Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of Sub-Saharan Africa
Y-DNA E subclades
- Haplogroup E-L485 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M180 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M33 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M96 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-P147 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-P177 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-P2 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V12 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V13 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V22 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V65 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V38 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M123 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M75 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-V68 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-Z820 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-Z827 (Y-DNA)
- Haplogroup E-M521 (Y-DNA)
Y-DNA backbone tree
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|
|L||T||MPS (K2b)||X (K2a)|
- Cruciani et al. (2004): "E-V22 and E-V12* chromosomes are intermingled and not clearly differentiated by their microsatellite haplotypes". In Cruciani et al. (2007) the same authors show that a branch of E-V13 found amongst the Druze Arabs is also in the delta cluster. (Contrast the data tables of Cruciani et al. (2007) and Cruciani et al. (2004).)
- 2 African examples were found amongst a 9 person African dataset containing 3 Kenyans, 2 people from the Maghreb, 3 Nigerians, and 1 Senegalese. In their European dataset they also had 5 exemplars out of 68 people (56 central Italians, 10 Poles, 1 Greek, 1 Albanian.) However the description these authors gave to the SNP can be contrasted to that used by Shen et al. and Underhill et al. and it appears to be different.
- Cruciani et al. (2007): Fig. 2/C
- Genetic surveys do not all test the same markers.
- Scozzari et al. (2001). See clade 25.1. The same data set was later used in Cruciani et al. (2004) and Cruciani et al. (2007).
- Doubts about this line of reasoning have been expressed because (a) new data appearing in King et al. (2008) indicates other high concentrations in Greece and (b) the data in Peričic et al. (2005) show that the area with the highest frequency does not have the highest diversity, implying that V13 arrived there more recently than in Greece.
- Bird uses three sources: Weale et al. (2002), Capelli et al. (2003) and Sykes (2006). Neither Capelli nor Weale have data from the area in the English Midlands where Bird suggests that there is a lack of E1b1b [editor E-M243]. In 2006 Bird mentioned that there were 193 Central English haplotypes in Sykes.
- In the E3b distribution maps published in Bird's own paper – the Norfolk area is shown as having a very high percentage of E3b. Norfolk is at the supposed "epicentre" of the supposed Anglian "invasion".
- Rosa et al. (2007) in a study of Guinea Bissau, showed that the Fulani there are about 10% E-M78. Note that this study did not test specifically for V12 or V22, so the E-M78 may have a different exact breakdown of diversity as well as a lower frequency.
- Cruciani et al. (2007)
- Battaglia et al. (2008)
- Cruciani et al. (2007) Table 1
- Cruciani et al. (2004)
- Cruciani et al. (2006)
- ISOGG (2013)
- Karafet et al. (2008)
- Y Chromosome Consortium "YCC" (2002)
- Ambrosio et al. (2010)
- Rosa et al. (2007)
- Semino et al. (2004)
- Peričic (2005)
- Hassan et al. (2008)
- Semino et al. (2004) suggest that there might be levels of E-M78 in the Peloponnese above 40%. They found 17 out of 36 there (47%), but justified drawing conclusions from this small sample by referring also to Di Giacomo et al. (2003).
- Rosser et al. (2000)
- King et al. (2008)
- Di Gaetano et al. (2008)
- Di Giacomo et al. (2003)
- Pelotti et al. (2007)
- Francalacci et al. (2003)
- Shlush et al. (2008)
- Lacan et al. (2011)
- Semino et al. (2000)
- King and Underhill (2002)
- Underhill (2002)
- Underhill and Kivisild (2007)
- Lacau et al. (2012)
- Haber et al. (2012)
- Ambrosio, B; Dugoujon, JM; Hernández, C; De La Fuente, D; González-Martín, A; Fortes-Lima, CA; Novelletto, A; Rodríguez, JN; Calderón, R et al. (2010), "The Andalusian population from Huelva reveals a high diversification of Y-DNA paternal lineages from haplogroup E: Identifying human male movements within the Mediterranean space", Annals of Human Biology 37 (1): 86–107, doi:10.3109/03014460903229155, PMID 19939195
- Adams, Susan M; Bosch, Elena; Balaresque, Patricia L.; Ballereau, Stéphane J.; Lee, Andrew C.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana M.; Aler, Mercedes et al. (2008), "The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula", The American Journal of Human Genetics 83 (6): 725–36, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007, PMC 2668061, PMID 19061982
- Alvarez; Santos, Cristina; Montiel, Rafael; Caeiro, Blazquez; Baali, Abdellatif; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Aluja, Maria Pilar (2009), "Y-chromosome variation in South Iberia: Insights into the North African contribution", American Journal of Human Biology 21 (3): 407–409, doi:10.1002/ajhb.20888, PMID 19213004
- Arredi, B; Poloni, E; Paracchini, S; Zerjal, T; Fathallah, D; Makrelouf, M; Pascali, V; Novelletto, A; Tylersmith, C (2004), "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for Y-Chromosomal DNA Variation in North Africa", American Journal of Human Genetics 75 (2): 338–345, doi:10.1086/423147, PMC 1216069, PMID 15202071
- Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Myres, Natalie M; King, Roy J; Rootsi, Siiri et al. (2008), "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe", European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–830, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249, PMC 2947100, PMID 19107149
- Behar, Doron M.; Thomas, Mark G.; Skorecki, Karl; Hammer, Michael F.; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Rosengarten, Dror; Jones, Abigail L.; Held, Karen et al. (October 2003), "Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries", Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73 (4): 768–779, doi:10.1086/378506, PMC 1180600, PMID 13680527. Also at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Behar-AJHG-03.pdf and http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/400971.pdf
- Behar; Garrigan; Kaplan; Mobasher; Rosengarten (November 2004), "Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European populations" (PDF), Hum. Genet.: 354–365
- Beleza, Sandra; Gusmao, Leonor; Lopes, Alexandra; Alves, Cintia; Gomes, Iva; Giouzeli, Maria; Calafell, Francesc; Carracedo, Angel; Amorim, Antonio (2006), "Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages", Annals of Human Genetics 70 (2): 181–194, doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x, PMID 16626329
- Bird, Steven (2007), "Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin", Journal of Genetic Genealogy 3 (2)
- Bortolini; Thomas, Mark G.; Chikhi, Lourdes; Aguilar, Juan A.; Castro-De-Guerra, Dinorah; Salzano, Francisco M.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres (2004), "Ribeiro’s typology, genomes, and Spanish colonialism, as viewed from Gran Canaria and Colombia" (PDF), Genetics and Molecular Biology 27 (1): 1–8, doi:10.1590/S1415-47572004000100001
- Bosch, Elena; Calafell, Francesc; Comas, David; Oefner, Peter J.; Underhill, Peter A.; Bertranpetit, Jaume (2001), "High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between north-western Africa and the Iberian Peninsula", Am J Hum Genet 68 (4): 1019–1029, doi:10.1086/319521, PMC 1275654, PMID 11254456
- Bosch, E.; Calafell, F.; Gonzalez-Neira, A.; Flaiz, C.; Mateu, E.; Scheil, H.-G.; Huckenbeck, W.; Efremovska, L. et al. (2006), "Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns", Annals of Human Genetics 70 (4): 459–487, doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x, PMID 16759179
- Cadenas; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L; Underhill, Peter A; Herrera, Rene J (2007), "Y-chromosome diversity characterizes the Gulf of Oman", European Journal of Human Genetics 16 (3): 1–13, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201934, PMID 17928816
- Capelli, Cristian; Redhead, Nicola; Abernethy, Julia K.; Gratrix, Fiona; Wilson, James F.; Moen, Torolf; Hervig, Tor; Richards, Martin et al. (2003), "A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles", Current Biology 13 (11): 979–84, doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00373-7, PMID 12781138 also at 
- Caratti; Gino, S.; Torre, C.; Robino, C. (2009), "Subtyping of Y-chromosomal haplogroup E-M78 (E1b1b1a) by SNP assay and its forensic application", International Journal of Legal Medicine 123 (4): 357–360, doi:10.1007/s00414-009-0350-y, PMID 19430804
- Capelli, Cristian; Onofri, Valerio; Brisighelli, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Scarnicci, Francesca; Masullo, Mara; Ferri, Gianmarco; Tofanelli, Sergio et al. (2009), "Moors and Saracens in Europe: estimating the medieval North African male legacy in southern Europe", European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 848–852, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.258, PMC 2947089, PMID 19156170
- Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; King, Roy; Kivisild, Toomas; Kalfoglu, Ersi; Atasoy, Sevil; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Lillie, Anita S.; Roseman, Charles C. et al. (2004), "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" (PDF), Hum Genet 114 (2): 127–48, doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4, PMID 14586639
- Contu, Daniela; Morelli, Daniela; Santoni, Federico; Foster, Jamie W.; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco (2008), "Y-Chromosome Based Evidence for Pre-Neolithic Origin of the Genetically Homogeneous but Diverse Sardinian Population: Inference for Association Scans", PLoS ONE 3 (1): e1430, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001430, PMC 2174525, PMID 18183308
- Cruciani, Fulvio; Santolamazza, Piero; Shen, Peidong; MacAulay, Vincent; Moral, Pedro; Olckers, Antonel; Modiano, David; Holmes, Susan (2002), "A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes" (PDF), American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (5): 1197–1214, doi:10.1086/340257, PMC 447595, PMID 11910562
- Cruciani; La Fratta; Santolamazza; Sellitto (May 2004), "Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa" (PDF), American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1014–1022, doi:10.1086/386294, PMC 1181964, PMID 15042509
- Cruciani; La Fratta; Torroni; Underhill; Scozzari (2006), "Molecular Dissection of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup E-M78 (E3b1a): A Posteriori Evaluation of a Microsatellite-Network-Based Approach Through Six New Biallelic Markers" (PDF), Human Mutation 27 (8): 831, doi:10.1002/humu.9445, PMID 16835895
- Cruciani, F.; La Fratta, R.; Trombetta, B.; Santolamazza, P.; Sellitto, D.; Colomb, E. B.; Dugoujon, J.-M.; Crivellaro, F. et al. (2007), "Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12", Molecular Biology and Evolution 24 (6): 1300–1311, doi:10.1093/molbev/msm049, PMID 17351267 Also see Supplementary Data.
- Di Gaetano; Cerutti, Francesca; Crobu, Carlo; Robino (2009), "Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome", European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (1): 91–99, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.120, PMC 2985948, PMID 18685561
- Ehret, C.; Keita, SO; Newman, P (2004), "The Origins of Afroasiatic", Science (PDF)doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1680c, PMID 15576591 306 (5702): 1680,
- El-Sibai, Mirvat; Platt, Daniel E.; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Wells, R. Spencer; Izaabel, Hassan; Sanyoura, May F. et al. (2009), "Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast", Annals of Human Genetics 73 (6): 568–581, doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x, PMC 3312577, PMID 19686289
- Firasat; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Papaioannou, Myrto; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Underhill, Peter A; Ayub, Qasim (2006), "Y-chromosomal evidence for a limited Greek contribution to the Pathan population of Pakistan", European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (1): 121–126, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201726, PMC 2588664, PMID 17047675
- Flores, Carlos; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Oefner, Peter J; Shen, Peidong; Pérez, Jose A; Rojas, Antonio; Larruga, Jose M; Underhill, Peter A (2004), "Reduced genetic structure of the Iberian peninsula revealed by Y-chromosome analysis: implications for population demography" (PDF), European Journal of Human Genetics 12 (10): 855–863, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201225, PMID 15280900
- Flores; Maca-Meyer, Nicole; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Karadsheh, Naif; Gonzalez, Ana M. (2005), "Isolates in a corridor of migrations: a high-resolution analysis of Y-chromosome variation in Jordan", J Hum Genet 50 (9): 435–441, doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0274-4, PMID 16142507
- Francalacci, P.; Morelli, L.; Underhill, P.A.; Lillie, A.S.; Passarino, G.; Useli, A.; Madeddu, R.; Paoli, G. et al. (2003), "Peopling of Three Mediterranean Islands (Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily) Inferred by Y-Chromosome Biallelic Variability", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 121 (3): 270–279, doi:10.1002/ajpa.10265, PMID 12772214
- Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M (2009), "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European", BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 181, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181, PMC 2728732, PMID 19650893
- Gérard; Berriche, S; Aouizérate, A; Diéterlen, F; Lucotte, G (2006), "North African Berber and Arab influences in the western Mediterranean revealed by Y-chromosome DNA haplotypes", Human Biology 78 (3): 307–316, doi:10.1353/hub.2006.0045, PMID 17216803
- Gonçalves, R; Freitas, A; Branco, M; Rosa, A; Fernandes, AT; Zhivotovsky, LA; Underhill, PA; Kivisild, T; Brehm, A (2005), "Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry", Annals of Human Genetics 69 (Pt 4): 443–454, doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00161.x, PMID 15996172
- Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A. (2012), "Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events", PLoS ONE 7 (3): e34288, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288, PMC 3314501, PMID 22470552
- Hammer (2003), "Human population structure and its effects on sampling Y chromosome sequence variation", Genetics 164 (4): 1495–1509, PMC 1462677, PMID 12930755
- Hassan, Hisham Y.; Underhill, Peter A.; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca L.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E. (2008), "Y-Chromosome Variation Among Sudanese: Restricted Gene Flow, Concordance With Language, Geography, and History" (PDF), American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (3): 316, doi:10.1002/ajpa.20876, PMID 18618658
- Henn, B. M.; Gignoux, C.; Lin, Alice A; Oefner, Peter J.; Shen, P.; Scozzari, R.; Cruciani, F.; Tishkoff, S. A.; Mountain, J. L.; Underhill, P. A. (2008), "Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa", PNAS 105 (31): 10693, doi:10.1073/pnas.0801184105, PMC 2504844, PMID 18678889. See comment on Dienekes blog, comment on the Spitoon blog and public release.
- ISOGG (2013), Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades - 2013, International Society of Genetic Genealogists "ISOGG"
- Jobling, M.A.; Tyler-Smith, C. (2000), "New uses for new haplotypes the human Y chromosome, disease and selection", Trends Genet. 16 (8): 356–362, doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02057-6, PMID 10904265
- Karafet, T. M.; Mendez, F. L.; Meilerman, M. B.; Underhill, P. A.; Zegura, S. L.; Hammer, M. F. (May 2008), "New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree", Genome Research 18 (5): 830, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008, PMC 2336805, PMID 18385274. Published online April 2, 2008. See also Supplementary Material.
- Keita, Shomarka (2008), "Geography, selected Afro-Asiatic families, and Y chromosome lineage variation", In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the Four Fields of Anthropology : In Honor of Harold Crane Fleming, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6
- Keita, S. O. Y.; Boyce, A. J. (Anthony J.) (2005), "Genetics, Egypt, and History: Interpreting Geographical Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation", History in Africa 32: 221–246, doi:10.1353/hia.2005.0013
- King, R. J.; Özcan, S. S.; Carter, T.; Kalfoğlu, E.; Atasoy, S.; Triantaphyllidis, C.; Kouvatsi, A.; Lin, A. A. et al. (2008), "Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic" (PDF), Annals of Human Genetics 72 (2): 205–214, doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x, PMID 18269686
- King; Underhill (2002), "Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages", Antiquity 76: 707–14
- Kujanova; Pereira; Fernandes; Pereira; Cerný (2009), "Near Eastern Neolithic Genetic Input in a Small Oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert", American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140 (2): 336–346, doi:10.1002/ajpa.21078, PMID 19425100
- Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Tarrús, Josep; Bosch, Angel; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand (2011), "Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination", PNAS 108 (45): 18255–9, doi:10.1073/pnas.1113061108, PMC 3215063, PMID 22042855
- Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene (2012), "Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective", European Journal of Human Genetics 20 (10): 1063, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.59, PMID 22510847
- Lancaster, Andrew (2009), "Y Haplogroups, Archaeological Cultures and Language Families: a Review of the Multidisciplinary Comparisons using the case of E-M243" (PDF), Journal of Genetic Genealogy 5 (1)
- Luis, J; Rowold, D; Regueiro, M; Caeiro, B; Cinnioglu, C; Roseman, C; Underhill, P; Cavallisforza, L; Herrera, R (2004), "The Levant versus the Horn of Africa: Evidence for Bidirectional Corridors of Human Migrations" (PDF), American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (3): 532–544, doi:10.1086/382286, PMC 1182266, PMID 14973781. (Also see Errata)
- Maca-Meyer, N.; Sánchez-Velasco, P.; Flores, C.; Larruga, JM; González, AM; Oterino, A; Leyva-Cobián, F et al. (2003), "Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Characterization of Pasiegos, a Human Isolate from Cantabria (Spain)", Annals of Human Genetics 67 (Pt 4): 329–339, doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00045.x, PMID 12914567.
- Martinez, Laisel; Underhill, Peter A; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Gayden, Tenzin; Moschonas, Nicholas K; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Conti, Simon; Mamolini, Elisabetta; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Herrera, Rene (April 1, 2007), "Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau", European Journal of Human Genetics 15 (4): 485–493, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201769, ISSN 1018-4813, PMID 17264870
- Mendizabal, Isabel; Sandoval, Karla; Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Calafell, Francesc; Salas, Antonio; Martinez-Fuentes, Antonio; Comas, David (2008), "Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba", BMC Evol Biol. 8: 213, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-213, PMC 2492877, PMID 18644108
- Nebel; Filon, D; Brinkmann, B; Majumder, P; Faerman, M; Oppenheim, A (2001), "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East", American Journal of Human Genetics 69 (5): 1095–1112, doi:10.1086/324070, PMC 1274378, PMID 11573163
- Onofri, Valerio; Alessandrini, Federica; Turchi, Chiara; Pesaresi, Mauro; Buscemi, Loredana; Tagliabracci, Adriano (2006), "Development of multiplex PCRs for evolutionary and forensic applications of 37 human Y chromosome SNPs" (PDF), Forensic Science International 157 (1): 23–35, doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.03.014, PMID 15896936
- Paracchini; Pearce, CL; Kolonel, LN; Altshuler, D; Henderson, BE; Tyler-Smith, C (2003), "A Y chromosomal influence on prostate cancer risk: the multi-ethnic cohort study", J Med Genet 40 (11): 815–819, doi:10.1136/jmg.40.11.815, PMC 1735314, PMID 14627670
- Pelotti; Ceccardi, S; Lugaresi, F; Trane, R; Falconi, M; Bini, C; Willuweit, S; Roewer, L (2007), "Microgeographic genetic variation of Y chromosome in a population sample of Ravenna's area in the Emilia-Romagna region (North of Italy)", Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series 1 (1): 242–243, doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2007.10.025
- Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor; Cerezo, María; Silva, Nuno M; Hájek, Martin; Vašíková, Alžběta; Kujanová, Martina; Brdička, Radim; Salas, Antonio (2010), "Linking the sub-Saharan and West Eurasian gene pools: maternal and paternal heritage of the Tuareg nomads from the African Sahel", European Journal of Human Genetics 18 (8): 915–923, doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.21, PMC 2987384, PMID 20234393
- Peričic, M.; Lauc, LB; Klarić, IM; Rootsi, S; Janićijevic, B; Rudan, I; Terzić, R; Colak, I et al. (2005), "High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of southeastern Europe traces major episodes of paternal gene flow among Slavic populations", Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (10): 1964–75, doi:10.1093/molbev/msi185, PMID 15944443.
- Ramos-Luisa, E.; Blanco-Verea, A.; Brión, M.; Van Huffel, V.; Carracedo, A.; Sánchez-Diz, P. (2009), "Phylogeography of French male lineages (unpublished data 23rd International ISFG Congress)" (PDF), Forensic Science International 2: 439–441, doi:10.1016/j.fsigss.2009.09.026
- Regueiro, M.; Cadenas, A.M.; Gayden, T.; Underhill, P.A.; Herrera, R.J. (2006), "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration" (PDF), Hum Hered 61 (3): 132–143, doi:10.1159/000093774, PMID 16770078
- Robino, C.; Crobu, F.; Gaetano, C.; Bekada, A.; Benhamamouch, S.; Cerutti, N.; Piazza, A.; Inturri, S.; Torre, C. (2008), "Analysis of Y-chromosomal SNP haplogroups and STR haplotypes in an Algerian population sample", Journal International Journal of Legal Medicine 122 (3): 251–5, doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0203-5, PMID 17909833
- Rosa, Alexandra; Ornelas, Carolina; Jobling, Mark A; Brehm, António; Villems, Richard (2007), "Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective" (PDF), BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 124, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-124, PMC 1976131, PMID 17662131
- Rosser, Z; Zerjal, T; Hurles, M; Adojaan, M; Alavantic, D; Amorim, A; Amos, W; Armenteros, M et al. (2000), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language", American Journal of Human Genetics 67 (6): 1526–1543., doi:10.1086/316890, PMC 1287948, PMID 11078479
- Sanchez, Juan J; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Børsting, Claus; Hernandez, Alexis; Gorlin, RJ (2005), "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males", European Journal of Human Genetics 13 (7): 856–866, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390, PMID 15756297. Published online 9 March 2005
- Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, F; Pangrazio, A; Santolamazza, P; Vona, G; Moral, P; Latini, V; Varesi, L et al. (2001), "Human Y-Chromosome Variation in the Western Mediterranean Area: Implications for the Peopling of the Region" (PDF), Human Immunology 62 (9): 871–884, doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00286-5, PMID 11543889
- Semino, O.; Passarino, G; Oefner, PJ; Lin, AA; Arbuzova, S; Beckman, LE; De Benedictis, G; Francalacci, P et al. (2000), "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective" (PDF), Science 290 (5494): 1155–59, doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155, PMID 11073453.
- Semino; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Falaschi, Francesco; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Underhill, Peter A. (2002), "Ethiopians and Khoisan share the deepest clades of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny" (PDF), Am J Hum Genet 70 (1): 265–268, doi:10.1086/338306, PMC 384897, PMID 11719903
- Semino, Ornella; Magri, Chiara; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Lin, Alice A.; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Battaglia, Vincenza; MacCioni, Liliana; Triantaphyllidis, Costas et al. (2004), "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area", American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (5): 1023–1034, doi:10.1086/386295, PMC 1181965, PMID 15069642
- Shen, Peidong; Lavi, Tal; Kivisild, Toomas; Chou, Vivian; Sengun, Deniz; Gefel, Dov; Shpirer, Issac; Woolf, Eilon et al. (2004), "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF), Human Mutation 24 (3): 248–60, doi:10.1002/humu.20077, PMID 15300852
- Silva; Carvalho, Elizeu; Costa, Guilherme; Tavares, Lígia; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor (2006), "Y-chromosome genetic variation in Rio De Janeiro population", American Journal of Human Biology 18 (6): 829–837 doi=10.1002/ajhb.20567, doi:10.1002/ajhb.20567, PMID 17039481
- Shlush; Behar, Doron M.; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Templeton, Alan; Hadid, Yarin; Basis, Fuad; Hammer, Michael; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Skorecki, Karl (2008), Gemmell, Neil John, ed., "The Druze: A Population Genetic Refugium of the Near East", PLoS ONE 3 (5): e2105, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002105, PMC 2324201, PMID 18461126
- Sykes, Bryan (2006), Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History, Bantam, ISBN 0-593-05652-3
- Thomas; Stumpf, M. P.H; Harke, H. (2006), "Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England" (PDF), Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273 (273): 2651–2657, doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3627, PMC 1635457, PMID 17002951
- Trombetta, Beniamino; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria (2011), MacAulay, Vincent, ed., "A New Topology of the Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) Revealed through the Use of Newly Characterized Binary Polymorphisms", PLoS ONE 6 (1): e16073, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016073, PMC 3017091, PMID 21253605
- Underhill, Peter A.; Shen, Peidong; Lin, Alice A.; Jin, Li; Passarino, Giuseppe; Yang, Wei H.; Kauffman, Erin; Bonné-Tamir, Batsheva et al. (2000), "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations", Nat Genet 26 (3): 358–361, doi:10.1038/81685, PMID 11062480
- Underhill; Passarino, G.; Lin, A. A.; Shen, P.; Mirazon Lahr, M.; Foley, R. A.; Oefner, P. J.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (2001), "The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations" (PDF), Ann Hum Genet 65 (Pt 1): 43–62, doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6510043.x, PMID 11415522
- Underhill (2002), Bellwood and Renfrew, ed., Inference of Neolithic Population Histories using Y-chromosome Haplotypes, Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, ISBN 1-902937-20-1
- Underhill, Peter A.; Kivisild, Toomas (2007), "Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations", Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 539–64, doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.41.110306.130407, PMID 18076332
- Weale, M. E.; Weiss, D. A.; Jager, R. F.; Bradman, N.; Thomas, M. G. (2002), "Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration" (PDF), Mol. Biol. Evol. 19 (7): 1008–1021, doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004160, PMID 12082121.
- Weale; Shah, T; Jones, AL; Greenhalgh, J; Wilson, JF; Nymadawa, P; Zeitlin, D; Connell, BA et al. (September 1, 2003), "Rare Deep-Rooting Y Chromosome Lineages in Humans: Lessons for Phylogeography", Genetics 165 (1): 229–234, PMC 1462739, PMID 14504230
- Y Chromosome Consortium "YCC" (2002), "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups", Genome Research 12 (2): 339–348, doi:10.1101/gr.217602, PMC 155271, PMID 11827954
- Zalloua, Pierre A.; Xue, Yali; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Debiane, Labib; Platt, Daniel E.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Herrera, Rene J. et al. (2008), "Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Lebanon Is Structured by Recent Historical Events", American Journal of Human Genetics 82 (4): 873–882, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.01.020, PMC 2427286, PMID 18374297
- Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan et al. (2008), "Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean", The American Journal of Human Genetics 83 (5): 633–642, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012, PMC 2668035, PMID 18976729
- Zerjal (1999), The use of Y-chromosomal DNA variation to investigate population history; in Papiha SS, Deka R, Chakraborty R (eds): Genomic diversity: applications in human population genetics, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 91–101
- Zhao; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha (2009), "Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes", Annals of Human Biology 36 (1): 1–14, doi:10.1080/03014460802558522, PMC 2755252, PMID 19058044