General Dynamics/Grumman EF-111A Raven
|The EF-111A Raven electronic warfare variant.|
|Manufacturer||General Dynamics, conversion by Grumman|
|First flight||10 March 1977|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
US$15 million, plus $25 million each for conversion
|Developed from||General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark|
The General Dynamics/Grumman EF-111A Raven was an electronic warfare aircraft designed to replace the B-66 Destroyer in the United States Air Force. Its crews and maintainers often called it the "Spark-Vark", a play on the F-111's "Aardvark" nickname.
The USAF contracted with Grumman in 1974 to convert some existing General Dynamics F-111As into electronic warfare/electronic countermeasures (ECM) aircraft.[N 1] The USAF had considered the Navy / Marine Corps Grumman EA-6B Prowler, but was reluctant to adopt a Navy aircraft. The EF-111 entered service in 1983 and served until it was retired in 1998. Afterwards, the Air Force began depending on Navy and Marine Corps EA-6Bs for electronic warfare support.
Design and development
In the late 1960s, the U.S. Air Force sought a replacement for aging EB-66 and EB-57 electronic warfare aircraft. The Air Force studied the use of Navy EA-6B Prowlers during 1967–68. However, the Air Force desired a penetrating electronic jamming aircraft with supersonic speed, and, in 1972, decided to modify F-111As into electronic warfare aircraft as a cost effective option.
In January 1974 the Air Force awarded electronic warfare study contracts to Grumman and General Dynamics. Grumman was selected as the EF-111 prime contractor in December 1974, then was awarded a contract to modify two F-111As into EF-111 prototypes in January 1975. The first fully equipped model, known then as the "Electric Fox", flew on 10 March 1977, and deliveries to combat units began in 1981. A total of 42 airframes were converted at a total cost of US$1.5 billion, the last delivered in 1985.
The Raven retained the F-111A's navigation systems, with a revised AN/APQ-160 radar primarily for ground mapping. The primary feature of the Raven, however, was the AN/ALQ-99E jamming system, developed from the Navy's ALQ-99 on the Prowler. The aircraft also utilized the ALR-62 Countermeasures Receiving System (CRS) as a Radar Homing and Warning (RHAW) System, the same system carried by all F-111 fighter/bomber models in the United States and Australia. The ALQ-99E primary electronics were installed in the weapons bay, with transmitters fitted in a 16 feet (4.9 m) long ventral "canoe" radome; the complete installation weighed some 6,000 pounds (2,700 kg). Receivers were installed in a fin-tip pod, or "football", similar to that of the EA-6B. The aircraft's electrical and cooling systems had to be extensively upgraded to support this equipment. The cockpit was also rearranged, with all flight and navigation displays relocated to the pilot's side, and flight controls except throttles being removed from the other seat, where the electronic warfare officer's instrumentation and controls were installed.
The EF-111 was unarmed. Its speed and acceleration were its main means of self-defense. It was not capable of firing anti-radiation missiles in the lethal SEAD role, which was a tactical limitation. The Raven's engines were upgraded to the more powerful TF30-P-9 of the D-model, with 12,000 pounds-force (53 kN) dry and 19,600 lbf (87 kN) afterburning thrust in 1986. From 1987 to 1994 the "Spark 'Vark" underwent an Avionics Modernization Program (AMP), similar to the Pacer Strike program for the F-model. This added a dual AN/ASN-41 ring laser gyroscope INS, AN/APN-218 Doppler radar, and an updated AN/APQ-146 terrain-following radar. Cockpit displays were upgraded with multi-function displays.
The EF-111A achieved initial operational capability in 1983. The EF-111A received the official popular name Raven, although in service it acquired the nickname "Spark 'Vark". EF-111s first saw combat use with the 20th Tactical Fighter Wing at RAF Upper Heyford during Operation El Dorado Canyon against Libya in 1986, and Operation Just Cause in Panama during late 1989.
The Raven served in the Gulf War during Operation Desert Storm in 1991. On 17 January 1991, a USAF EF-111 crew of Captain James Denton and Captain Brent Brandon ("Brandini") achieved an unofficial kill against an Iraqi Dassault Mirage F1, which they managed to maneuver into the ground, making it the only member of the F-111/FB-111/EF-111 family to achieve an aerial victory over another aircraft.
On 13 February 1991, EF-111A, AF Ser. No. 66-0023, callsign Ratchet 75, crashed into terrain while maneuvering to evade a perceived enemy aircraft threat killing the pilot, Capt Douglas L. Bradt, and the EWO, Capt Paul R. Eichenlaub. It was the only EF-111A lost during combat, the only loss killing its crew, and one of just three EF-111s lost in its history.
EF-111s were also deployed to Aviano Air Base, Italy in support of Operation Deliberate Force during the mid-1990s. The Raven also flew missions in Operation Provide Comfort, Operation Northern Watch and Operation Southern Watch.
Shortly afterward, the USAF began withdrawing the final EF-111As from service, and placed them in storage at the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center (AMARC) at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona. The last EF-111s were retired on 2 May 1998, at Cannon AFB, New Mexico. These were the final USAF F-111s in service. EA-6B Prowlers took over the electronic warfare role for the U.S. Air Force, along with Navy and Marine Corps use.
- Electronic warfare conversion of the F-111A, 42 conversions including two prototypes.
- 20th Tactical Fighter Wing – RAF Upper Heyford
- 42d Electronic Combat Squadron (1984–1992)
- 27th Fighter Wing – Cannon AFB
- 366th Tactical Fighter Wing – Mountain Home AFB
Aircraft on display
- 66-0016 is on display at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico. It was the first EF-111 to fly a combat mission and was unofficially credited with the Mirage F1 kill.
- 66-0039 is located on the display row of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (309 AMARG) facility at Davis-Monthan AFB, which is part of the facility tour. According to a June 2008 309 AMARG inventory website, 32 other EF-111As remain at the facility.
- 66-0047 is currently being restored at Silver Springs Municipal Airport in Silver Springs, Nevada.
- 66-0049 was the first prototype EF-111 and is on display at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho.
- 66-0057 is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio.
Specifications are for EF-111A except where noted.
- Crew: Two: pilot and electronic warfare officer
- Length: 76.0 ft (23.17 m)
- Wingspan: 63.0 ft spread, 32.0 ft swept (19.2 m / 9.74 m)
- Height: 20.0 ft (6.1 m)
- Wing area: 657.4 ft² spread, 525 ft² swept (61.07 m² / 48.77 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 64-210.68 root, NACA 64-209.80 tip
- Empty weight: 55,275 lb (25,072 kg)
- Loaded weight: 70,000 lb (31,751 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 89,000 lb (40,370 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-3 initially, later upgraded to TF30-P-9 turbofans with afterburner, 19,600 lbf (TF30-P-9) (92.7 kN (TF30-P-9)) each
- Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0186 (F-111D)
- Drag area: 9.36 ft² (0.87 m²) (F-111D)
- Aspect ratio: 7.56 unswept; 1.95 fully swept (F-111D)
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.2 (1,460 mph, 2,350 km/h) ; above 30,000 ft
- Range: 2,000 miles[N 2] (1,740 nmi, 3,220 km)
- Ferry range: 3,800 mi(3,300 nmi, 6,110 km)
- Service ceiling: 45,000 ft (13,715 m)
- Rate of climb: 11,000 ft/min (3,353 m/min)
- Thrust/weight: 0.598
- Lift-to-drag ratio: 15.8 (F-111)
- Related development
- General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark
- General Dynamics-Grumman F-111B
- General Dynamics F-111C
- Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "EF-111A Raven." GlobalSecurity.org, 27 April 2005. Retrieved:1 April 2009.
- Thornborough and Davies 1989, p. 85.
- Gunston 1983, p. 55.
- Logan 1998, p. 89.
- Logan 1998, pp. 17, 92, 303.
- Baugher, Joe. "Grumman EF-111A Raven". USAAC/USAAF/USAF Fighters, 20 December 1999.
- Gunston 1983, p. 59.
- "366tg Fighter Wing History. US Air Force
- Logan 1998, pp. 89–90.
- "The B-52 Gunners". January 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
- YF-111A / F-111A / RF-111A / GF-111A tail no. F-111.net, 26 February 2005. Retrieved: 4 September 2012.
- "USAF: Order of Battle, circa 1989 (Combat Units)." orbat.com. Retrieved: 9 December 2010.
- "YF-111A / F-111A / RF-111A / GF-111A." F-111.net, 26 February 2005. Retrieved: 23 November 2013.
- Logan 1998, pp. 90, 93.
- "AMARC registry." joebaugher.com, June 2008. Retrieved: 3 July 2011.
- "Images of AMARC display row aircraft". 31atsg.it, 2004.
- "General Dynamics EF-111A Raven Fact Sheet". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved; 9 December 2010.
- Sweetman, Bill. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. New York: Portland House, 1987 ISBN 0-517-63367-1.
- Miller 1982, p. 66.
- Gunston 1983, p. 64.
- Laur, Colonel Timothy M. and Steven L. Llanso. Encyclopedia of Modern U.S. Military Weapons New York: Berkley, 1995. ISBN 0-425-16437-3.
- "F-111 Aardvark." GlobalSecurity.org, 27 April 2005. Retrieved: 1 April 2009.
- Eden, Paul, ed. "General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark/EF-111 Raven". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Gunston, Bill. F-111, Modern Fighting Aircraft, Vol. 3. New York: Salamander Books, 1983. ISBN 0-668-05904-4.
- Logan, Don. General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History, 1998. ISBN 0-7643-0587-5.
- Miller, Jay. General Dynamics F-111 "Arardvark". Fallbrook, California: Aero Publishers, 1982. ISBN 0-8168-0606-3.
- Thornborough, Anthony M. and Peter E. Davies. F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to EF-111 Raven.|
- "General Dynamics EF-111A Raven Fact Sheet". National Museum of the United States Air Force.
- EF-111 page on GlobalSecurity.org
- Future Of Airborne Tactical Jamming report