The EMD GP59 is a 4-axle diesel locomotive model built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division between 1985 and 1989. Power was provided by a 12-cylinderEMD 710G3A diesel engine, which could produce 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW). This locomotive shared the same common frame with the EMD GP60, giving it an overall length of 59 feet 9 inches (18.21 m). It featured a 3,700-US-gallon (14,000 l; 3,100 imp gal) fuel tank. 36 examples of this locomotive were built including three demonstrators. Norfolk Southern placed the only order for the GP59 and also acquired the three demonstrators which featured an aerodynamic cab.
In 2011 Norfolk Southern began a program to upgrade their fleet of GP59s, the only GP59s operating anywhere. The first one was not released until March 2013 as NS 4650 GP59E. The GP59E features a new EM2000 microprocessor, an all new electrical cabinet with SmartStart auto start/stop, rebuilt 12-710G3C-BC prime-mover with EMDEC EUI system, NS-designed split cooling, the NS Admiral cab with cab signals, LSL, and CCB26 electronic brake valve. The GP59E is set up to operate with NS class RP-M4C road slugs.