The ELKO field was originally suggested in 2005 by D. V. Ahluwalia (then, under the name Ahluwalia-Khalilova) and D. Grumiller. The name comes from the acronym of the original German term Eigenspinoren des LadungsKonjugationsOperators, designating spinors that are eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator.
ELKO quantum fields ﬁelds describe spin-1/2 fermions with mass dimension one. Since the field has a mass dimensionality mismatch with standard model matter fields it was suggested as a dark matter candidate. As a result of their scalar-like mass dimension they differ significantly from the mass dimension 3/2 Dirac fermions.
An up-to-date reference is a 2013 preprint.
- D.V. Ahluwalia and D. Grumiller. Spin-Half Fermions with Mass Dimension One: Theory, Phenomenology, and Dark Matter. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2005:012, 2005.
- D.V. Ahluwalia, C.Y. Lee, D. Schritt, and T.F. Watson. Local Fermionic Dark Matter with Mass Dimension One. Arxiv preprint arXiv:0804.1854v4, 2008
- M. Dias, F. de Campos, J. M. Hoff da Silva. Exploring Elko typical signature. Physics Letters B, 706 (2012) 352. DOI:10.1016/j.physletb.2011.11.030
- D. V. Ahluwalia. On a local mass dimension one Fermi field of spin one-half and the theoretical crevice that allows it. http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1305.7509