EMD 567

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An EMD 16-567B on display at the North Carolina Transportation Museum.

The EMD 567 is a line of diesel engines built by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division. This engine, which succeeded Winton's 201-A, was used in EMD's locomotives from 1938 until its replacement in 1966 by the EMD 645. It has a bore of 8.5 in (216 mm), a stroke of 10 in (254 mm) and a displacement of 567 cu in (9.3 L) per cylinder. Like the 201-A, the EMD 645 and the EMD 710, the EMD 567 is a two-stroke cycle engine. It is a V engine with an angle of 45° between cylinder banks. The 710, 645, and 567 are the only two-stroke engines commonly used today in locomotives. Eugene W. Kettering, son of Charles F. Kettering, joined Winton Engine in 1930. He moved to Detroit in 1936, and was a central figure in the development of the 567 and the Detroit Diesel 6-71. He moved to EMD in 1938, became Chief Engineer at EMD in 1948, then Director of Research in 1955 and subsequently Research Assistant to the General Manager in 1958.[1] In 1951, E. W. Kettering wrote a paper for the ASME entitled, History and Development of the 567 Series General Motors Locomotive Engine[1], which goes into great detail about the technical obstacles that were encountered during the development of the 567 engine.

567AC engines (an "A" block upgraded to "C" block specifications) and 567BC engines (a "B" block upgraded to "C" block specifications), as well as 567C and 567D engines, may be upgraded to use 645 power assemblies, theoretically achieving an increase in horsepower, although not without corresponding changes to the engine's Woodward governor which activates and controls the engine's "fuel rack", although this power increase is generally not recommended.

As 645 power assemblies are more readily available than 567 power assemblies, this upgrade may also be employed in so-called "life extension" programs, in which case the power assemblies would be upgraded, and the engine may be de-turbo-ed, without corresponding changes to the engine's Woodward governor, hence without a corresponding power increase.

Because of their age, 567 engines are generally exempt from emissions rules. EMD manufactures a special series of 645 power assemblies which are particularly useful in updating these exempt 567 engines and also certain exempt 645 engines.

EMD's chief competitor, GE, now makes EMD-compatible replacement parts.[2]

Specification[edit]

An EMD 16-567A at the Florida Central Railroad locomotive shops

All 567 engines are two-stroke 45 degree V-engines. The engine is a uniflow design with four poppet-type exhaust valves in the cylinder head. For maintenance, a power assembly, consisting of a cylinder head, cylinder liner, piston, piston carrier, and piston rod, can be individually and relatively easily and quickly replaced. The block is made from flat, formed and rolled structural steel members and steel forgings welded into a single structure (a "weldment"). Blocks may, therefore, be easily repaired, if required, using conventional shop tools. Each bank of cylinders has a camshaft which operates the exhaust valves and the unit injectors.[3]

All engines have mechanically-controlled unit injectors (patented in 1934 by General Motors, EMD's former owner).

See EMD 645 for general specifications common to all 567-645-710 engines.

All 567 engines utilize forced induction, with either a Roots blower or a turbocharger. The turbocharger (a combination turbo-compressor system) follows EMD's traditional design that uses a gear train and clutch to drive the compressor rotor during low engine speed, when exhaust gas speed alone is not sufficient. At higher engine speeds, increased exhaust gas temperature (and, correspondingly, speed) is sufficient to drive the turbine and the clutch disengages, turning the turbo-compressor system into a true turbocharger. While more expensive to maintain than Roots blowers, the turbocharger significantly reduces fuel consumption and emissions, while improving high-altitude performance.

Horsepower for naturally aspirated (Roots-blown) engines is usually derated 2.5 percent per 1,000 feet (304.8 metres) above mean sea level, a tremendous penalty at the 10,000 feet (3,048.0 metres) or greater elevations which several Western U.S. and Canada railroads operate, and this can amount to a 25 percent power loss. Turbocharging effectively eliminates this derating.

Versions [4][edit]

Engine model Max RPM Aspiration Dates built Compression
ratio
6-cylinder 8-cylinder 12-cylinder. 16-cylinder Notes
hp kW hp kW hp kW hp kW
567 800 Roots blown 9/38-3/43 16:1 600 447 1,000 746 1,350 1,007 "U" Deck or "V" Deck versions were built with rectangular hand hole covers.[5]
567A 800 Roots blown 5/43-9/53 16:1 600 447 1,000
1,200
746
895
1,350 1,007 Rectangular hand hole covers.[6]
567B 800 Roots blown 7/45-3/54 16:1 600 447 800 597 1,000
1,125
1,200
746
839
895
1,350
1,500
1,600
1,007
1,119
1,193
Rectangular hand hole covers.[7]
567C 800
835
Roots blown 3/53-2/66 16:1 600 447 900 671 1,125
1,200
839
895
1,500
1,750
1,119
1,305
New crankcase design with round hand hole covers and replacing the water deck with water manifold piping.[8]
567AC 800 Roots blown 8/53-6/61 16:1 600 447 1,000 746 Rebuild of 567A block to use 567C or certain 645 power assemblies
567BC 800 Roots blown 9/53-10/63 16:1 1,125
1,200
839
895
1,500 1,119 Rebuild of 567B block to use 567C or certain 645 power assemblies
567CR 835 Roots blown 10/56-11/65 16:1 900 671 Reverse rotation
567D1 835 Roots blown 12/59-11/65 20:1 1,325 988 1,800 1,342
567D2 835 Turbocharged 11/59-4/62 14.5:1 2,000 1,491 De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but still rated 2,000 hp are quite common[9]
567D3 835 Turbocharged 7/58-11/63 14.5:1 2,250
2,400
1,678
1,790
De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but re-rated 2,000 hp are very rare
567D3A 900 Turbocharged 7/63-1/66 14.5:1 2,500 1,864 De-turbo-ed versions using 645 power assemblies, but re-rated 2,000 hp are somewhat common
567E 835 Roots blown 2/66-4/66 16:1 1,200 895 2,000[10]
[a]
1,491 645E block with 567C power assemblies

Stationary/marine versions[edit]

Like most EMD engines, the 567 is also sold for stationary and marine applications.

Stationary and marine installations are available with either a left or right-hand rotating engine.

Marine engines differ from railroad and stationary engines mainly in the shape and depth of the engine's oil sump, which has been altered to accommodate the rolling and pitching motions encountered in marine applications.

567C locomotive models[edit]

An EMD locomotive catalog, contemporary with the 567C, lists the following models:

Locomotive Prime Mover Horsepower Kilowatts Purpose Notes
F9 16-567C 1,750 1,305 4-motor Freight or Passenger (Blomberg B trucks)[b] Derivatives FP9 and FL9 also produced, FL9 using Flexicoil Trucks
GP9 16-567C 1,750 1,305 4-motor General Purpose Road Switcher (Blomberg B trucks)
SD9 16-567C 1,750 1,305 6-Motor Special Duty Road Switcher (Blomberg Flexicoil C trucks)
E9 12-567C (x2) 2,400 1,790 4-Motor Passenger Locomotive (Blomberg A1A trucks) Two prime movers installed on same frame
SW600 6-567C 600 447 100-Ton Yard Switcher (Blomberg AAR Type A switcher trucks)[c]
SW900 8-567C 900 671 115-Ton Yard Switcher (AAR type A truck, Flexicoil B optional)
SW1200 12-567C 1,200 895 125-Ton Yard Switcher (AAR type A truck, Flexicoil B optional)

Most 567C locomotive models used D37B traction motors until mid 1959 when the D47B traction motor was used in production locomotives. Very early 567C locomotives from 1953 used the D27B traction motor.

567C and 567D engine maintenance[edit]

These two models are by far the most maintainable, with many 645 service parts being rather easily fitted to C and D engines.

The 567D's turbocharger is perhaps the least maintainable part of such an engine, and the 567D turbo has many more maintenance issues than 645E and later turbos. The wise choice is conversion of a 567D turbo engine to roots-blown, thereby abandoning the turbo and its many issues. Installation of 645 power assemblies will still allow roots-converted 4-axle locomotives (GP20s) to produce 2,000 HP, as does a roots-blown 16-645E, thereby becoming the functional equivalent of a GP38, although with older electrical equipment and controls, and, of course, the older carbody.

Many EMD locomotives with C and D engines are still operating, particularly as their relatively light weight (about 250,000 pounds) is of significant benefit to shortline and industrial operators.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Figure from 16V 567E engine installed in RENFE Class 319.2
  2. ^ Blomberg B trucks are common on competitive road switchers, e.g. early ALCo and GE four-axle Road Switchers, as many purchasers elected to re-use traded-in Blomberg B trucks; otherwise AAR Type B road trucks are often found; Indeed a few EMD road locomotives were supplied with reclaimed AAR Type B road trucks, mainly to save cost.
  3. ^ Blomberg Flexicoil B lightweight road trucks were optional.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.rypn.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=198358#p198358
  2. ^ "Replacement Parts for EMD". www.getransportation.com. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  3. ^ Bernard Challen, Rodica Baranescu (ed.), Diesel Engine Reference Book Second Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann 1999 ISBN 0 7506 2176 1 pg 598
  4. ^ Pinkpank, Jerry A (1973). The Second Diesel Spotter’s Guide. Kalmbach Books. p. 26. LCCN 66-22894 Check |lccn= value (help). 
  5. ^ http://www.rypn.org/articles/layout/060301cook/default.htm
  6. ^ http://www.rypn.org/articles/layout/060301cook/default.htm
  7. ^ http://www.rypn.org/articles/layout/060301cook/default.htm
  8. ^ http://www.rypn.org/articles/layout/060301cook/default.htm
  9. ^ Pinkepank, Jerry A.; Marre, Louis A. (1979). Diesel Spotters Guide Update. Kalmbach Books. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-89024-029-9. 
  10. ^ "Anexo I, Características de los Vehículos". www.vialibre-ffe.com (in Spanish). Renfe. 7 March 2010. pp. 2–3. 
  • Pinkepank, Jerry A. Second Diesel Spotter's Guide 2. Milwaukee [Wis.]: Kalmbach.
  • Service Department (1954?). The Complete Line of General Motors Diesel Locomotives. La Grange, IL: Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation

External links[edit]