Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler

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EA-6B Prowler
Usnavy.ea6b.prowler.750pix.jpg
A U.S. Navy EA-6B Prowler
Role Electronic warfare/Attack aircraft
Manufacturer Grumman
Northrop Grumman
First flight 25 May 1968[1]
Introduction July 1971
Status In service
Primary users United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
Number built 170
Unit cost
US$52 million[citation needed]
Developed from Grumman A-6 Intruder

The Northrop Grumman (formerly Grumman) EA-6B Prowler is a twin-engine, mid-wing electronic warfare aircraft derived from the A-6 Intruder airframe. The EA-6A was the initial electronic warfare version of the A-6 used by the United States Marine Corps in the 1960s. Development on the more advanced EA-6B began in in 1966. An EA-6B aircrew consists of one pilot and three Electronic Countermeasures Officers, though it is not uncommon for only two ECMOs to be used on missions. It is capable of carrying and firing anti-radiation missiles (ARM), such as the AGM-88 HARM missile.

Prowler has been in service with the U.S. Armed Forces since 1971. It has carried out numerous missions for jamming enemy radar systems, and in gathering radio intelligence on those and other enemy air defense systems. From the 1998 retirement of the United States Air Force EF-111 Raven electronic warfare aircraft, the EA-6B was the only dedicated electronic warfare plane available for missions by the United States Navy, the United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force until the fielding of the Navy's EA-18G Growler in 2009.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

The EA-6A "Electric Intruder" was developed for the U.S. Marine Corps during the 1960s to replace its EF-10B Skyknights. The EA-6A was a direct conversion of the standard A-6 Intruder airframe, with two seats, equipped with electronic warfare (EW) equipment. The EA-6A was used by three Marine Corps squadrons during the War in Vietnam. A total of 27 EA-6As were produced, with 15 of these being newly manufactured ones.[2] Most of these EA-6As were retired from service in the 1970s with the last few being used by the Navy with two electronic attack "aggressor" squadrons, with all examples finally retired in the 1990s.[3] The EA-6A was essentially an interim warplane until the more-advanced EA-6B could be designed and built.

A Marine EA-6A Intruder over Cherry Point, 1978. The two-seat EA-6A would be followed by the four-seat EA-6B Prowler.

The substantially redesigned and more advanced EA-6B was developed beginning in 1966 as a replacement for EKA-3B Skywarriors for the U.S. Navy. The forward fuselage was lengthened to create a rear area for a larger four-seat cockpit, and an antenna fairing was added to the tip of its vertical stabilizer.[2] The Prowler first flew on 25 May 1968, and it entered service on aircraft carriers in July 1971.[4] Three prototype EA-6Bs were converted from A-6As, and five EA-6Bs were developmental airplanes. A total of 170 EA-6B production aircraft were manufactured from 1966 through 1991.[3]

The EA-6B Prowler is powered by two turbojet engines, and it is capable of high subsonic speeds. Due to its extensive electronic warfare operations, and the aircraft's age (produced until 1991), the EA-6B is a high-maintenance aircraft, and it also has undergone more frequent equipment upgrades than any other aircraft in the Navy or Marine Corps.[citation needed] Although designed as an electronic warfare and command-and-control aircraft for air strike missions, the EA-6B is also capable of attacking some surface targets on its own, in particular enemy radar sites and surface-to-air missile launchers. In addition, the EA-6B is capable of gathering electronic signals intelligence.

The EA-6B Prowler has been continually upgraded over the years. The first of which was named "expanded capability" (EXCAP) beginning in 1973. Then came "improved capability" (ICAP) in 1976 and ICAP II in 1980. The ICAP II upgrade provided the EA-6B with the capability of firing Shrike missiles and AGM-88 HARM missiles.[3]

Advanced Capability EA-6B[edit]

EA-6B ADVCAP

The Advanced Capability EA-6B Prowler (ADVCAP) was a development program initiated to improve the flying qualities of the EA-6B and to upgrade the avionics and electronic warfare systems. The intention was to modify all EA-6Bs into the ADVCAP configuration, however the program was removed from the Fiscal Year 1995 budget due to financial pressure from competing Department of Defense acquisition programs.

The ADVCAP development program was initiated in the late 1980s and was broken into three distinct phases: Full-Scale Development (FSD), Vehicle Enhancement Program (VEP) and the Avionics Improvement Program (AIP).

FSD served primarily to evaluate the new AN/ALQ-149 Electronic Warfare System. The program utilized a slightly modified EA-6B to house the new system.

The VEP added numerous changes to the aircraft to address deficiencies with the original EA-6B flying qualities, particularly lateral-directional problems that hampered recovery from out-of-control flight. Bureau Number 158542 was used. Changes included:

  • Leading edge strakes (to improve directional stability)
  • Fin pod extension (to improve directional stability)
  • Ailerons (to improve slow speed lateral control)
  • Re-contoured leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps (to compensate for an increase in gross weight)
  • Two additional wing stations on the outer wing panel (for jamming pods only)
  • New J52-P-409 engines (increased thrust by 2,000 lbf (8.9 kN) per engine)
  • New digital Standard Automatic Flight Control System (SAFCS)

The added modifications increased the aircraft gross weight approximately 2,000 lb (910 kg) and shifted the center of gravity 3% MAC aft of the baseline EA-6B. In previous models, when operating at sustained high angles of attack, fuel migration would cause additional shifts in CG with the result that the aircraft had slightly negative longitudinal static stability. Results of flight tests of the new configuration showed greatly improved flying qualities and the rearward shift of the CG had minimal impact.

"FrankenProwler" during a pre-flight inspection at Al Asad Air Base, Iraq

The AIP prototype (bureau number 158547) represented the final ADVCAP configuration, incorporating all of the FSD and VEP modifications plus a completely new avionics suite which added multi-function displays to all crew positions, a head-up display for the pilot, and dual Global Positioning/Inertial navigation systems. The initial joint test phase between the contractor and the US Navy test pilots completed successfully with few deficiencies.

After the program was canceled, the three experimental Prowlers, BuNo 156482, 158542 and 158547, were mothballed until 1999. During the next several years, the three aircraft were dismantled and reassembled creating a single aircraft, b/n 158542, which the Navy dubbed "FrankenProwler". It was returned to active service 23 March 2005.[5]

Improved Capability (ICAP)[edit]

Northrop Grumman received contracts from the U.S. Navy to deliver new electronic countermeasures gear to Prowler squadrons; the heart of each ICAP III set consists of the ALQ-218 receiver and new software that provides more precise selective-reactive radar jamming and deception and threat location. The ICAP III sets also are equipped with the Multifunction Information Distribution System (MIDS), which includes the Link 16 data link system. Northrop has delivered two lots and will be delivering two more beginning in 2010.[6] The majority of EA-6B Prowlers in service today are the ICAP II version, carrying the ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System.

Design[edit]

Designed for carrier-based and advanced base operations, the EA-6B is a fully integrated electronic warfare system combining long-range, all-weather capabilities with advanced electronic countermeasures.[7] A forward equipment bay and pod-shaped fairing on the vertical fin house the additional avionics equipment. It is now the primary electronic warfare aircraft for the U.S Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force. The primary mission of the EA-6B is to support ground-attack strikes by disrupting enemy electromagnetic activity. As a secondary mission it can also gather tactical electronic intelligence within a combat zone, and another secondary mission is attacking enemy radar sites with anti-radiation missiles.

The Prowler has a crew of four, a pilot and three Electronic Countermeasures Officers (known as ECMOs). Powered by two non-afterburning Pratt & Whitney J52-P-408A turbojet engines, it is capable of speeds of up to 590 mph (950 km/h) with a range of 1,140 miles (1,840 km).

Design particulars include the refueling probe being asymmetrical, appearing bent to the right. It contains an antenna near its root. The canopy has a shading of gold to protect the crew against the radio emissions that the electronic warfare equipment produces.

Operational history[edit]

VAQ-131 was the second squadron to deploy to Vietnam, in September 1972.

The EA-6B entered service with Fleet Replacement Squadron VAQ-129 in September 1970, and Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 132 (VAQ-132) became the first operational squadron, in July 1971. This squadron began its first combat deployment to Vietnam on America 11 months later, soon followed by VAQ-131 on Enterprise and VAQ-134 on Constellation.[8]

EA-6B Prowler takes off from Eielson AFB. Note the tint of the gold embedded in the canopy. The gold provides protection from electromagnetic interference and prevents some EM emissions

Since the retirement of the EF-111 Raven in 1998, the EA-6B was the only dedicated aerial radar jammer aircraft of the U.S. Armed Forces, until the fielding of the Navy's EA-18G Growler in 2009. The EA-6B has been flown in almost all American combat operations since 1972, and is frequently flown in support of the U.S. Air Force missions.

About 125 Prowlers remain today, divided between twelve Navy, four Marine, and four joint Navy-Air Force "Expeditionary" squadrons. A Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) staff study recommended that the EF-111 Raven be retired to reduce the types of aircraft dedicated to the same mission, which led to an Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) program memorandum to establish 4 "expeditionary" Prowler squadrons composed of Navy and USAF personnel to meet the needs of the Air Force.[citation needed]

Though once considered being replaced by Common Support Aircraft, that plan failed to materialize. The EA-6B remains in active service today. In 2009, the Navy EA-6B Prowler community began transitioning to the EA-18G Growler, a new electronic warfare derivative of the F/A-18F Super Hornet. All but one of the active duty Navy EA-6B squadrons are based at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. VAQ-136 is stationed at Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Japan, as part of Carrier Air Wing 5, the forward deployed naval forces (FDNF) air wing that embarks aboard the Japan-based George Washington. VAQ-209, the Navy Reserve's sole EA-6B squadron, was stationed at Naval Air Facility Washington, Maryland. All Marine Corps EA-6B squadrons are located at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. The USN plans to fly the EA-6B until 2015 (or later), while the USMC expect to phase out the Prowler in 2019.

Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq[edit]

According to news reports in 2007, the Prowler has been used in anti-improvised explosive device operations in the conflict in Afghanistan for several years by jamming remote detonation devices such as garage door openers or cellular telephones.[9] Two Prowler squadrons were also based in Iraq, working with the same mission.[10] According to Chuck Pfarrer in his book SEAL Target Geronimo, an EA-6B was also used to jam Pakistani radar and assist the 2 MH-60 Black Hawk stealth helicopters and 2 Chinook helicopters raiding Osama Bin Laden's compound in Operation Neptune Spear.[11] The Department of Defense disputed certain aspects of his book, though not specifically the mention of EA-6B involvement.

Operators[edit]

An EA-6B Prowler from VAQ-138 carrying two wing mounted jamming pods.

The EA-6B Prowler is operated by the U.S. Armed Forces, and has squadrons in both the U.S. Marine Corps and Navy.

USMC squadrons[edit]

VMAQ squadrons operate the EA-6B Prowler.[12] Each of the four squadrons operates five aircraft and are land-based, although they are capable of operating aboard U.S. Navy aircraft carriers and have done so in the past.[13][14]

In 2013, VMAQ-1 converted from an active to a training squadron as the USN stopped training on the Prowler and switched over to the more modern and much more survivable Growler.[15]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Dates operated Senior Command Station
VMAQT-1
VMAQ-1 patch.png
Banshees
MAG-14, 2nd MAW
MCAS Cherry Point, NC[16]
VMAQ-2
MCS149.jpg
Death Jesters
MAG-14, 2nd MAW
MCAS Cherry Point, NC[17]
VMAQ-3
VMAQ-3 insignia.jpg
Moon Dogs
MAG-14, 2nd MAW
MCAS Cherry Point, NC[18]
VMAQ-4
VMAQ4.jpg
Seahawks
MAG-14, 2nd MAW
MCAS Cherry Point, NC[19]

The USMC is investigating an electronic attack role for the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II to replace their Prowlers.[20]

USN squadrons[edit]

A typical Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron consists of four EA-6B Prowlers. Navy Electronic Attack squadrons carry the letters VAQ (V-fixed wing, A-attack, Q-electronic). Most VAQ squadrons are carrier-based, however a number are "expeditionary", deploying to overseas land bases.[7]

Squadron Name Insignia Nickname Dates Operated Carrier air wing Station Notes
VAQ-129 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 129 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Vikings Fleet Replacement Squadron NAS Whidbey Island[21] Trains both Marine and Navy crews
in the EA-6B and the EA-18G
VAQ-130 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 130 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Zappers 1975–2011 CVW-3 NAS Whidbey Island[22] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-131 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 131 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Lancers CVW-2 NAS Whidbey Island[23]
VAQ-132 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 132 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Scorpions 1971–2009 N/A[24] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-133 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 133 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Wizards Expeditionary NAS Whidbey Island[25]
VAQ-134 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 134 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Garudas CVW-8 NAS Whidbey Island[26]
VAQ-135 VAQ-135 (Logo).jpg Black Ravens 1973–2010 NAS Whidbey Island[27] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-136 VAQ-136.png Gauntlets 1973-2012 NAS Whidbey Island[28] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-137 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 137 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Rooks 1973-2012 CVW-1 NAS Whidbey Island[29] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-138 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 138 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Yellowjackets 1976–2009 N/A[30] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-139 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 139 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Cougars 1983–2011 CVW-17 NAS Whidbey Island[31] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-140 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 140 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Patriots CVW-7 NAS Whidbey Island[32] EA-6B transitioning to EA-18G
VAQ-141 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 141 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Shadowhawks 1987–2009 CVW-5 Naval Air Facility (NAF) Atsugi[33] EA-6B replaced by EA-18G
VAQ-142 VAQ142 new logo.gif Gray Wolves CVW-11 NAS Whidbey Island[34]
VAQ-209 Carrier Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 209 (US Navy) - insignia.gif Star Warriors 1977-2013 Reserve Tactical Support Wing NAS Whidbey Island EA-6B replaced by EA-18G

Notable accidents[edit]

While no Prowler has ever been lost in combat, over forty were destroyed in various accidents as of 2007.[citation needed] In 1998, a memorial at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was dedicated to 44 crew members lost in EA-6B aircraft accidents.[35]

  • On 26 May 1981, a USMC EA-6B crashed onto the flight deck of Nimitz and caused a fire, killing 14 crew men and injuring 45 others.[36][37] The Prowler was running out of fuel after a missed approach ("bolter" in Navy parlance), and its crash and the subsequent fire and explosions destroyed or damaged 11 other aircraft.[38]
  • A USMC EA-6B Prowler, BuNo 163045, from VMAQ-2 caused the Cavalese cable car disaster on 3 February 1998, accidentally cutting the cables of a cableway in Italy during a low level flight in mountainous terrain, killing 20 persons.
  • On 10 November 1998, a USN Lockheed S-3 Viking landed on an EA-6B during night landing qualifications on Enterprise; four crew members were killed.[39] Six more aircraft have been lost from 1998 to 2012.
  • On 11 March 2013, a VAQ-129 EA-6B crashed in Eastern Washington. All three crew members on board were killed. An investigation is underway to determine the cause.[40]

Specifications (EA-6B)[edit]

Orthographically projected diagram of the Grumman EA-6B Prowler.
Two EA-6B Prowlers over Turkey flying in support of Operation Northern Watch, 2002.
An EA-6B patrols the skies over Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1995.

Data from US Navy Fact File,[7] US Navy history page[13]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Hardpoints: 5 total: 1× centreline/under-fuselage plus 4× under-wing pylon stations with a capacity of 18,000 pounds (8,164.7 kg) and provisions to carry combinations of:

Avionics

  • AN/ALQ-218 Tactical Jamming System Receiver
  • AN/USQ-113 Communications Jamming System

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Naval Air Systems Command. Warfighters Encyclopedia. EA-6B Prowler.
  2. ^ a b Frawley, Gerald (2002). "Grumman EA-6B Prowler". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-55-2. 
  3. ^ a b c Eden, Paul (2004). "Grumman EA-6B Prowler". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9. 
  4. ^ Paul Eden and Soph Moeng, ed. (2002). The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Amber Books Ltd. p. 1152. ISBN 0-7607-3432-1. 
  5. ^ Harvill, Brian (29 April 2005). "VAQ-141 ‘FrankenProwler’ rejoins the fleet". Northwest Navigator. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Navy Awards Northrop Grumman $125 Million Contract to Produce Fourth Lot of Airborne Electronic Attack Systems" (Press release). Northrop Grumman. 29 September 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c "EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare aircraft". USN Fact File. United States Navy. 5 August 2003. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  8. ^ Bowers, Peter M. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press, 1990, p. 274. ISBN 0-87021-792-5.
  9. ^ "Navy Takes Aim at Roadside Bombs". Military.com (Military Advantage). Associated Press. 12 June 2007. 
  10. ^ "Planes on the prowl for roadside bombs". CNN. 13 June 2007. [dead link]
  11. ^ SEAL Target Geronimo: The Inside Story of the Mission to Kill Osama bin Laden. Pfarrer, Chuck. Macmillan, Nov 8, 2011.
  12. ^ "E/A-6B Prowler". Northrop Grumman. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  13. ^ a b "EA-6B Prowler". Naval Historical Center. United States Department of the Navy. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  14. ^ "EA-6B Prowler". Intelligence Resource Program. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 26 March 2007. 
  15. ^ BURGESS, RICHARD R. (15 April 2014). "Marine Training Squadron Produces Its First Prowler Crews". www.seapowermagazine.org (SEAPOWER Magazine). Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 1". United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  17. ^ "Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 2". United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  18. ^ "Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 3". United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  19. ^ "Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 4". United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 16 March 2007. 
  20. ^ JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) TRANSITION PLAN[dead link]
  21. ^ "VAQ-129 Vikings". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  22. ^ "History – Electronic Attack Squadron 130". Electronic Attack Squadron 130. United States Navy. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "VAQ-131 Lancers Command History". VAQ-131 Lancers. United States Navy. Archived from the original on 17 July 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 
  24. ^ "VAQ-131 Lancers Command History". VAQ-131 Lancers. United States Navy. Retrieved 11 April 2011. [dead link]
  25. ^ "VAQ-133 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  26. ^ "VAQ-134 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  27. ^ "VAQ-135 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  28. ^ "Northwest Navigator". United States Navy. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  29. ^ "VAQ-137 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  30. ^ "VAQ-138 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  31. ^ "VAQ-139 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  32. ^ "VAQ-140 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  33. ^ "EA-18G Growlers to replace EA-6B Prowlers". United States Navy. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  34. ^ "VAQ-142 official website". United States Navy. Retrieved 6 August 2008. 
  35. ^ Offley, Ed (28 August 1998). "Memorial honors 44 EA-6B Prowler crewmen". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  36. ^ Arendes, Ahron (29 May 2003). "Nimitz Remembers Lives Lost During 1981 Flight Deck Crash". USS Nimitz (CVN 68) Navy NewsStand (United States Navy). 
  37. ^ Anderson, Kurt; Beaty, Jonathan (8 June 1981). "Night of Flaming Terror". TIME in partnership with CNN (Time). Retrieved 2 October 2008. 
  38. ^ Gero, David (1999). Military Aviation Disasters. Yeovil: Haynes. pp. 131–132. ISBN 1-85260-574-X. 
  39. ^ "Navy Flying Accident Leaves at Least 1 Dead". The New York Times. 10 November 1998. 
  40. ^ Nicholas K. Geranios (11 March 2013). "Navy: 3 dead in E. Wash. military plane crash". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
    Joshua Stewart (12 March). "Navy identifies Prowler aircrew in deadly crash". Navy Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
    Jack Broom; Hal Bernton (11 March 2013). "3 Whidbey aircrew killed in Prowler training crash". Seattle Times. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
    John Fritze (13 March 2013). "Naval Academy graduate from Howard County killed in jet crash". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
Bibliography
  • Donald, David ed. "Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler", Warplanes of the Fleet. AIRtime, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1.
  • Miska, Kurt H. "Grumman A-6A/E Intruder; EA-6A; EA6B Prowler (Aircraft in Profile number 252)". Aircraft in Profile, Volume 14. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1974, p. 137–160. ISBN 0-85383-023-1.

External links[edit]