English as a second or foreign language
English as a second language (ESL) is the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages. It is also known as English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), English as an additional language (EAL), and English as a foreign language (EFL). The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.
English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used.
Other terms used in this field include English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes (ESP), English for academic purposes (EAP). Those who are learning English are often referred to as English language learners (ELL).
Terminology and types 
The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing. English is a language which has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world under many different circumstances. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching has essentially evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live in an English-speaking country and for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms: as many eloquent users of the language have observed, "England and America are two countries divided by a common language." (Attributed to Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, and Oscar Wilde.) The following technical definitions may therefore have their currency contested.
English outside English-speaking countries 
EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the teaching of English in a non–English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works for an organisation or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status (what linguist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries"); it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal and Iranian EFL Journal are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within countries where English is used as a foreign language.
English within English-speaking countries 
The other broad grouping is the use of English within the Anglosphere. In what theorist Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i.e. countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, this use of English is generally by refugees, immigrants and their children. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies and the Philippines (a former U.S. colony), where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by the majority of the population.
In the US, Canada and Australia, this use of English is called ESL (English as a second language). This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language (see also Second language). TESL is the teaching of English as a second language. There are also other terms that it may be referred to in the US including; ELL (English Language Learner) and CLD (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse).
In the UK, Ireland and New Zealand, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). In these countries TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK, people usually use the term EAL (English as an additional language), rather than ESOL, when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify English is not the students' first language, but their second or third.[dead link]
Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term LEP (Limited English proficient) was first used in 1975 by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the US Supreme Court. ELL (English Language Learner), used by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. Recently, some educators have shortened this to EL - English Learner.
Typically, a student learns this sort of English to function in the new host country, e.g. within the school system (if a child), to find and hold down a job (if an adult), to perform the necessities of daily life. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare.
Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD (English as a second dialect) is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for aboriginal Canadians or Australians.[dead link] The term refers to the use of standard English by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. It is often grouped with ESL as ESL/ESD.
Umbrella terms 
All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, all the English teachers in the world cannot agree on just one. The term TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. This is also the case in Canada. British English uses ELT (English language teaching), because TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above.
Systems of simplified English 
Several models of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them:
- Basic English, developed by Charles Kay Ogden (and later also I. A. Richards) in the 1930s; a recent revival has been initiated by Bill Templer
- Threshold Level English, developed by van Ek and Alexander
- Globish, developed by Jean-Paul Nerrière
- Basic Global English, developed by Joachim Grzega
- Nuclear English, proposed by Randolph Quirk and Gabriele Stein but never fully developed
Difficulties for learners 
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is more closely related to English than Chinese is. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition (SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research.
Language learners often produce errors of syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make').
Some students may have very different cultural perceptions in the classroom as far as learning a second language is concerned. Also, cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are significant. For example, a study looked at Chinese ESL students and British teachers and found that the Chinese learners did not see classroom discussion and interaction as important but placed a heavy emphasis on teacher-directed lectures.
English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them. For example:
- The interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (both written as th) are relatively rare in other languages.
- Native speakers of Japanese have difficulty distinguishing /r/ and /l/.
- Native speakers of Spanish, Arabic, Tagalog, Japanese and Korean have difficulty distinguishing [b] and [v].
Languages may also differ in syllable structure; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it (e.g. strengths, straw, desks, glimpsed, sixths). Japanese, for example, broadly alternates consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan often try to force vowels in between the consonants (e.g. desks becomes "desukusu" or milk shake becomes "mirukushēku"). Similarly, in Spanish, a word can begin with [s], and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is Spanish often try to force a vowel in front of the word (e.g. school becomes "escul").
- Tense, aspect, and mood - English has a relatively large number of tense–aspect–mood forms with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten." Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. (See English verbs.)
- Functions of auxiliaries - Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses auxiliary verbs. These include negation (e.g. He hasn't been drinking.), inversion with the subject to form a question (e.g. Has he been drinking?), short answers (e.g. Yes, he has.) and tag questions (has he?). A further complication is that the dummy auxiliary verb do /does /did is added to fulfil these functions in the simple present and simple past, but not to replace the verb to be (He drinks too much./Does he? but He is an addict/Is he?)
- Modal verbs - English has several modal auxiliary verbs, which each have a number of uses. These verbs convey a special sense or mood such obligation, necessity, ability, probability, permission, possibility, prohibition, intention etc. These include "must", "can", "have to", "has to", "need to", "will", "shall", "ought to", "will have to" , "may", and "might".
- For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" (obligation) is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" (lack of obligation, choice). "Must" in "You must not drink the water" (prohibition) has a different meaning from "must" in "You must have eaten the chocolate" (deduction). This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master.
- All these modal verbs or "modals" take the first form of the verb after them. These modals do not have past or future inflection i.e they do not have past or future tense.
- Idiomatic usage - English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage. For example, the use of different main verb forms in such apparently parallel constructions as "try to learn", "help learn", and "avoid learning" pose difficulty for learners. Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a mistake"; and "do a favor", not "make a favor".
- Articles - English has two forms of article: the (the definite article) and a, an (the indefinite article). In addition, at times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article. Some of the differences between definite, indefinite and zero article are fairly easy to learn, but others are not, particularly since a learner's native language may lack articles or use them differently from English. Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently (several times in the average sentence) so that they require some effort from the learner.
- Phrasal verbs - Phrasal verbs (also known as multiple-word verbs) in English can cause difficulties for many learners because they have several meanings and different syntactic patterns. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.
- Prepositions - As with many other languages, the correct use of Prepositions in the English language frequently creates confusion and it can turn out to be quite a frustrating learning experience for ESL/EFL learners. For example, the prepositions "on" (rely on, fall on), "of" (think of, because of, in the vicinity of),and "at" (turn at, meet at, start at) are used in so many different ways and contexts, it is very difficult to remember the exact meaning for each one. Furthermore the same words are often used as adverbs (come in, press on, listen in, step in) as part of a compound verb (make up, give up, get up, give in, turn in, put on), or in more than one way with different functions and meanings (look up, look on, give in) (He looked up her skirt/He looked up the spelling; He gave in his homework/First he refused but then he gave in; He got up at 6 o'clock/He got up the hill/He got up a nativity play). When translating back to the ESL learners' respective L1, a particular preposition's translation may be correct in one context, but when using the peposition in another context, the meaning is sometimes quite different. One "of" my friends translates to (transliterated) "wahed "min" isdiqa'i" in Arabic. "Min" is the Arabic word for "from" .... so one "from" my friends. "I am 'on' page 5" translates to "ich bin 'auf' Seite 5" in German just fine but in Arabic it is "Ana 'fee' safha raqm 5" .... I am "in" page 5.
- Word derivation - Word derivation in English requires a lot of rote learning. For example, an adjective can be negated by using the prefixes un- (e.g. unable), in- (e.g. inappropriate), dis- (e.g. dishonest), non- (non-standard) or a- (e.g. amoral), or several rarer prefixes.
- Size of lexicon - The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, including one stream from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin-derived terms. (Schmitt & Marsden claim that English has one of the largest vocabularies of any known language.) This requires more work for a learner to master the language.
- Collocations - Collocations in English refer to the tendency for words to occur regularly with others. For example, nouns and verbs that go together (ride a bike/ drive a car). Native speakers tend to use chunks of collocations and the ESL learners make mistakes with collocations in their writing/speaking which sometimes results in awkwardness.
- Slang and Colloquialisms In most native English speaking countries, large numbers of slang and colloquial terms are used in everyday speech. Many learners may find that classroom based English is significantly different from how English is spoken in normal situations. This can often be difficult and confusing for learners with little experience of using English in Anglophone countries. Also, slang terms differ greatly between different regions and can change quickly in response to popular culture. Some phrases can become unintentionally rude if misused.
Differences between spoken and written English 
- Spelling and pronunciation: probably the biggest difficulty for non-native speakers, since the relation between English spelling and pronunciation does not follow the alphabetic principle consistently. Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling, and the large influx of foreign words (mainly from Danish, Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek) with different and overlapping spelling patterns, English spelling and pronunciation are difficult even for native speakers to master. This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees that generally require the memorization of words. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions, leading to a considerable amount of rote learning. The spelling and pronunciation system causes problems in both directions: a learner may know a word by sound but be unable to write it correctly (or indeed find it in a dictionary) or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation. However, despite the variety of spelling patterns in English, there are dozens of rules that are 75% or more reliable.
Varieties of English 
- England, the historical home of English, has significant regional language differences in pronunciation, accent, vocabulary and grammar.
- The thriving communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world also have some noticeable differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.
- English has no organisation that determines the most prestigious form of the language - unlike the French language which has the Academie de la langue française, Spanish language's Real Academia Española, the Brazilian Portuguese Academia Brasileira de Letras, or the Italian Accademia della Crusca.
Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for their purposes, but also exposure to regional forms and cultural styles so that the student will be able to discern meaning even when the words, grammar or pronunciation are different from the form of English they are being taught to speak. Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs. For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English, linguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many Englishes that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field."
Social challenges and benefits 
Class placement 
ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and Math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy. Studies have shown that these tests can cause different passing rates among linguistic groups regardless of high school preparation.
Dropout rates 
Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%. High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up in mainstream classes, the increasing number of ESL students who enter middle or high school with interrupted prior formal education, and accountability systems. The accountability system in the US is due to the No Child Left Behind Act. Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities. Because dropouts actually increase a school’s performance, critics claim that administrators let poor performing students slip through the cracks. A study of Texas schools operating under No Child Left Behind found that 80% of ESL students did not graduate from high school in five years.
Access to higher education 
ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses.
ESL students can also face additional financial barriers to higher education because of their language skills. Those that don’t place high enough on college placement exams often have to enroll in ESL courses at their universities. These courses can cost up to $1,000 extra, and can be offered without credit towards graduation. This adds additional financial stress on ESL students that often come from families of lower socioeconomic status. The latest statistics show that the median household income for school-age ESL students is $36,691 while that of non-ESL students is $60,280.[not in citation given] College tuition has risen sharply in the last decade, while family income has fallen. In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grant, the maximum grant for the year 2011-2012 covered only about a third of the cost of college.
Interaction with native speakers 
ESL students often have difficulty interacting with native speakers in school. ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their English ability. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge about pop culture, which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics. In classroom group activities with native speakers, ESL students often do not participate, again because of embarrassment of their English, but also because of cultural differences which value silence and individual work at school over social interaction and talking in class. These interactions have been found to extend to teacher-student interactions as well. In most mainstream classrooms, teacher led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms. ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier, cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.
Social benefits 
Supporters of ESL programs claim they play an important role in the formation of peer networks and adjustment to school and society in their new homes. Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers. ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture, the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings. ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.
Exams for learners 
Learners of English are often keen to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally:
- TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language), an Educational Testing Service product, developed and used primarily for academic institutions in the USA, and now widely accepted in tertiary institutions in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, the UK, South Korea, and Ireland. The current test is an Internet-based test, and is thus known as the TOEFL iBT. Used as a proxy for English for Academic Purposes.
- iTEP (International Test of English Proficiency), developed by former ELS Language Centers President Perry Akins' Boston Educational Services, and used by colleges and universities such as the California State University system. iTEP Business is used by companies, organizations and governments, and iTEP SLATE (Secondary Level Assessment Test of English) is designed for middle and high school-age students.
- PTE Academic (Pearson Test of English Academic), a Pearson product, measures reading, writing, speaking and listening as well as grammar, oral fluency, pronunciation, spelling, vocabular and written discourse. The test is computer-based and is designed to reflect international English for academic admission into any university requiring English proficiency.
- TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), an Educational Testing Service product for Business English used by 10,000 organizations in 120 countries. Includes a listening and reading test as well as a speaking and writing test introduced in selected countries beginning in 2006.
- Trinity College London ESOL offers the Integrated Skills in English (ISE) series of 5 exams which assesses reading, writing, speaking and listening and is accepted by academic institutions in the UK. They also offer Graded Examinations in Spoken English (GESE), a series of 12 exams, which assesses speaking and listening, and ESOL Skills for Life and ESOL for Work exams in the UK only.
- University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations offers a suite of eighteen globally available examinations including General English: Key English Test (KET), Preliminary English Test (PET), First Certificate in English (FCE), Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) and Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE).
- London Tests of English from Pearson Language Tests, a series of six exams each mapped to a level from the Common European Framework (CEFR) - see below.
- Secondary Level English Proficiency test
- MTELP (Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency), is a language certificate measuring a students English ability as a second or foreign language. Its primary purpose is to assess a learner's English language ability at an academic or advanced business level.
Many countries also have their own exams. ESOL learners in England, Wales and Northern Ireland usually take the national Skills for Life qualifications, which are offered by several exam boards. EFL learners in China may take the College English Test. In Greece English students may take the PALSO (PanHellenic Association of Language School Owners) exams.
The Common European Framework 
Between 1998 and 2000, the Council of Europe's language policy division developed its Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries.
The Common European Framework (CEF) divides language learners into three levels:
- A. Basic User
- B. Independent User
- C. Proficient User
Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing (A1, A2, B1, etc.).
This table compares ELT exams according to the CEF levels:
|CEF Level||ALTE Level||NQF Level||PTE General||Trinity College London ESOL GESE||Trinity College London ESOL ISE||UBELT exam||IELTS||Cambridge ESOL BULATS||Cambridge ESOL BEC||Cambridge ESOL General||Cambridge ESOL YLE||Cambridge ESOL Skills for Life[dead link]|
|C2||Level 5||Level 3||Level 5||Grade 12||ISE IV||4.0-5.0||8.5-9.0||90-100||n/a||CPE||n/a||n/a|
|C1||Level 4||Level 2||Level 4||Grade 10,11||ISE III||3.0-3.5||7.0-8.0||75-89||Higher||CAE||n/a||Level 2|
|B2||Level 3||Level 1||Level 3||Grade 7,8,9||ISE II||2.0-2.5||5.5 - 6.5||60-74||Vantage||FCE||n/a||Level 1|
|B1||Level 2||Entry 3||Level 2||Grade 5,6||ISE I||1.5||4.0 - 5.0||40-59||Preliminary||PET||n/a||Entry 3|
|A2||Level 1||Entry 2||Level 1||Grades 3,4||ISE 0||1.0||n/a||20-39||n/a||KET||Flyers||Entry 2|
|A1||Breakthrough||Entry 1||Level A1||Grade 2||n/a||<1.0||n/a||0-19||n/a||n/a||Movers||Entry 1|
Qualifications for teachers 
Non-native speakers 
Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers. They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialization in teaching English. For example, teachers in Hong Kong hold the Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers. Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers (see below). Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry becomes more professional, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these.
United States qualifications 
Most U.S. instructors at community colleges private language schools and universities qualify to teach English to adult non-native speakers by completing a Master of Arts (MA) in TESOL. Other degrees may be a Master in Adult Education and Training or Applied Linguistics.. This degree also qualifies them to teach in most EFL contexts. There is also a growing number of online programs offering TESOL degrees .<> In fact,"the growth of Online Language Teacher Education (OLTE)programs from the mid-1990s to 2009 was from 20 to more than 120"<>
In many areas of the United States, a growing number of K-12 public school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs (English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English.) The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction. This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. In some states, an additional specialization in ESL/ELL is required. This may be called an "endorsement". Endorsement programs may be part of a graduate program or may be completed independently to add the endorsement to the initial teaching certificate.
An MA in TESOL may or may not meet individual state requirements for K-12 public school teachers. It is important to determine if a graduate program is designed to prepare teachers for adult education or K-12 education.
The MA in TESOL typically includes second language acquisition theory, linguistics, pedagogy, and an internship. A program will also likely have specific classes on skills areas such as reading, writing, pronunciation, and grammar. Admission requirements vary and may or may not require a background in education and/or language.
In addition to traditional classroom teaching methods, speech pathologists, linguists, actors, and voice professionals are actively involved in teaching pronunciation of American English—called accent improvement, accent modification, and accent reduction—and serve as resources for other aspects of spoken English, such as word choice.
It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license for K-12 teachers is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams (typically the Praxis test or a specific state test subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams) as well as supervised instruction as student teachers. Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework. ESL certifications are usually only valid when paired with an already existing teaching certificate. Certification requirements for ESL teachers vary greatly from state to state; out-of-state teaching certificates are recognized if the two states have a reciprocity agreement.
British qualifications 
Common, respected qualifications for teachers within the United Kingdom's sphere of influence include certificates and diplomas issued by Trinity College London ESOL and University of Cambridge ESOL (henceforth Trinity and Cambridge).
A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. This is sufficient for most EFL jobs (see TEFL for an extended discussion of travel-teaching) and for some ESOL ones. CertTESOL (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages), issued by Trinity, and CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults), issued by Cambridge, are the most widely taken and accepted qualifications for new teacher trainees. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year.
Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects (including school management and teacher training) can take a diploma course. Trinity offers the Trinity Licentiate Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (DipTESOL) and Cambridge offers the Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (DELTA). These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework. Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT. Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course.
The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. However, in England and Wales, in order to meet the government's criteria for being a qualified teacher of ESOL in the Learning and Skills Sector (i.e. post-compulsory or further education), teachers need to have the Certificate in Further Education Teaching Stage 3 at level 5 (of the revised NQF) and the Certificate for ESOL Subject Specialists at level 4. Recognised qualifications which confer one or both of these include a Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in ESOL, the CELTA module 2 and City & Guilds 9488. Teachers of any subject within the British state sector are normally expected to hold a PGCE, and may choose to specialise in ELT.
South Korea qualifications 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2011)|
To teach English in the Republic of Korea as an ESL teacher, one must be a native speaker from an English-speaking country. This includes the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Ireland. For most public schools, only citizens of the US, UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa are accepted due to visa regulations.
One must have a Bachelor's or Master's degree in any field and must complete 10 years of education in one of the ten accepted countries (from grade 6 to university). One must have no criminal record (minor offenses such as traffic violations will be examined by the immigration office as well).
Teaching experience or language certificates (TESOL/TEFL/TESL/CELTA) are not required, but would be an aiding factor.
Chile qualifications 
Native speakers will often be able to find work as an English teacher in Chile without an ESL teaching certificate. However, many private institutes give preference to teachers with a TEFL, CELTA or TOESL certificate. The Chilean Ministry of Education also sponsors the English Opens Doors program, which recruits native English speakers to come work as teaching assistants in Chilean public schools. English Opens Doors requires only a Bachelors degree in order to be considered for acceptance.
Professional associations and unions 
- Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL Inc.) is a professional organization based in the United States. In addition, there are many large state-wide and regional affiliates, see below.
- The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
- Professional organisations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece, or the Society of Pakistan English Language Teachers (SPELT). Some of these organisations may be bigger in structure (supra-national, such as TESOL Arabia in the Gulf states), or smaller (limited to one city, state, or province, such as CATESOL in California). Some are affiliated to TESOL or IATEFL.
- The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.
- National Union of General Workers is a Japanese union which includes English teachers.
- University and College Union is a British trade union which includes lecturers of ELT.
Acronyms and abbreviations 
See also: Language education for information on general language teaching acronyms and abbreviations.
Types of English 
- BE - Business English
- EAL - English as an additional language. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- EAP - English for academic purposes
- EFL - English as a foreign language. English for use in a non-English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- EIL - English as an international language (see main article at International English)
- ELF - English as a lingua franca
- ELL - English language learner. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- ELT - English language teaching. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- ESL - English as a second language. English for use in an English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- ESOL - English for speakers of other languages. This term is used differently in different countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- ESP - English for specific purposes, or English for special purposes (e.g. technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters).
- EST - English for science and technology (e.g. technical English, scientific English).
- TEFL - Teaching English as a foreign language. This link is to a page about a subset of TEFL, namely travel-teaching. More generally, see the discussion in Terminology and types.
- TESL - Teaching English as a second language. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- TESOL - Teaching English to speakers of other languages, or Teaching English as a second or other language. See the discussion in Terminology and types.
- TYLE - Teaching Young Learners English. Note that "Young Learners" can mean under 18, or much younger.
Other abbreviations 
- BULATS - Business Language Testing Services, a computer-based test of business English, produced by CambridgeEsol. The test also exists for French, German, and Spanish.
- CELT - Certificate in English Language Teaching, certified by the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (ACELS).
- CELTA - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults
- CELTYL - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners
- DELTA - Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults
- ECPE - Examination for the Certificate of Proficiency in English
- IELTS - International English Language Testing System
- LTE - London Tests of English by Pearson Language Tests
- OLTE- Online Language Teacher Education
- TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language
- TOEIC - Test of English for International Communication
- UCLES - University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, an exam board
See also 
Language terminology 
- Foreign language
- Glossary of language teaching terms and ideas
- Language education
- Second language
- Second-language acquisition
- Standard Marine Communication Phrases
General language teaching and learning 
English language teaching and learning 
- English Language Institute an educational facility
- L2 collaborative writing
- Non-native pronunciations of English
- Structured English Immersion, a framework for teaching English language learners in public schools
- Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), for an extended discussion of travel-teaching
- Assistant Language Teacher
Contemporary English 
Dictionaries and resources 
References and notes 
- The Basic Skills Agency[dead link]
- Saskatchewan Learning[dead link]
- Cf. Ogden, Charles K. (1934), The System of Basic English, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., and Templer, Bill (2005), “Towards a People’s English: Back to BASIC in EIL”, Humanising Language Teaching September 2005.
- Cf. van Ek, J.A. / Alexander, L.G. (1980), Threshold Level English, Oxford: Pergamon.
- Cf. Grzega, Joachim (2005), "Reflection on Concepts of English for Europe: British English, American English, Euro-English, Global English", Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 44-64, and Grzega, Joachim (2005), “Towards Global English via Basic Global English (BGE): Socioeconomic and Pedagogic Ideas for a European and Global Language (with Didactic Examples for Native Speakers of German), Journal for EuroLinguistiX 2: 65-164, and the press releases accessible via the Basic Global English website.
- Cf. Quirk, Randolph (1981), “International Communication and the Concept of Nuclear English”, in: Smith, Larry E. (ed.), English for Cross-Cultural Communication, 151-165, London: Macmillan, and Stein, Gabriele (1979), “Nuclear English: Reflections on the Structure of Its Vocabulary”, Poetica (Tokyo) 10: 64-76.
- McKay, Sharon; Schaetzel, Kirsten, Facilitating Adult Learner Interactions to Build Listening and Speaking Skills, CAELA Network Briefs, CAELA and Center for Applied Linguistics, July 2008
- Jin, L., & Cortazzi, M. (1998). "The culture the learner brings: A bridge or a barrier? In M. Byram & M. Fleming (Eds.), Language learning in intercultural perspective: Approaches through drama and ethnography. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
- McGuinness, Diane. (2004). Early Reading Instruction Cambridge: MIT Press 41.
- Abbott, M. (2000). Identifying reliable generalizations for spelling words: The importance of multilevel analysis. The Elementary School Journal 101(2), 233-245.
- McDorman, Richard E. (2012). "Understanding African-American English (AAE): A Course in Language Comprehension and Cross-Cultural Understanding for Advanced English Language Learners in the United States".
- Troyna, Barry. Providing Support or Denying Access? The experiences of students designated as ‘ESL’ and ‘SN’ in a multi‐ethnic secondary school. University of Warwick. doi:10.1080/0013191930450101.
- Kanno, Yasuko. "Immigrant and Refugee ESL Students’ Challenges to Accessing Four-Year College Education: From Language Policy to Educational Policy". Journal of Language, Identity and Education.
- Patkowski, Mark. Basic Skills Tests and Academic Success of ESL College Students. TESOL Quarterly. JSTOR 3587096.
- DelliCarpini, Margo. "Teacher Collaboration for ESL/EFL Academic Success". The Internet TESL Journal.
- Watt, David. "The Dynamics of ESL Dropout".
- Oleck, Joan. "NCLB's Accountability Requirement Feeds Drop-out Rates". School Library Journal.
- "A distictive population". Education Week.
- Stern, Linda (October 27, 2011). "College Costs Outpace Inflation: College Board". Reuters.
- Harklau, Linda. ESL Versus Mainstream Classes: Contrasting L2 Learning Environments. TESOL Quarterly. JSTOR 3587433.
- Sources for this are found at the university websites. Given that there are thousands of tertiary institutions that accept one or more of these for entrance requirements, they simply can not be footnoted individually here
- http://www.cambridgeesol.org/exams/general-english/sfl/levels.html[dead link]
- "TESOL Certificates. Teaching or Deceiving the EFL/ESL Teaching Profession" by Tom Davidson, March 2008 volume 2 TESOL Law Journal
- Egbert, J. & Thomas, M. (2001) The new frontier: A case study in applying instructional design for distance teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 9(3), 391-405
- Murray, D. (2013) A case for online English language teacher education. The International Research Foundation for English Language Educationhttp://www.tirfonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/TIRF_OLTE_One-PageSpread_2013.pdf
Further reading 
|About English as a second or foreign language|
- La Perla, Joann, "Order, Chaos and Gentle Revolutions: A Brief and Personal History of ESL Instruction for Immigrants", 1986-10-25, paper presented at Union County College's conference, "Literature and the Immigrant Experience" (Cranford, NJ, October 25, 1986).
- Meunier, Fanny; Granger, Sylviane, "Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching", Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008
- Grace Hui Chin Lin & Paul Shih Chieh Chien (2009). An Introduction to English Teaching, Germany 
- Grace Hui Chin Lin & Patricia J. Larke (2007). English Education in Texas, USA <http://taiwanaggies.com/node/523>
- International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
- International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in Philippines
- NCELA - National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition
- BBC World Service - Learning English
- TESOLacademic.org - Video talks from leaders in the field and others about issues in TESOL
- ESLinsider, How-to videos for ESL teachers, resources and PDF guides
- Teach.com, Salary and General Information about TESOL
- English as a Second Language at the Open Directory Project