EKS (satellite)

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EKS (Edinaya Kosmicheskaya Systema)
Manufacturer RKK Energia
Country of origin Russia
Operator Russian Aerospace Defence Forces
Applications Early warning of missile attack
Production
Status Development

EKS (reportedly standing for Russian: Единая космическая система, tr. Edinaya Kosmicheskaya Sistema meaning Unified Space System[1]) is a future programme of Russian early warning satellites and a replacement for the US-KMO and US-K satellites of the Oko programme.[2]:7 These satellites identify ballistic missile launches from outer space and complement early warning radars such as the Voronezh. This gives advance notice of a nuclear attack and would provide information to the A-135 missile defence system which protects Moscow.

Timeline[edit]

Information on the new EKS system is scarce but it appears that it was designed by Energia Corp in 1999-2000 and was selected against a proposal from Oko manufacturer NPO Lavochkin.[1] The Russian Ministry of Defence awarded the contract to Energia in 2007 with an expected delivery date of 2008, for a test launch in 2009.[3] In 2009 it was reported to be delayed until late 2011/early 2012.[4] In 2011 the Russian MoD sued Energia for the delay, claiming that a contract extension issued until May 2010 was invalid and asking for 262 million rubles in compensation.[5] According to news reports Energia said that the contract extension was valid and that the problem was with their subcontractors.[5] In addition they said that the Russian MoD kept changing the specification and demanding things that were beyond the capabilities of the industry.[5] The Russian MoD lost the court case. Energia delivered a satellite in 2009 but as of April 2012 there has not been a test launch.[3]

In April 2012 minister Alexander Sukhorukov announced that a contract had been signed to manufacture these satellites and that there would be a launch later in 2012.[6] The last satellites of the previous Oko system were Kosmos 2479,[7] launched on 30 March 2012, and Kosmos 2469, launched on 30 September 2010.[8]

Current system[edit]

EKS is designed as a replacement for the current system of early warning satellites called Oko, which had its first launch in 1972 [9]:36[10] and was described in 2005 as "hopelessly outdated".[11] Oko has two types of satellites: US-KMO are in geosynchronous orbits and have an infrared telescope to identify ballistic missile launches.[12] US-K are in molniya orbits and are an earlier model with optical telescopes and infrared sensors.[13] The Oko system has two control centres with the main one being Serpukhov-15 outside Moscow. [9]:40[9]:52

Oko is part of the Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning[14] which is under the Space Command (KK) of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (August 22, 2007). "Russia is working on new early-warning satellites". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Podvig, Pavel; Zuang, Hui (2008). Russian and Chinese Responses to US Military Plans in Space. Cambridge, MA: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. ISBN 0-87724-068-X. 
  3. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (August 18, 2011). "New generation early-warning satellite turned up in court". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Podvig, Pavel (April 29, 2009). "Early-warning satellites - old and new". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Safronov Jr, Ivan (August 17, 2011). "Военные проиграли космический иск космической корпорации" [The military lost a space corporation space suit]. Kommersant. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  6. ^ "Минобороны РФ заключило контракты на создание спутников для отслеживания ракетных запусков" [Defence ministry signed contracts to build satellites to track missile launches]. ITAR-TASS. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  7. ^ "Oko Satellite successfully delivered to Orbit". Spaceflight 101. 2012-03-30. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  8. ^ Pavel, Podvig (2012-03-30). "Cosmos-2479 - new geostationary early warning satellite". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  9. ^ a b c Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (pdf). Science and Global Security 10: 21–60. doi:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN 0892-9882. 
  10. ^ Zak, Anatoly (April 18, 2012). "Oko early-warning satellite". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Podvig, Pavel (November 21, 2005). "Hopelessly outdated". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 30 April 2012. 
  12. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "US-KMO (71Kh6)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "US-KS (74Kh6)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  14. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2012-01-30). "Early Warning". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  15. ^ "Structure". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. undated. Retrieved 24 March 2012.