The EU three (or EU 3, sometimes G-3) refers to France, Germany and the United Kingdom. These countries are considered great powers, with their influence within the European Union and outside it. The EU 3 attempts to lead the policy of the EU, though more often as the G6 post-2004, and in particular, EU foreign policy: for example when they led EU efforts attempting to cease the nuclear programme in Iran.
"EU 3 + 3" (also referred to as the "E3+3" or "E3/EU+3") refers to a grouping which includes the EU 3 and China, Russia, and the United States. It was coined when these states joined the diplomatic efforts with Iran in regards to its nuclear program. In the United States and Russia, it is more commonly known as P5+1, which refers to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany.
- Bretherton, Charlotte; John Vogler (2006). The European Union as a Global Actor. Routledge. pp. p.174. ISBN 9780415282451.
- Strategic Vision: America & the Crisis of Global Power, Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski, pp 43-45. ISBN 9780465029556. Published 2012.
- Iran’s nuclear programme, Strategic Comments, Volume 10, Issue 9, November 2004, International Institute for Strategic Studies
- EU calls for UN action over Iran, BBC News, 12 January 2006
- Kaveh L Afrasiabi (1 Apr 2006). "Iran: Options for a face-saving solution". Asia Times. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
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