EMD SD40-2

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EMD SD40-2
MRL 250.jpg
Montana Rail Link XDM SD40-2 diesel locomotive #250 at Everett, Washington, USA, January 1994.
Specifications
Power type Diesel-electric
Builder GM Electro-Motive Division (EMD)
General Motors Diesel (GMD)
Model SD40-2
Build date January 1972 – October 1989
Total produced 3,982
AAR wheel arr. C-C
UIC classification Co′Co′
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm), Brazil
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), Guinea
Driver diameter 40 in (1,016 mm)
Wheelbase 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m) between bolsters; 13 ft 7 in (4.14 m) between axles in each truck
Length 68 ft 10 in (20.98 m) over the coupler pulling faces
Width 10 ft 3 18 in (3.13 m) over the grabirons
Height 15 ft 7 18 in (4.75 m)
Locomotive weight 368,000 lb (167,000 kilograms)
or 184 short tons (164 long tons; 167 t)
Fuel capacity 3,200–4,000 US gallons (12,000–15,000 l; 2,700–3,300 imp gal)
Prime mover EMD 16-645-E3
Aspiration turbocharged
Cylinders V16
Power output 3,000 hp (2,240 kW)
Career
Railroad(s) Various
Locale North America, Mexico, Brazil, Guinea

The EMD SD40-2 is a 3,000-horsepower (2,200 kW) C-C diesel-electric locomotive built by EMD from 1972 to 1989.

The SD40-2 was introduced in January 1972 as part of EMD's Dash 2 series, competing against the GE U30C and the MLW M630.[citation needed] Although higher-horsepower locomotives were available, including EMD's own SD45-2, the reliability and versatility of the 3,000-horsepower SD40-2 made it the best-selling model in EMD's history and the standard of the industry for several decades after its introduction. The SD40-2 was an improvement over the SD40, with modular electronic control systems similar to those of the experimental DDA40X.

Peak production of the SD40-2 was in the mid-1970s. Sales of the SD40-2 began to diminish after 1981 due to the oil crisis, increased competition from GE's Dash-7 series and the introduction of the EMD SD50, which was available concurrently to late SD40-2 production. The last SD40-2 delivered to a United States railroad was built in July 1984, with production continuing for railroads in Canada until 1988, Mexico until February 1986, and Brazil until October 1989. As of 2013, nearly all still remain in service.

The SD40-2 has seen service in Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Guinea. To suit export country specifications, General Motors designed the JT26CW-SS (British Rail Class 59) for Great Britain, the GT26CW-2 for Yugoslavia, South Korea, Iran, Morocco, Peru and Pakistan, while the GT26CU-2 went to Zimbabwe and Brazil. Various customizations led Algeria to receive their version of a SD40-2, known as GT26HCW-2.

Appearance and spotting features[edit]

Ohio Central Railroad System SD40-2 #5855 showing extended rear deck.
A CSXT SD40-2 waiting in Tunnel Hill, Georgia.
A NS SD40-2 waiting at NS Elkhart Yard for its next job.

As the SD38, SD39, SD40, and SD45 shared a common frame, so too did the SD38-2, SD40-2, and SD45-2. It was 3 ft (0.91 m) longer than the previous models, giving a length of 68 ft 10 in (20.98 m) over the coupler pulling faces. The SD38-2 and SD40-2 shared the same basic superstructure, since they used the same 16-645 engine (in Roots-blown and turbocharged form respectively); the long hood was 18 inches (46 cm) longer than the SD38 and SD40, but since the increase in frame length was even greater, the SD38-2 and SD40-2 had even larger front and rear "porches" than the earlier models. These empty areas at front and rear are spotting features to identify the Dash 2 models of both units. The SD40-2 can be distinguished from the SD38-2 by its three roof-mounted radiator fans instead of two, and a single large exhaust stack instead of two smaller stacks.

The increase in the frame length between the preceding 40 Series and the 40-2 Series six-axle locomotives was made to accommodate the new HT-C truck design, in which the traction motors all face the same direction, making the trucks longer. After a series of derailments involving Amtrak SDP40F units that were equipped with "hollow bolster" HT-C trucks, applied only to the SDP40F, Conrail ordered the SD40-2 units and several orders of SD50s with the older Flexicoil trucks, but the HT-C truck was vindicated and it ultimately went under most 40 Series, 50 Series and 60 Series six-axle locomotives, and this truck is still found under many remanufactured locomotives.

As of 2008 some SD45 units have been modified by replacing their 20 cylinder engine with the 16 cylinder removed from scrapped SD40-2 units; this was common on Union Pacific and possibly other railroads. In many cases these are identified by the owner as SD40-3, SD40M-2 or some such. Confusingly, what appears to be an SD45 is labeled as an SD40-2. Older SD40-2 units used in low-power modes such as yard switching or hump service have been de-turbocharged, resulting in the mechanical equivalent of a SD38-2. Units so modified may or may not be re-labeled.

There are several variations of the SD40-2 such as the SD40T-2s (T for tunnel motor) bought by the former Southern Pacific, and Denver and Rio Grande Western railroads; now operated by Union Pacific. The SD45 tunnel motor equivalent, the SD45T-2 model, was also utilized by Southern Pacific. Many tunnel motors were rebuilt and sold second-hand to a handful of American shortlines including, Bessemer and Lake Erie, Illinois Railway and Missouri and Northern Arkansas, as well as Canadian shortline Goderich-Exeter Railway. There is the SD40-2W (W for the 4-Window Safety Cab) bought and operated by the Canadian National railway. High-nosed versions of the SD40-2 were bought by Norfolk & Western, & Southern Railway. These units are now operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway (Resulting merger of N&W and Southern Railway). A narrow gauge version produced for Ferrovia Central Atlantico in Brazil is the BB40-2.

Three cabless SD40-2Bs were also rebuilt from standard SD40-2s by the Burlington Northern Railroad in the early 1980s. The units had been in collisions and it was decided[by whom?] that it was more economical to rebuild them without cabs. Canadian Pacific also owns a few SD40-2Bs. These were created by welding metal plates over the cab windows of many of its ex-Norfolk Southern and some of its original SD40-2s.

Additional specifications[edit]

Main generator: AR10 alternator
Traction motors: 6 × D77/78 DC
Standard gearing: 62:15
Maximum speed with 62:15 gearing: 65 mph (105 km/h)[1]
Continuous TE with 62:15 gearing: 83100 lb


Photo gallery[edit]

Original owners[edit]

American SD40-2 orders
Railroad Quantity Road numbers Notes
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway 187 5020-5192, 5200-5213 Most now in service with BNSF Railway
Burlington Northern Railroad 835 C&S 900-925 (later renumbered BN 6348-6373), C&S 980 (BN 6850), C&S 696 (BN 6950), 6325-6334, 6348-6373, 6376-6385, 6700-6836, 6840-6847, 6850-6851, 6900-6928, 6950, 7000-7291, 7800-7940, 8000-8181 Most now in service with BNSF Railway. 7167-7205, 7206-7235, & 8074-8089 were the only SD40-2s built by General Motors Diesel as exports to the United States, when EMD LaGrange IL plant was overloaded with orders. EMD sent the three orders to GMD London.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 20 7600-7619 Now in service with CSX Transportation
Chicago and North Western Railway 135 6801-6935 Most now in service with Union Pacific Railroad, one donated and restored at the Illinois Railway Museum.
Conrail 167 6358-6524 Equipped with flexicoil trucks. Now renumbered and in service with CSX, Norfolk Southern, or leasing firms
Clinchfield Railroad 5 8127-8129, 8131-8132 Family Lines Paint, to Seaboard System, now in service with CSX Transportation
Illinois Central Gulf Railroad 4 6030-6033 6031 was converted into 6200, 6033 was destroyed in a collision in Flora, Mississippi on February 6, 1994
Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation 7 101-107
Kansas City Southern Railway 46 637-692 #637 was the very first SD40-2 constructed in January 1972.
Louisville and Nashville Railroad 191 1259–1278, 3554-3612, 8000-8039, 8067-8086, 8095-8126, 8133-8162 8000s units delivered in Family Lines paint; all to Seaboard System, now in service with CSX Transportation
Milwaukee Road 90 21-30, 171-209, 3000-3040 Now in service among several various railroads. #124 was exported to Guinea.
Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad 37 600-636 Order based on Burlington Northern specifications for Pooling Service.
Missouri Pacific Railroad 306 790-838, 3139-3321, 6020-6073 790-838 & 3139-3321 lack dynamic brakes. 6020-6073 were based on Burlington Northern specifications for Pooling Services. Considered the heaviest SD40-2s ever built.
Norfolk and Western Railway 162 1625–1652, 6073-6207 Some are High hood units. Now in service with the Norfolk Southern Railway
Oneida and Western Railroad 8 9950-9957 Not an actual railroad - purchased on Louisville & Nashville specifications. Later became BC Rail 743-750, 749 is now GECX 749
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad 10 4790-4799 Later became Illinois Central Gulf 6040-6049. Six are in service with Wisconsin and Southern Railroad
Seaboard Coast Line Railroad 36 8040-8066, 8087-8094, 8130 Delivered in Family Lines Paint, to Seaboard System, now in service with CSX Transportation
St. Louis-San Francisco Railway 8 950-957 Merged in Burlington Northern in 1980, numbered BN 6840-6847, same numbers in BNSF. Now in service with the BNSF Railway
Soo Line Railroad 57 757-789, 6600-6623 Most now in service with the Canadian Pacific Railway. #6623 is the last SD40-2 built in the United States in July 1984.
Southern Railway 128 3201-3328 High hood units; now in service with Norfolk Southern Railway
Union Pacific Railroad 686 3123-3239, 3243-3304, 3335-3399, 3410-3583, 3609-3808, 8000-8002, 8035-8099 Several have been renumbered and others retired to leasers. 3200-3410 delivered with snoot noses.
Canadian SD40-2 orders
Railroad Quantity Road numbers Notes
Algoma Central Railway 6 183-188 Units becaame WC 6000-6006 after the Wisconsin Central took over the Algoma Central.
British Columbia Railway 17 751-767 Purchased after complications arose from safety concerns on a recent order of MLW M630Ws. #767 is the last SD40-2 built in Canada in July 1985.
Canadian Pacific Railway 486 5560, 5565-5879, 5900-6069
Canadian National Railway 123 5241-5363 These units had the Canadian Safety Cab with 4 windows and were classified as SD40-2W
Ontario Northland Railway 8 1730–1737
Quebec, North Shore and Labrador Railway 44 221-264 Four engines now serve the short-line Wellsboro & Corning Railroad in northern Pennsylvania, hauling sand cars to support Marcellus shale hydraulic fracturing in the region.
Export SD40-2 orders
Railroad Quantity Road numbers Notes
Chemin de Fer Boké (Guinea) 3 107-109 The only SD40-2s exported to an African country. Meter gauge 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in)
Estrada de Ferro Carajás (Brazil) 29 401-429 Constructed by Equipamentos Villares S.A. (EVSA) and built to Irish Gauge (1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)) specifications. #429 is the very last SD40-2 constructed in October 1989.
Ferrocarriles Unidos del Sureste (Mexico) 4 601-604 The only SD40-2s in México without dynamic brakes.
Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México (Mexico) 103 8700-8798, 13001-13004 #13004 is the last SD40-2 built for México in February 1986.
Rede Ferroviária Federal Sociedade Anônima (Brazil) 36 3711-3747 The only SD40-2s constructed in Europe for a Brazilian customer in Irish Gauge (1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)) by Material y Construcciones S.A. (MACOSA).

Variants[edit]

SD40T-2[edit]

Main article: EMD SD40T-2

A variant of the SD40-2 was created for several western railroads for extended periods in tunnels and snow sheds. Originally purchased by Southern Pacific and Rio Grande railroads, these were transferred to the Union Pacific Railroad in 1996. They have since found their way into the used locomotive market and many have been sold to regional railroads around the U.S.

British Rail Class 59[edit]

Main article: British Rail Class 59

Another variant of the SD40-2 was created for British Rail, which features a unique body design specifically for the European railway markets.

SD40-2W[edit]

Canadian National SD40-2W #5321

The GMD SD40-2(W) is a Canadian-market version of the SD40-2 diesel-electric locomotive, built for the Canadian National Railway by the Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Ltd. (formerly General Motors Diesel) of London, Ontario; 123 were constructed between May 1975 and December 1980.[2][better source needed] The major difference between the SD40-2(W) and a regular SD40-2 is the fitment of a wide-nose Canadian comfort cab, commonly denoted by adding a 'W' in the model name (although the GMD designation on the builders plates remained 'SD40-2').

SD40-2F[edit]

The EMD SD40-2F is a locomotive operated by Canadian Pacific Railway. It's essentially an SD40-2 with a full cowl hood. CP was the only buyer, buying 25 units, numbered 9000-9024.

SD40-2S[edit]

The EMD SD40-2S (also incorrectly known as the SD40-2SS or SD40SS) was an experimental test bed variant of the SD40-2.[3] Nine of these locomotives were constructed, five in April and May 1978 for Burlington Northern as EMD order #776083[4] (BN 7049–7053), and four for Union Pacific in November 1980 as EMD order #80653.[5] (UP 3805–3808).[better source needed]

These locomotives were fitted with improved engine blocks, larger turbochargers, and two-speed radiator fans which were expected to improve cooling and reliability. The four UP units, but not the five BN locomotives, were fitted with an extended long hood, about 28 inches (710 mm) longer,[3] to take enlarged radiators. Instead of the standard seven access doors under the radiators, the units had eight.

It has been commonly believed[by whom?] these units were fitted with higher-capacity AR16 alternators, traction motors, possibly increased engine power, and Super Series wheel slip control; however, research in Union Pacific's archives[citation needed] has proven that UP units at least were not so equipped.[3][broken citation]

After a year's testing, UP's locomotives were fitted with standard engines and turbochargers.[3] It is probable that the BN locomotives were also similarly refitted.[citation needed] All BN units are still in service with successor BNSF Railway,[4] while of UP locomotives, two remain in service with UP, renumbered to UP 3412[6] and 3277[7] from UP 3806 and 3807. Former UP 3805 is now in service with the Iowa, Chicago and Eastern Railroad as ICE 6406, and former UP 3808 now belongs to the Evansville Western Railway as EVWR 6003.[5]

SD40-3[edit]

The SD40-3 is a rebuilt form of the SD40-2, designed to upgrade and extend their service lifespan. They were rebuilt in programs conducted by railroads, such as CSX. CSX units 4000-4049 were rebuilt in 2011 with the present logo of the railroad, with a total of 300 units overall. The locomotives were given modified cabs that can withstand crashes better and have new heating and air-conditioning systems, as well as a newer control stand, including visual displays, a modern WABCO braking controller, and modernized starting systems. The engines retain the original 3,000 horsepower (2,240 kW) rating, with rated tractive power increased to 130,000 lb (58,970 kg) from the former 86,000 lb (39,010 kg) rating.[8][better source needed]

SD40M-2[edit]

The SD40M-2 is another loose designation, being used to cover both upgrades of pre-Dash 2 units to Dash 2 or higher specs and the derating of the more powerful EMD SD45 from 3,600 horsepower to the SD40's power output of 3,000 hp, for various reasons.

UP has been rebuilding pre-Dash 2 SD40s and related six-axle EMD locomotives into the functional equivalent of an SD40-2. Such a rebuild is expected to provide 30 years additional service at a cost which is far less than a new locomotive or an SD59MX rebuild as the 645 engine, which is retained, is in most cases exempt from certain emissions requirements.

Rebuilds[edit]

A number of SD40-2s have been rebuilt into other models. Some of the most unusual are the metre gauge BB40-2s for use in Brazil.

Conversely, several other models of EMD locomotive have sometimes been rebuilt to SD40-2 standards, including the SD40, SD45 and SD45-2. Normally, this consists of electrical upgrades (-2) and replacing the 20 cylinder prime mover with a 16 cylinder version, ironically often built for GE Capital in Poland using EMD's manufacturing drawings and specifications. An outgrowth of this may be GE Transportation's second-sourcing of EMD repair parts.

The unexpectedly unreliable SD50s have also been rebuilt into the equivalent of SD40-2s, rather than scrapping them. The 645F block and crankshaft are inherently good designs (indeed, the lessons learned with the 645F became part of the 710G); lowering the rating from 3,500 horsepower (2,600 kW) at 950 rpm to 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) at 900 rpm solved the mechanical and electrical reliability issues.

SD22ECO[edit]

The SD22ECO is an EMD SD40-2 or similar, repowered with an EMD 8-710-ECO engine. The resulting locomotive is rated at 2,150 horsepower (1,600 kW), and meets EPA Tier II emissions regulations.[9]

Preservation[edit]

In June, 2009, Union Pacific had donated 3028 (former Chicago & North Western 6847) to the Illinois Railway Museum in Union, Illinois. The unit still wears its original factory paint from when it was built for the CNW in March, 1974. CNW 6847 was patched by UP in February, 2003, to UP 3028, and retired in December, 2008.[10] The locomotive has since had its UP patches removed, and CNW herald and numbers restored.

Union Pacific has traded SD40-2 #3105 to the Rail Giants museum in Pomona California, along with a caboose and some other equipment for Union Pacific 4-8-8-4 #4014 "Big Boy", which UP is restoring to operational status. The #3105 locomotive was originally built in 1979 as Missouri Pacific #6027, and one of the few that the Missouri Pacific ordered with Dynamic Braking. This is believed to be the 2nd SD40-2 to be preserved.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ EMD's service manual says 65 mph, but railroads often allowed 62:15 units 70 mph.
  2. ^ trainweb.org. "EMD SD40-2 Order Numbers". The UNofficial EMD Home Page. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  3. ^ a b c d Strack, Don. "All-time UP Diesel Roster, Part 46". Utah Rails. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  4. ^ a b "EMD 776083, SD40SS, BN 7049-7053". The Unofficial EMD Homepage. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  5. ^ a b "EMD 806053, SD40SS, UP 3805-3808". The Unofficial EMD Homepage. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  6. ^ Strack, Don. "November 2003 UP Roster Changes". Utah Rails. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  7. ^ Strack, Don. "June 2004 UP Roster Changes". Utah Rails. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  8. ^ http://wvncrails.weebly.com/sd40-3-csx-old-new-locomotive.html
  9. ^ http://www.emdiesels.com/emdweb/company/more/062209_kcsrepower.html
  10. ^ "IRM acquires an EMD SD40-2". Illinois Railway Museum. Retrieved June 22, 2009. 
  11. ^ "After 52 Years, No. 4014 Poised to Return to Rails". Union Pacific. Retrieved January 10, 2014. 

External links[edit]

External images
RailPictures.Net – EMD SD40-2 photographs at RailPictures.Net.