Enel

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Enel S.p.A.
Società per azioni
Traded as BITENEL
Industry Electricity
Natural gas
Founded 27 November 1962
Founder Italian government
Headquarters Rome, Italy, European Union
Area served
Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain; USA, Canada; Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, Peru, Uruguay; Morocco, South Africa
Key people
Francesco Starace (CEO), Maria Patrizia Grieco (Chairman)
Products Natural gas and electricity generation and distribution
Revenue 75,791 million (2014)[1]
3,087 million (2014)[1]
Profit 517 million (2014)[1]
Total assets €169.80 billion (2011)[2]
Total equity €54.44 billion (2011)[2]
Number of employees
68,961 (2014)[1]
Subsidiaries Enel Produzione (100%), Enel Servizio Elettrico (100%), Enel Energia (100%), Enel Green Power (69.171%), Enel Distribuzione (100%), Enel Sole (100%), Enel Trade (100%), Enel Investment Holdinds (Netherlands) (100%), Powernext (France) (5%), Endesa (Spain) (70.1%), Enel Russia (56.43%), RusEnergoSbyt (Russia) (49.5%), Enersis Cile (60.62%), Endesa Latinoamerica (100%)
Website www.enel.com

Enel is a multinational manufacturer and distributor of electricity and gas.

Enel, which originally stood for National Entity for Electricity (Ente nazionale per l'energia elettrica), was first established as a public body at the end of 1962, and then transformed into a limited company in 1992.[3] In 1999, following the liberalization of the electricity market in Italy, Enel was privatized.[4] As of February 2015, the Italian government is the owner of 25.5% of the company’s shares.[5][6][7][8]

In 2014 Enel employed about 70,000 people,[1][9][10][11][12][13] works in about 30 countries[14][15] and at the end of 2013 - with 80.5 billion euro of revenue and a market capitalization of 31 billion euro - is the 56th company in the world by revenue.[16][17][18]

Enel’s logo, designed by Bob Noorda and Maurizio Minoggio, is a combination of a sun and a tree whose nine branches – or nine rays - represent the variety of services offered by the company.[19][20][21][22][23]

Contents

History[edit]

1898-1962: Towards a national policy for electricity[edit]

The hydroelectric power station of Rocchetta a Volturno

In 1898, the production of electricity in Italy was of 100 million kilowatt hours[24][25][26] reaching a value of over $56 billion by 1960.[27][28] The majority of the electricity was produced by over and regional private companies,[29][30][31] or by companies linked to other industrial bodies,[32][33][34][35][36][37] that were both local and regional, by exploiting the specific characteristic of the territory: its hydrogeological resources.[38][39]

The state subsidized the construction of power stations and any necessary construction work in the territory in order to increase the production of electricity.[40][41][42] In terms of distribution, the state intervened in 1961 by unifying national tariffs on the basis of equal consumption classes (through the Equalization Fund for the Electricity Sector[43][44]) and by requiring power companies to provide access to electricity to everyone.[33][37][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52]

In 1962 the government institutionalised the Entity for electricity with the aim of making electricity a means for the development of the country and in order to define a national policy for electricity based on the experiences of other countries such as France and Britain.[49][50][53][54][55][56]

1962: Establishing the National Entity for Electricity[edit]

Enel logo (1963-1982)

At the beginning of 1962 the Fanfani IV Cabinet made its commitment to the government to put together a proposal for the unification of the national electricity system within 3 months of the parliament casting its confidence motion.[54][57][58][59][60] During the Chamber of Deputies assembly of June 26, 1962, the government presented a bill that sanctioned the principles and procedures for the establishment of the Entity for Electricity (E.N.E.L.).[31][61][62][63]

According to the bill, Enel was going to acquire all assets of all companies operating in the production, processing, transmission and distribution of electricity, with the exception of self-producers - companies that produced more than 70% of their electricity for other production processes – (the same exception was later applied to municipal authorities), and of small businesses that did not produce more than 10 million kilowatt hours per year.[64][65][66][67][68]

Procedures to assess the value of the acquired companies were defined, and it was established that compensation were to be paid to creditors in 10 years at an interest rate of 5.5%.[65][69] In this franework, 1962 was to be considered a transition year, in which all income and expenses of the acquired companies would be transferred to Enel. 1963 was thus the first operational year of the newly formed company.[70][71][72][73]

The first companies to be acquired were:[74]

1963-1970: Modernization and development of the network[edit]

Enel’s early goals were the modernisation and development of the electricity grid with the construction of high voltage backbones, international connections, connection to the islands, the electrification of rural areas and the creation of the National Center for dispatching. These projects were to be co-financed by the state through the issuing - in 1965 - of bonds of a value of over 200 billion Italian liras.[79][80] In 1967 Enel’s supervision was redirected from the Committee of Ministers to the interministerial Committee for Economic Planning (CIPE), under the Ministry of Industry.[65][81][82] During this period, the production of thermoelectric power surpassed for the very first time that of hydroelectric power.[83][84]

National dispatch centre[edit]

In 1963 the National Dispatch Centre of Rome was created in order to manage the energy flows on the network by coordinating the production plants, the transmission network, the distribution as well as the interconnection of the Italian electricity system with that of foreign countries, by adjusting in real time the production and transmission of energy on the basis of the actual demand.[3][74][80][85][86][87][88]

Rural electrification[edit]

In terms of rural electrification the settlements that were not connected to the electricity grid went from 1.27% in 1960 to 0.46% in 1964, with over 320,000 new residents connected. In the five-year period between 1966 and 1970 further investments for rural electrification were made - 80% of the costs were covered by the state and 20% by Enel - those were complemented by reduced rates as an incentive for agricultural development.[89][90][91][92][93]

High-voltage network and connection to the islands[edit]

In 1968 the construction work of the 380 kV connection between Florence and Rome began with the aim of joining the high voltage electrical system of the north with that of the south centre.[94][95] Around the same time international high voltage connections with France (380 kV Venaus-Villarodin, 1969) and Switzerland were also put in place.[59][96]

In the same years undersea electrical cables were put in place to connect the peninsula and the islands of Elba (1966),[97] Ischia (1967)[97][98] and Sardinia through Corsica (1967).[84]

The Vajont disaster[edit]

Enel was involved in the Vajont Dam disaster, which took place at the Vajont reservoir, which was artificially created to produce a large quantity of hydroelectric power. On October 9, 1963 a huge landslide of 260 million cubic metres fell into the reservoir. The dam and power plant had been built by SADE (Società Adriatica di Elettricità – Adriatic Electricity Company) and then sold to Edison and had just been transferred as part of the nationalisation process to the newly set up Enel.

The impact of the landslide created huge waves in the Vajont reservoir, which partially flooded the villages of Erto e Casso and swept over the dam, totally wiping out the towns in the valley below it: Longarone, Pirago, Rivalta, Villanova and Faè. Approximately two thousand people died in the disaster. Enel and Montedison, were charged at the ensuing trial as the companies responsible for the disaster, a responsibility considered all more serious because of the predictability of the event. The two companies were forced to pay damages to the communities involved in the catastrophe.

1970-1980: The energy crisis and the search for new sources[edit]

Enel advert "For a better and more economical energy" during the years of the energy crisis (1976-1977)[99][100]

The decade of the 1970s was distinguished by a major energy crisis that led the company to drastic austerity measures and the establishment of a national energy plan that defined the objective of both building new power plants and the search for new energy sources.

The energy crisis[edit]

In 1975, as a result of the oil crisis and the Austerity measures, and following the definition of the first National Energy Plan (PEN), the aim of the company became that of reducing Enel’s dependence on hydrocarbons. This was to be achieved with the use of other energy sources, which included hydro, geothermal, increasing the use of coal, the waste cycle and in particular with the use of nuclear energy.[65][101][102][103][104]

New plants[edit]

Several new plants were built in the course of the decade:[105]

  • In the early 1970s the construction of the nuclear power station Caorso (Emilia-Romagna) - the first major nuclear power plant in Italy (840-860 MW) - began. The station became operational in 1978.[106]
  • Between 1972 and 1978 the hydroelectric plant of Taloro was built in the province of Nuoro (Sardinia).[107]
  • In 1973 the hydroelectric plant of San Fiorano became operational (Lombardy).
  • In 1977 a thermoelectric power plant opened in Torre del Sale, near Piombino (Tuscany).[108]
  • At the end of the 1970s the construction of thermal power plant of Porto Tolle began (Veneto). Its first completed section became active in 1980.[109][110]
  • Between 1971 and 1977 the pilot 1000 kV transmission facilities in Suvereto (Tuscany) were tested.[111][112][113][114][115]
  • Between 1973 and 1977 wells for the production of geothermal energy were drilled in Torre Alfina, in the province of Viterbo (Lazio).[116][117]
  • In 1974 the construction work of the Adriatic high voltage electric backbone was completed.[118][119][120]
  • The dam of Alto Gesso (Piedmont) was completed in 1982 as part of the hydroelectric power station Luigi Einaudi "Entracque".[121][122]

1980-1990: renouncing nuclear power[edit]

The 1980-1990 decade was characterised by the construction of new plants and testing of alternative forms of energy, as well as a gradual reduction of oil reliance that went from 75.3% in 1973 to 58.5% by 1985.[123][124][125]

In 1986 Enel had its first positive balance, with 14 billion and 100 million Italian liras gross profit.[126][127][128][129]

Finally, in 1987, in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, the first referendum on nuclear power took place. This marked the end of nuclear power in Italy, the closing and suspension of all construction of nuclear power stations and the establishment of a new national energy plan.

New plants and alternative energy[edit]

In the same decade the following plants became active:[130]

With regards to alternative energy:

During 1985 the national center for the dispatch and control of the electricity network was gradually transferred from the center of Rome to Settebagni, and made a part of a bigger European network of synchronisation of the production of electricity.[161][162]

Referendum, the closing of nuclear power plants and the new national energy plan[edit]

Following the Chernobyl disaster of 1987, a referendum sanctioned the interruption of all production of nuclear power in Italy. In relation to existing nuclear power plants or those that were under construction at the time:[106][163][164][165][166]

  • The nuclear power station of Caorso (Emilia-Romagna), that had been inactive since 1986 due to refuelling, was never reactivated and was finally closed in 1990
  • In 1987, the nuclear power station Enrico Fermi, in the village of Trino Vercelli (Piedmont) was deactivated - with all plans of a second plant cancelled. The plan was finally shut in 1990
  • In 1988 the work started in 1982 for the construction of the nuclear power station Alto Lazio, located in Montalto di Castro, were interrupted. In 1989 it was converted into a multi-fuel plant
  • In 1988, the nuclear power station of Latina (Lazio) was shut,
  • The nuclear power plant of Garigliano (Campania) had been shut since 1978.

In 1988 the new National Energy Plan (PEN) established its key objectives as: increase energy efficiency; environmental protection; exploitation of national resources; diversification of supply sources from abroad; overall competitiveness of the production system.[163][167][168][169][170][171]

1990-2000: liberalisation and privatisation[edit]

Enel's new logo designed in 1998 by Bob Noorda for the company's privatisation.[20]

Between 1990 and 2000 the country witnessed a progressive liberalisation of the electricity market.[163]

In July 1992, the Amato I Cabinet turned Enel into a limited company with the Treasury as the sole shareholder.[172]

In 1999 the Bersani Decree mark the beginning of the liberalisation of the electricity market; a corporate restructuring of Enel began, with the unbundling of the production, transmission, dispatch and sale of energy.[173][174][175]

New plants and alternative energy[edit]

  • In 2000 Enel launched a project to connect Italy and Greece’s power grid by laying an underwater power line of 160 km length to connect Otranto (Apulia) with the Greek city of Aetos (Peloponnese) and capable of carrying 600 megawatts. The project, completed in 2002, had a total cost of 339 million euros.[176][177][178]

With regards to alternative energy:

Liberalisation, privatization and stock market launch[edit]

  • In 1991 Law No. 9/1991 sanctioned a first partial liberalization of the production of electricity generated from conventional sources and renewable sources; companies were allowed to produce electricity for their own use with the obligation to hand over the excess amount to Enel.[163][185][186]
  • In 1999 the D'Alema I Cabinet issued the Legislative Decree no. 79 of 16 March 1999 - (known as the Bersani Decree) - to liberalise permanently the electricity sector. This opened up the possibility for other actors to operate in the energy market. Enel, that had so far been the only actor in the production, distribution and sale of electricity in Italy, had now to change its corporate structure by distinguishing the three phases and constituting three different companies: Enel Produzione, Enel Distribuzione and Terna (Terna was sold by Enel in 2005). Moreover, Enel was given a maximum threshold of electrical energy production equal to 50% of the entire production on national soil.[175][187][188][189][190][191][192]
  • In 1999, 31.7% of the company – in its new structure – was privatised. Following privatization Enel was put on the stock market; its shares were listed on the Italian Stock Exchange with a value of 4.3 euro per share; the total supply was of 4.183 million shares for a total value of 18 billion euros.[193][194][195][196][197][198]

Other operations[edit]

2000-2010: environmental policies and internationalization[edit]

During the 2000-2010 decade, the company worked on policies to reduce the environmental impact of the production of energy and on a progressive internationalization of Enel through a number of mergers and acquisitions.[204][205][206]

Environmental policies[edit]

Enel Green Power logo.

Mergers and acquisitions[edit]

  • In 2000, Enel - through its subsidiary Erga - acquired CHI Energy, a renewable energy producer operating in the US and Canadian markets; the operation cost Enel $170 million.[214][215][216]
  • In 2001 Enel won the tender offer for the purchase of Viesgo - a subsidiary of Endesa – a company active on the Spanish market in the production and distribution of electricity with a net installed capacity of 2400 MW.[217][218][219][220]
  • In 2002 Enel divested Eurogen SpA, Elettrogen SpA and Interpower SpA in compliance with the Bersani Decree provisions on the liberalization of the electricity production.[224][225][226][227]

New plants and alternative energy[edit]

Other operations[edit]

Recent news[edit]

In October 2014, Enel signed a memorandum of understanding with the Bank of China for a financing deal worth €1 billion for the following five years.[250]

Profile[edit]

Enel is Italy’s largest power company, and Europe’s second listed utility by installed capacity. It is an integrated player, active in the power and gas sectors. Enel operates in more than 40 countries worldwide, has around 95,000 MW of net installed capacity and sells power and gas to more than 61 million customers.

Carbon intensity[edit]

year Production (TWh) Emission (Gt CO2) kg CO2/MWh
2002 228 120.4 529
2003 232 115.51 499
2004 222 111.92 514
2005 206 106.52 528
2006 193 92.99 495
2007 185 92.25 498
2008 186 83 447
2009 170 77.29 454

Activities[edit]

Business[edit]

Enel produces, distributes and sells electricity and gas all over Europe, North America and Latin America. After taking over the Spanish electricity company Endesa, together with its partner Acciona, Enel is now in business in 40 countries, with a capacity of around 83,000 MW, and serves over 49 million customers supplying electricity and gas.

Enel is also the second utility company in the natural gas market in Italy, with approximately 2.6 million customers and a 10% market share in terms of volume.

Approximately 80,000 people work for Enel running a highly diversified power station park including hydroelectric, thermoelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind and photovoltaic generation. In 2009, Enel posted revenues of more than 64 billion euros (+4.7% compared with 2008), EBITDA of more than 16 billion euros (+12.1% compared with 2008) and net income of 5.4 billion euros (+1.9% compared with 2008). As of June 30th 2010, the Group has over 80,000 employees and operates a wide range of hydroelectric, thermoelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind-power, photovoltaic and other renewables’ plants. About 44% of the power generated by Enel is carbon free. Enel is strongly committed to the development of renewable energy sources and to the development of new environmental friendly technologies.

On December 1, 2008 Enel established Enel Green Power, the Group’s Company dedicated to the development and management of power generation from renewable energy, operating around 5,800 MW of installed capacity relying on hydro, wind, geothermal, solar, biomass and co-generation sources in Europe and the Americas.

Enel was the first utility in the world to replace its 32 million Italian customers’ traditional electromechanical meters with modern electronic devices that make it possible to take meter readings in real time and manage contractual relationships remotely. This innovation, which is key to the development of smart grids, has attracted interest from many utilities around the world. In Spain, Endesa is about to install 13 million electronic meters to its customers.

After completing the sale of non-core assets, Enel has focussed on consolidating the businesses taken over abroad in the electricity and gas sectors and further integrating its business.

International Presence[edit]

Enel's global presence

With power plants generating over 30,000 MW from renewable energy sources (water, geothermal, wind, solar and biomass) in Europe and in the Americas, Enel is one of the world leaderscitation needed in the power generation industry. Additionally, Enel is strongly committed to increasing the percentage of power from renewable sources and to research and development of new environmentally friendly technologies with many projects in Italy and abroad.

On 17 September 2008, Enel set up Enel Green Power, the Group company devoted to development and management of electricity generation from renewable sources everywhere in the world, a company that operates hydroelectric, wind power, geothermal, photovoltaic and biomass plants producing a total of 4,500 MW in Europe and in the Americas.

Enel has power plants in Europe (Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Spain), in North America (Canada and the United States) and in Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico and Panama). With Endesa, Enel’s presence is extended to Argentina, Colombia, Morocco, Peru and Portugal.

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium Enel produces energy for a total capacity of 406 MW with the Marcinelle Energie power plant.[251]

Bulgaria[edit]

Enel is present in Bulgaria through Enel Green Power that acquired two wind farms in 2008 and doubled their capacity by 2010, for a total of 42 MW. The plants are located in Kamen Bryag and Shabla in the north-east of the country along the coast of the Black Sea.[252][253][254] The plants were scheduled to be sold in 2011.[255][256][257]

Cyprus[edit]

In Cyprus Enel operates in the territory via Enel Trade; the company participates for 12.5% in a consortium for the exploration and production of gas in the Leviathan gas field located between Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon.[258][259][260][261][262]

France[edit]

Enel supplies electricity in France and owns 5% of the energy exchange Powernext.[263]

Greece[edit]

In Greece, Enel operates through Enel Green Power’s hydropower (19 MW), photovoltaic (71 MW) and wind (199 MW) power plants for a total of 289 MW.[264][265][266][267][268]

Netherlands[edit]

In the Netherlands, Enel operates though a number of financing companies (Enel Finance International N.V., Enel Investment Holding B.V., International Endesa B.V.) that raise funds through bond issuances and other forms of financing, and invest in the production and distribution of electricity. Enel is also present through Endesa Energia S.A., a company that sells gas and electricity to large customers in Europe.[269]

Romania[edit]

In Romania, Enel has over 2.6 million customers through majority shares in a number of electricity distribution companies in Sud-Muntenia, including in Bucharest, in the Banat and in Dobruja.[270] The sale of these companies, announced in mid 2014, was withdrawn in early 2015. Through Enel Green Power, Enel is also one of the country’s electricity manufacturers, with a total capacity of 534 MW.[270][271]

Russia[edit]

Enel is active in Russia in a number of different areas:[272]

  • through Enel Russia’s thermal power stations it produces electricity for a total capacity of 9,677 MW.[273][274]
  • in the resale of electricity, with RusEnergoSbyt.
  • in the distribution of electricity with the installation of electronic electricity meters.

Slovakia[edit]

In Slovakia Enel owns 66% of Slovenské Elektrárne, which was acquired in 2006. Enel produces electricity for a total of 5,700 MW[275] from nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power.[276] From the end of 2014, Enel has received several offers from buyers interested in acquiring its shares of Slovenské Elektrárne.[277]

Spain and Portugal[edit]

Through its participation in Endesa, Enel is currently the main operator in Spain and Portugal, with a total electricity production of 23,474 MW (6,500 MW of which is renewable ) and over 11 million customers in the electricity market, and 1.2 million in the gas market.[278] In addition, Enel produces renewable energy with Enel Green Power España, for a total capacity of 1,745 MW in Spain, and of 163 MW in Portugal.[279][280]

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey Enel takes part in the exploration for the production of geothermal energy with Enel Green Power and the group Meteor Uzun.[281][282][283]

United States and Canada[edit]

In the United States of America and in Canada Enel Green Power North America (formerly known as Enel North America[284]), a company controlled by Enel Green Power, generates hydropower, geothermal and wind power, and biomass for a total capacity of 2,083 MW (1,980 MW in the US, and 103 MW in Canada).[285]

Latin America[edit]

In 2014 Enel - through Enel Green Power - is the second largest producer of solar energy in Latin America. Projects scheduled for the coming years are going to increase tenfold the photovoltaic production, turning the company into the first photovoltaics manufacturer in the region.[286]

Argentina[edit]

In Argentina Enel produces electricity through Endesa (Chile)’s subsidiaries - Endesa Costanera, Hidroeléctrica El Chocón, and Dock Sud - for a total capacity of 4.522 MW.[287][288] Through EDESUR Enel distributes electricity to over 2.3 million customers in the country.[289]

Brazil[edit]

Enel produces electricity in Brazil through its subsidiaries Endesa Fortaleza and Cachoeira Dourada for a total capacity of 987 MW. Enel also operates in the transmission of electricity through Endesa CIEN, as well as in the distribution through:[290]

  • Ampla, which covers both the city and the State of Rio de Janeiro with over 2.6 million customers.
  • Coelce, in the State of Ceará, with over 3.4 million customers.

Through one of its subsidiaries, Enel Brasil Participações Ltda, Enel Green Power produces electricity from renewable sources for a total of 376 MW - 203 MW of solar energy and 173 MW of hydroelectric power - with plans to expand to 378 MW.[290][291][292][293][294][295]

Chile[edit]

In Chile Enel produces electricity for 6,590 MW. Through Enel Green Power Chile, Enel produces over 300 MW between hydropower and wind power, and is currently exploring options for geothermal energy.[296][297][298][299][300][301][302][303]

Colombia[edit]

In Colombia Enel produces electricity for a total capacity of 2,994 MW.[304] Enel Green Power develops projects for alternative energy in the country.[305][306]

Costa Rica[edit]

Through Enel de Costa Rica S.A., a subsidiary of Enel Green Power Latin America, Enel produces electricity for a total of 55 MW, of which 24 MW is wind generated and 31 MW comes from hydroelectric power.[307][308] The new hydropower plant Chucas, currently under construction, will generate an additional 50 MW.[309][310][311][312][313][314][315]

Ecuador[edit]

Following an agreements signed at the end of 2011 Enel currently explores for geothermal energy sources in Ecuador.[316]

Guatemala[edit]

Through Enel Green Power Guatemala, Enel produces electricity – generated entirely from hydroelectric power - for a total of 163 MW in the country.[317][318][319]

Mexico[edit]

Enel has been present in Mexico since 2007. Through Enel Green Power it produces energy for 399 MW, of which 346 MW is wind power, and 53 MW is hydroelectricity.[320][321][322][323][324]

Panama[edit]

Enel Fortuna – a subsidiary of Enel Green Power Panama - produces energy with a total capacity of 300 MW, which is calculated as 23% of the national demand for 2014. The company’s plan is to build new solar power plants in order to generate a further 29.9 MW.[325][326][327][328]

Peru[edit]

In Peru Enel produces electricity for a total capacity of 1,802 MW.[329] Since 2011, Enel Green Power Peru has been working to develop alternative energy sources in the country and obtaining various concessions for electricity plants.[330][331][332][333][334][335]

Uruguay[edit]

Through Enel Green Power, Enel has been building a wind power plant for 50 MW in Uruguay.[336][337][338][339][340]

Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

In Algeria, Enel holds 13.5% of the gas reserves in the Illizi Basin, in the southeast of the country, and 18.4% of the field of Isarene.[258] In 2014, together with Dragon Oil, Enel acquired the gas exploration licenses for two additional areas, Msari Akabli and Tinrhert North. In Msari Akabli Enel is also going to be the first operator with a stake of 70%, while Tinrhert North it will own a 30% stake.[341][342][343][344][345][346]

Egypt[edit]

In Egypt Enel holds 10% of the gas exploration licence for the area of El Burullus.[347][348][349][350]

Morocco[edit]

Enel manufactures electricity in Morocco with Energie Electrique de Tahaddart, for a total capacity of 384 MW.[351] In 2010, Enel Green Power took part in the tender for the construction of a solar thermal power plant.[352] [353] At the beginning of 2014 Enel Green Power was given the objective to produce wind power in Morocco.The plan was implemented in late 2014 with the participation in the call for the construction of 5 plants for a total capacity of 850 MW.[354][355][356][357]

South Africa[edit]

In South Africa Enel Green Power owns a photovoltaic power plant with a total capacity of 10MW. Enel’s future plan is to build a number of wind farms and photovoltaic power plants for a total capacity of 513 MW.[356][358][359][360][361][362]

Subsidiaries[edit]

Italy[edit]

In Italy Enel owns the following companies that produce, distribute and resell electricity:[363]

  • The whole of Enel Produzione and, through Enel Produzione the following:
    • 49% of Hydro Dolomiti Enel.[364]
    • 40% of SE Hydropower – scheduled to be sold to Società Elettrica Altoatesina in the first half of 2015.[365][366]
    • 51% of ENergy Hydro Piave.
  • The whole of Enel Servizio Elettrico – that deals with the sale of electricity on the regulated market.[367]
  • The whole of Enel Energia – that deals with the sale of electricity and natural gas on the free market and to end customers. Enel Energia also owns 100% of Enel.si, a company that offers renewable energy solutions to end customers and franchises “Punto Enel Green Power”.[368]
  • In the production of electricity from renewable resources Enel owns 69.171% of Enel Green Power – which in turn owns several subsidiaries worldwide, in Europe, North America, and South America.[369]

With regards to infrastructures and grids Enel owns:[363][370]

  • 100% of Enel Distribuzione - for the distribution of electricity.
  • 100% of Enel Sole – which deals with public and artistic lighting.

For trading on international markets and in Italy, as well as for the procurement and sale of energy products including gas, Enel owns 100% of Enel Trade, which in turn owns 100% of Enel Trade Romania, Enel Trade Croatia and Enel Trade Serbia.[74][363]

Through Enel Trade, Enel also owns Nuove Energie, a company that specialises in the construction of regasification plants.[74][363][371]

Europe[edit]

In Belgium, through Enel Investment Holding, Enel owns 100% of Marcinelle Energie - owner of the homonymous power plant which was acquired in 2008 by Duferco Diversification.[372][373][374] The company was scheduled to be sold to Gazprom with a letter of intent in 2013, at the beginning of 2014 the sale was pending regulatory changes and not yet completed.[375][376][377][378][379][380]

In France Enel owns 5% of the French energy exchange Powernext.[263]

In Spain - through its subsidiary Enel Iberoamerica (previously known as Enel Energy Europe[365]) – Enel holds 70.1% of Endesa, acquired in 2009 with a stake of 92.06%.[381][382][383][384] The acquisition earned Enel the 2009 Platts Global Energy Award for Deal of the Year.[385]

Enel has been operational in Russia since 2004:[386]

  • Through Enel Investment Holding BV, it owns 56.43% of Enel Russia (formerly OGK-5).[272][273][387][388]
  • Since 2008, through Enel Investment Holding BV, it also owns 49.5% of the electricity supplier RusEnergoSbyt.[389]

In 2013 Rosneft, through NGK Itera, bought 40% of Enel’s stake in Arctic Russia BV, a company which owned 19.6% of SeverEnergia.[390][391][392][393][394][395]

Latin America[edit]

In Argentina Enel controls Edesur thorugh Enersis and Distrilec Inversora S.A., the latter is owned for 51.5% by Enersis.[363][396]

In Chile, through Enel Iberoamerica (formerly known as Enel Energy Europe[365]), as a result of the purchase of Endesa and Endesa Latinoamerica S.A., Enel owns 60.62% of Enersis Chile.[397][398]

In Peru, thorugh Enersis Chile, and following the cartel signed with Inkia America Holding in 2014, Enel owns a 58.6% stake of Edegel Peru.[399]

Main shareholders[edit]

Two largest shareholders as of 23 December 2014 according to data from Consob (Italian Securities and Investments Board) are Italian Ministry of Economy and Finances (31.244%, down to 25.5% as of February 2015[5]) and People's Bank of China (2.071%).[400]

Board of directors[edit]

Board of Directors in office as of December 2014.[401]

Enel Group companies[edit]

The companies currently controlled by the group are listed below in alphabetical order:

  • DEVAL
  • Enel Distribuzione S.p.A.
  • Enel Energia S.p.A.
  • Enel FACTOR
  • Enel Green Power S.p.A.
  • Enel Produzione SPA
  • Enel Servizi
  • Enel Servizio Electrico S.p.A.
  • Enel SO.LE
  • Enel.si
  • Enel Trade S.p.a.
  • Punt.Enel

Current situation[edit]

Between 2002 and 2004, the conclusion of the reorganisation process provided for in the Bersani Decree, sales of the company’s interests in water management and real estate assets, permitted Enel to implement a new strategy focussing on its core business, that is energy. Enel is committed to a process of diversification of energy sources to reduce dependency on oil and gas and, as a consequence, also reduce the price of energy.

On 30 July 2008, Enel inaugurated a new clean coal power plant at Civitavecchia, a project which began at the end of 2003. It involved conversion of an old power plant run on fuel oil. The new plant has a total capacity of 1,980 MW, comprises three units and is able to satisfy 50% of electricity demands for the Lazio Region. By using improved technology, the plant reduces total emissions by 88% and CO2 emissions by 18%. Enel has plans for a similar conversion of the plant at Porto Tolle (Rovigo), where the authorisation procedure is still under way.

With regard to gas, some years ago Enel concluded construction of 5 combined cycle power plants to replace traditional gas-fuelled plants, increasing efficiency and reducing emissions. With its subsidiary Nuove Energie, Enel is also working on a project to build a regassifier with a capacity of 8 billion cubic metres at Porto Empedocle (Agrigento, Sicily), for which the authorisation procedure is nearing conclusion. The plant will make it possible to import gas into Italy in liquid form, using special methane tanker ships, and then feed it into the distribution mains. Attention to ethical aspects has also increased over recent years, recognised at world level with the inclusion of Enel in the most prestigious stock exchange indexes which take into account the commitment of companies to Corporate Social Responsibility.

After fulfilling the obligations under Italian law by completing the sale of Terna (the company that manages the national power grid), Enel has devoted itself to internationalisation of its business by finalising a number of very significant take-overs including Slovenské elektrárne (SE) the most important electricity company in Slovakia and the second most important in Central-Eastern Europe, a number of distribution companies in Romania, the Russian Ogk 5 generating company and the Spanish electricity company Endesa.

At the end of 2006, the Group presented a pro-environment plan, involving investments in renewable sources and for research and application of the best technologies for reduction of emissions. In this field, Enel is working on a number of avant-garde projects for CO2 capture and storage. Considered by the European Commission to be some of the most interesting in this field, these projects aim to generate electricity from fossil fuel with “zero emissions”: using CO2 capture and storage technologies, flue gases will in fact be captured in the chimney stacks and safely stored in deep aquifers or exhausted methane or oil fields.

At the end of 2008/beginning of 2009, Enel began selling off a number of assets to reduce its financial debts, which had increased over the previous months, due to the takeover of 92% of the capital of Endesa. The assets sold included Enel Linee Alta Tensione (high voltage power transmission grid), sold by Enel Distribuzione to Terna in December 2008, and 80% of Enel Rete Gas (31,000 km of gas distribution pipelines, 99.98% controlled by Enel Distribuzione which will in any case maintain a minority shareholding of around 20%), on 29 May 2009 to a consortium headed by F2I (F2i Fondi Italiani per le Infrastrutture)and AXA, for the sum of 480 million euros. The contract will now have to be approved by the Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato (the Italian Competition Authority) and AEEG (the Italian Authority for Electricity and Gas).

Again to improve the financial stability of the Group, on 1 June 2009 Enel launched a capital increase of a total of around 8 billion euros.

On Nov. 11, 2014, the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma filed suit against Enel's subsidiary. Osage Wind LLC, an 84-turbine industrial wind project in Osage County, Okla.[402] In the suit, the United States alleges that Enel and Osage Wind are illegally converting minerals owned by the Osage Nation, a Native American tribe that has owned all mineral rights in the county since 1871.[403] The suit says that Osage Wind should have obtained a permit from the Bureau of Indian Affairs before mining rock and other material for the pits in which turbine bases are built. The United States asked that all excavating on the 8,500 acre site cease and that dozens of turbines that are already being erected be removed.[404] Osage Wind has insisted that it is not mining and needs no permit. The company says that it has already spent nearly $300 million on the project, which is being built on privately owned fee land, not land held in trust for American Indians.[402]

Osage Wind LLC and a second and adjacent Enel wind project, Mustang Run, are also embroiled in challenges pending before the Oklahoma Supreme Court in which the Osage Nation and Osage County, Okla., are challenging the constitutional legitimacy of permits for both projects.[405][406]

Enel's troubles[edit]

The company had to exit El Salvador electricity market after a long dispute with the Government of El Salvador [1]. The constitution of El Salvador (Art 109) states that the natural resources (underground) are the country's property and the government would not allow foreign companies to be the sole proprietor of the geothermic generation. Both parties came to a settlement in 2014, but no details have been released.

Another setback for Enel has been the recent loss it had with the government of Slovakia where it had been demanding over EUR 94 million from the Ministry of Economy in compensation for lost earnings it claims to have incurred as price proposals were rejected by utilities regulator URSO.

Read more: Slovakia Wins Lawsuit with Slovenske Elektrarne/Enel | The Daily Slovakia http://www.thedaily.sk/slovakia-wins-lawsuit-with-slovenske-elektrarneenel/#ixzz3XE66d0mN.

Also as per an article of December 2014 in bne INTELLINEWS www.bne.eu/, "Slovakia puts more obstacles in way of Slovenske Elektrarne sale," (Prime Minister Robert) "Fico claims the Italian utility has blocked access to information that would allow Bratislava to assess if the plant’s profit is fairly distributed between Enel and the Slovak state, TASR news agency reported."[2].

Prices[edit]

Italian prices, in some cases, are more expensive than average European rates, partly because Italy produces 70% of its electricity from hydrocarbons, while in the rest of Europe the same percentage is produced from coal and nuclear fuel. The Authority for Electricity and Gas sets the prices every 3 months based on the fuel price trend. Additionally, national and local authority taxes account for a large part of electricity bills. Following full liberalisation of the electricity market for domestic customers too, which took place on 1 July 2007, Enel has launched a series of commercial offers addressed to families. The latest “Energia tutto compreso” (all-inclusive energy), offers customers a fixed price for their electricity, based on selection of the level of consumption that best suits their needs.

Enel Cuore[edit]

Enel Cuore was founded in October 2003 by the project, supported by Enel and its subsidiaries, in order to create a non-profit organization separate from the company itself and able to carry out activities in support of communities, families and individuals while maintaining the ideals of cooperation.

Balance sheets[edit]

Analysis of Enel’s 2006 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds totalled 38,513 million euros (33,787 million in 2005, + 14.0%). EBITDA were 8,019 million euros (7,745 million in 2005, +3.5%); net of an allocation of around 400 million euros for an operating excellence plan, EBITDA 2006 increased by 8.7% over 2005. EBIT were 5,819 million euros (5,538 million in 2005, +5.1%). The Group’s net profits were 3,036 million euros (3,895 million in 2005, - 22.1%); net of the contribution by Wind and Terna, the Group’s net profits in 2006 increased by 1.4% over 2005. Net financial borrowing totalled 11,690 million euros (12,312 million at 31 December 2005, -5.1%). The total dividend offered for the whole 2006 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2006).

Analysis of Enel’s 2007 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds totalled 43,673 million euros (+13.4%), EBITDA were 10,023 million (+25.0%), EBIT were 6,990 million (+20.1%), the Group’s net profits were 3,977 million (+31.0%), net financial borrowing increased to 55,791 million due to the Endesa take-over, total net assets were 23,789 million, the Debt-Equity ratio was 2.35. The dividend offered for the whole 2007 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2007).

Analysis of Enel’s 2008 financial statement[edit]

Proceeds rose to 61,184 million euros (+40.0%), EBITDA were 14,318 million euros (+45.5%), EBIT were 9 million euros (+40.7%), the Group’s net profits increased to 5,293 million euros (+35.2%) net financial borrowing dropped to 49,967 million euros (-10.4%). The dividend offered for the whole 2008 financial year was 0.49 euros per share (of which 0.2 euros per share was paid in advance in November 2008).

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