E number

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This article is about the food additive codes. For other uses, see E number (disambiguation).
A solution of E101 riboflavin (also known as Vitamin B2)
Crystals of E621 Monosodium glutamate, a flavour enhancer

E numbers are codes for substances which can be used as food additives for use within the European Union[1] and Switzerland (the "E" stands for "Europe").[2] They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union.[3] Safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority.[4]

Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with colours. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickeners and gelling agents.[5]

Numbering scheme[edit]

The numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System (INS) as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee,[6] though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. E numbers are also encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Australia, New Zealand[7] and Israel. They are increasingly, though still rarely, found on North American packaging,[8] especially in Canada on imported European products.

Colloquial use[edit]

In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, and products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". Since many components of natural foods have E numbers (and the number simply is a synonym for the chemical component), e.g., vitamin C (E300) and lycopene (E160d), this is incorrect.

Classification by numeric range[edit]

E number range Subranges Description
100–199 (full list)
Colours
100–109 yellows
110–119 oranges
120–129 reds
130–139 blues & violets
140–149 greens
150–159 browns & blacks
160–199 gold and others
200–299 (full list)
Preservatives
200–209 sorbates
210–219 benzoates
220–229 sulphites
230–239 phenols & formates (methanoates)
240–259 nitrates
260–269 acetates (ethanoates)
270–279 lactates
280–289 propionates (propanoates)
290–299 others
300–399 (full list)
Antioxidants & acidity regulators
300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C)
306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E)
310–319 gallates & erythorbates
320–329 lactates
330–339 citrates & tartrates
340–349 phosphates
350–359 malates & adipates
360–369 succinates & fumarates
370–399 others
400–499 (full list)
Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers
400–409 alginates
410–419 natural gums
420–429 other natural agents
430–439 polyoxyethene compounds
440–449 natural emulsifiers
450–459 phosphates
460–469 cellulose compounds
470–489 fatty acids & compounds
490–499 others
500–599 (full list)
pH regulators & anti-caking agents
500–509 mineral acids & bases
510–519 chlorides & sulphates
520–529 sulphates & hydroxides
530–549 alkali metal compounds
550–559 silicates
570–579 stearates & gluconates
580–599 others
600–699 (full list)
Flavour enhancers
620–629 glutamates & guanylates
630–639 inosinates
640–649 others
700–799 (full list)
Antibiotics
700–713
900–999 (full list)
Miscellaneous
900–909 waxes
910–919 synthetic glazes
920–929 improving agents
930–949 packaging gases
950–969 sweeteners
990–999 foaming agents
1100–1599 (full list)
Additional chemicals
1100–1599 New chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemes

NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals, particularly in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes.

Full list[edit]

The list shows all components that have or had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of currently allowed additives see here.

E100–E199 (colours)[edit]

Code Name(s) Colour Status
E100 Curcumin (from turmeric) Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), formerly called lactoflavin Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E101a Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9]
E102 Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5) Lemon yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E103 Alkannin[11] Red-brown
E104 Quinoline Yellow WS Dull or greenish yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK.[citation needed]
E105 Fast Yellow AB Yellow
E106 Riboflavin-5-Sodium Phosphate Yellow
E107 Yellow 2G Yellow
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF (Orange Yellow S, FD&C Yellow 6) Yellow-orange Approved in the EU.[9] Banned in Norway.[12] Products in the EU require warnings and its use is being phased-out.[citation needed] Approved in the US.[10]
E111 Orange GGN Orange
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmine (Natural Red 4) Crimson Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E121 Citrus Red 2 Dark red Approved in the United States only for use in colouring the skin of oranges.[13]
E122 Carmoisine (azorubine) Red to maroon Approved in the EU.[9] Undergoing a voluntary phase-out in the UK. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA .[citation needed] EU currently evaluating health risks.[citation needed]
E123 Amaranth (FD&C Red 2) Dark red Approved in the EU.[9]
E124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4R) Red Approved in the EU.[9]
E125 Ponceau SX, Scarlet GN Red Only permitted for externally applied drugs and cosmetics in the US.[14][15][16]
E126 Ponceau 6R Red
E127 Erythrosine (FD&C Red 3) Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E128 Red 2G Red
E129 Allura Red AC (FD&C Red 40) Red Approved in the EU.[9] Banned in Switzerland[citation needed]. Undergoing a voluntary phase out in the UK. Approved in the US.[10]
E130 Indanthrene blue RS Blue
E131 Patent Blue V Dark blue Approved in the EU.[9]
E132 Indigo carmine (indigotine, FD&C Blue 2) Indigo Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E133 Brilliant Blue FCF (FD&C Blue 1) Reddish blue Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E140 Chlorophylls and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[9]
E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins (i) Copper complexes of chlorophylls (ii) Copper complexes of chlorophyllins Green Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E142 Green S Green Approved in the EU.[9]
E143 Fast Green FCF (FD&C Green 3) Sea green Approved in the US. Banned in the EU.
E150a Plain caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150b Caustic sulphite caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150c Ammonia caramel Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel Brown Approved in the US.[10]
E151 Black PN, Brilliant Black BN Black Approved in the EU.[9]
E152 Carbon black (hydrocarbon) Black
E153 Vegetable carbon Black Approved in the EU.[9]
E154 Brown FK (kipper brown) Brown Approved in the EU for dyeing kippers only, however appears to no longer be used.[17]
E155 Brown HT (chocolate brown HT) Brown Approved in the EU.[9]
E160a Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-carotene Yellow-orange to brown Approved in the EU.[9]
E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin Orange Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160c Paprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, capsorubin Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160d Lycopene Bright to deep red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30) Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9]
E161a Flavoxanthin Golden-yellow and brownish
E161b Lutein Orange-red to yellow Approved in the EU.[9]
E161c Cryptoxanthin Orange-red
E161d Rubixanthin Orange-red
E161e Violaxanthin Orange
E161f Rhodoxanthin Purple
E161g Canthaxanthin Violet Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E161h Zeaxanthin Orange-red
E161i Citranaxanthin Deep violet
E161j Astaxanthin Red
E162 Beetroot Red, Betanin Red Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E163 Anthocyanins pH dependent(Red, green and purple ranges) Approved in the EU.[9]
E164 Saffron Orange-red[colour?] Approved in the US.[10]
E170 Calcium carbonate, Chalk White Approved in the EU.[9]
E171 Titanium dioxide White Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US.[10]
E172 Iron oxides and iron hydroxides Brown Approved in the EU.[9] Approved in the US for sausage casings.[10]
E173 Aluminium Silver to grey Approved in the EU.[9]
E174 Silver Silver Approved in the EU.[9]
E175 Gold Gold Approved in the EU.[9]
E180 Pigment Rubine, Lithol Rubine BK Red Approved in the EU.[9]
E181 Tannin Brown
E182 Orcein, Orchil Purple

E200–E299 (preservatives)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E200 Sorbic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E201 Sodium sorbate preservative
E202 Potassium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E203 Calcium sorbate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E209 Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate preservative
E210 Benzoic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E211 Sodium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E212 Potassium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E213 Calcium benzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E214 Ethylparaben (ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E215 Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E216 Propylparaben (propyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative
E217 Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative
E218 Methylparaben (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E219 Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E220 Sulphur dioxide preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E221 Sodium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E222 Sodium bisulphite (sodium hydrogen sulphite) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E223 Sodium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E224 Potassium metabisulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E225 Potassium sulphite preservative
E226 Calcium sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite (preservative) firming agent Approved in the EU.[9]
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E231 Orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E233 Thiabendazole preservative
E234 Nisin preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E235 Natamycin, Pimaracin preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E236 Formic acid preservative
E237 Sodium formate preservative
E238 Calcium formate preservative
E239 Hexamine (hexamethylene tetramine) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E240 Formaldehyde preservative
E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E249 Potassium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E250 Sodium nitrite preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E251 Sodium nitrate (Chile saltpeter) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E252 Potassium nitrate (Saltpetre) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E260 Acetic acid (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E261 Potassium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium acetate (ii) Sodium diacetate (sodium hydrogen acetate) preservative, acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E263 Calcium acetate (preservative) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E264 Ammonium acetate preservative
E265 Dehydroacetic acid preservative
E266 Sodium dehydroacetate preservative
E270 Lactic acid (preservative) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E280 Propionic acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E281 Sodium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E282 Calcium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E283 Potassium propionate preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E284 Boric acid preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax) preservative Approved in the EU.[9]
E290 Carbon dioxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E296 Malic acid (acid) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E297 Fumaric acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]

E300–E399 (antioxidants, acidity regulators)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E300 Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E301 Sodium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E302 Calcium ascorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E303 Potassium ascorbate antioxidant
E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (Ascorbyl palmitate) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E305 Ascorbyl stearate antioxidant
E306 Tocopherols (natural) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E307 Alpha-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E308 Gamma-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E309 Delta-tocopherol (synthetic) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E310 Propyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E311 Octyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E312 Dodecyl gallate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E313 Ethyl gallate antioxidant
E314 Guaiac resin antioxidant
E315 Erythorbic acid antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E316 Sodium erythorbate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E317 Erythorbin acid antioxidant
E318 Sodium erythorbin antioxidant
E319 tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E322 Lecithin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E323 Anoxomer antioxidant
E324 Ethoxyquin antioxidant
E325 Sodium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E326 Potassium lactate (antioxidant) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E327 Calcium lactate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E328 Ammonium lactate acidity regulator
E329 Magnesium lactate acidity regulator
E330 Citric acid acid, acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citrate (ii) Disodium citrate (iii) Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citrate (ii) Potassium citrate (tripotassium citrate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citrate (ii) Dicalcium citrate (iii) Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate) acidity regulator, firming agent, sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-) (acid) Approved in the EU.[18]
E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tartrate (ii), Disodium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar) (ii) Dipotassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E338 Orthophosphoric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium phosphate (ii) Disodium phosphate (iii) Trisodium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium phosphate (ii) Dipotassium phosphate (iii) Tripotassium phosphate antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium phosphate (ii) Dicalcium phosphate (iii) Tricalcium phosphate anti-caking agent, firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E342 Ammonium phosphates: (i) monoammonium phosphate (ii) diammonium phosphate
E343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium phosphate (ii) Dimagnesium phosphate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives.
E344 Lecitin citrate acidity regulator
E345 Magnesium citrate acidity regulator
E349 Ammonium malate acidity regulator
E350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E351 Potassium malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calcium hydrogen malate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E353 Metatartaric acid emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E354 Calcium tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E355 Adipic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E356 Sodium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E357 Potassium adipate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E359 Ammonium adipate acidity regulator
E363 Succinic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E365 Sodium fumarate acidity regulator
E366 Potassium fumarate acidity regulator
E367 Calcium fumarate acidity regulator
E368 Ammonium fumarate acidity regulator
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone acidity regulator
E380 Triammonium citrate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E381 Ammonium ferric citrate acidity regulator
E383 Calcium glycerylphosphate acidity regulator
E384 Isopropyl citrate acidity regulator
E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, (Calcium disodium EDTA) sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E386 Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (Disodium EDTA) sequestrant
E387 Oxystearin stabiliser
E388 Thiodipropionic acid
E389 Dilauryl thiodipropionate
E390 Distearyl thiodipropionate
E391 Phytic acid
E392 Extracts of rosemary Approved in 2010[21]
E399 Calcium lactobionate

E400–E499 (thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E400 Alginic acid (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E401 Sodium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E402 Potassium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E403 Ammonium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E404 Calcium alginate (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E405 Propane-1,2-diol alginate (Propylene glycol alginate) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E406 Agar (thickener) (gelling agent) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[20]
E407 Carrageenan (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E408 Bakers yeast glycan
E409 Arabinogalactan
E410 Locust bean gum (Carob gum) (thickener) (stabiliser) (gelling agent) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E411 Oat gum (thickener) stabiliser
E412 Guar gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[20]
E413 Tragacanth (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic) (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E415 Xanthan gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[20]
E416 Karaya gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E417 Tara gum (thickener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[20]
E418 Gellan gum (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E419 Gum ghatti (thickener) (stabiliser) emulsifier
E420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup (emulsifier) (sweetener) humectant Approved in the EU.[22]
E421 Mannitol (anti-caking agent) sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E422 Glycerol (emulsifier) sweetener Approved in the EU.[18]
E424 Curdlan
E425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20] May not be used in confectionery owing to choking risk.[citation needed]
E426 Soybean hemicellulose Approved in the EU.[20]
E427 Cassia gum Approved in 2010[21]
E429 Peptones
E430 Polyoxyethene (8) stearate (emulsifier) stabiliser
E431 Polyoxyethene (40) stearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E432 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E433 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E434 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E435 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E436 Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E441 Gelatine (emulsifier) gelling agent
E442 Ammonium phosphatides emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E443 Brominated vegetable oil emulsifier
E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate emulsifier
E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E446 Succistearin
E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diphosphate (ii) Trisodium diphosphate (iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate (iv) Dipotassium diphosphate (v) Tetrapotassium diphosphate (vi) Dicalcium diphosphate (vii) Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E451 Triphosphates (i) Sodium triphosphate (pentasodium triphosphate) (ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyphosphates (ii) Potassium polyphosphates (iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate (iv) Calcium polyphosphates (v) Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E459 Beta-cyclodextrin emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E461 Methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E462 Ethyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E464 Hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E466 Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose
E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Croscarmellose) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20] This additive is under discussion and may be included in a future amendment to the Directive on miscellaneous additives
E469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxymethylcellulose emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[20]
E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[20]
E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E472g Succinylated monoglycerides emulsifier
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E474 Sucroglycerides emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids, propylene glycol esters of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E478 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1 emulsifier
E479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate emulsifier
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E483 Stearyl tartrate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E484 Stearyl citrate emulsifier
E485 Sodium stearoyl fumarate emulsifier
E486 Calcium stearoyl fumarate emulsifier
E487 Sodium laurylsulphate emulsifier
E488 Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-Glycerides emulsifier
E489 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester emulsifier
E490 Propane-1,2-diol
E491 Sorbitan monostearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E492 Sorbitan tristearate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E494 Sorbitan monooleate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate emulsifier Approved in the EU.[20]
E496 Sorbitan trioleate emulsifier
E497 Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers
E498 Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil

E500–E599 (acidity regulators, anti-caking agents)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E500 Sodium carbonates (i) Sodium carbonate (ii) Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogen carbonate) (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate (acidity regulator) raising agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E501 Potassium carbonates (i) Potassium carbonate (ii) Potassium bicarbonate (Potassium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E503 Ammonium carbonates (i) Ammonium carbonate (ii) Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate) acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E504 Magnesium carbonates (i) Magnesium carbonate (ii) Magnesium bicarbonate Magnesium hydrogen carbonate acidity regulator, anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E505 Ferrous carbonate acidity regulator
E507 Hydrochloric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E508 Potassium chloride (gelling agent) seasoning Approved in the EU.[18]
E509 Calcium chloride (sequestrant) firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E510 Ammonium chloride, ammonia solution (acidity regulator) improving agent
E511 Magnesium chloride firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E512 Stannous chloride antioxidant Approved in the EU.[18]
E513 Sulphuric acid acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii) acid Approved in the EU.[18]
E515 Potassium Sulphates (i) Potassium Sulphate (ii) Approved in the EU.[18]
E516 Calcium sulphate Approved in the EU.[18]
E517 Ammonium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E518 Magnesium sulphate (Epsom salts), (acidity regulator) firming agent
E519 Copper(II) sulphate preservative
E520 Aluminium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E524 Sodium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E525 Potassium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E526 Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator) firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E527 Ammonium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E528 Magnesium hydroxide acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E529 Calcium oxide (acidity regulator) improving agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E530 Magnesium oxide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide (acidity regulator) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E537 Ferrous hexacyanomanganate anti-caking agent
E538 Calcium ferrocyanide anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E539 Sodium thiosulphate antioxidant
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate (acidity regulator) emulsifier
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate (i) Acidic (ii) Basic emulsifier Approved in the EU.[18]
E542 Bone phosphate (Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, Tribasic) anti-caking agent
E543 Calcium sodium polyphosphate emulsifier
E544 Calcium polyphosphate emulsifier
E545 Ammonium polyphosphate emulsifier
E550 Sodium Silicates (i) Sodium silicate (ii) Sodium metasilicate anti-caking agent
E551 Silicon dioxide (Silica) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E552 Calcium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E553a (i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E553b Talc anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E554 Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E555 Potassium aluminium silicate anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E556 Calcium aluminosilicate (calcium aluminium silicate) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E557 Zinc silicate anti-caking agent
E558 Bentonite anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E560 Potassium silicate anti-caking agent
E561 Vermiculite
E562 Sepiolite
E563 Sepiolitic clay
E565 Lignosulphonates
E566 Natrolite-phonolite
E570 Stearic acid (Fatty acid) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E572 Magnesium stearate, calcium stearate (emulsifier) anti-caking agent
E574 Gluconic acid acidity regulator Approved in the EU.[18]
E575 Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator) sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E576 Sodium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E577 Potassium gluconate sequestrant Approved in the EU.[18]
E578 Calcium gluconate firming agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E579 Ferrous gluconate food colouring Approved in the EU.[18]
E580 Magnesium gluconate
E585 Ferrous lactate food colouring Approved in the EU.[18]
E586 4-Hexylresorcinol antioxidant Approved in the EU.[19]
E598 Synthetic calcium aluminates
E599 Perlite

E600–E699 (flavour enhancers)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E620 Glutamic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E621 Monosodium glutamate (MSG) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E622 Monopotassium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E623 Calcium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E624 Monoammonium glutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E625 Magnesium diglutamate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E626 Guanylic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E627 Disodium guanylate, sodium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E628 Dipotassium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E629 Calcium guanylate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E630 Inosinic acid flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E631 Disodium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E632 Dipotassium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E633 Calcium inosinate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E640 Glycine and its sodium salt flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]
E650 Zinc acetate flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[18]

E700–E799 (antibiotics)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E701 Tetracyclines antibiotic
E702 Chlortetracycline antibiotic
E703 Oxytetracycline antibiotic
E704 Oleandomycin antibiotic
E705 Penicillin G potassium antibiotic
E706 Penicillin G sodium antibiotic
E707 Penicillin G procaine antibiotic
E708 Penicillin G benzathine antibiotic
E710 Spiramycins antibiotic
E711 Virginiamycins antibiotic
E712 Flavomycin antibiotic
E713 Tylosin antibiotic
E714 Monensin A antibiotic
E715 Avoparcin antibiotic
E716 Salinomycin antibiotic
E717 Avilamycin antibiotic

E900–E999 (glazing agents and sweeteners)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane (anti-foaming agent) anti-caking agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E901 Beeswax, white and yellow glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E902 Candelilla wax glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E903 Carnauba wax glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E904 Shellac glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E905 Paraffins Approved in the EU.[18]
E905a Mineral oil anti-foaming agent
E905b Petrolatum
E905c Petroleum wax (i)Microcrystalline wax (ii) Paraffin wax glazing agent
E906 Gum benzoic flavour enhancer
E907 Crystalline wax glazing agent
E908 Rice bran wax glazing agent
E909 Spermaceti wax glazing agent
E910 Wax esters glazing agent
E911 Methyl esters of fatty acids glazing agent
E912 Montanic acid esters, Montan acid esters glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E913 Lanolin, sheep wool grease glazing agent
E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax, oxidized polyethylene glazing agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E915 Esters of colophony glazing agent
E916 Calcium iodate
E917 Potassium iodate
E918 Nitrogen oxides
E919 Nitrosyl chloride
E920 L-cysteine improving agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E921 L-cystine improving agent
E922 Potassium persulphate improving agent
E923 Ammonium persulphate improving agent
E924 Potassium bromate improving agent
E924b Calcium bromate improving agent
E925 Chlorine preservative, bleach, improving agent
E926 Chlorine dioxide (preservative) bleach
E927a Azodicarbonamide improving agent
E927b Carbamide (urea) improving agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E928 Benzoyl peroxide (improving agent) bleach
E929 Acetone peroxide
E930 Calcium peroxide (improving agent) bleach
E938 Argon packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E939 Helium packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane packaging gas Rarely used
E941 Nitrogen (packaging gas) propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E942 Nitrous oxide propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E943a Butane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E943b Isobutane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E944 Propane propellant Approved in the EU.[18]
E945 Chloropentafluoroethane propellant
E946 Octafluorocyclobutane propellant
E948 Oxygen packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E949 Hydrogen packaging gas Approved in the EU.[18]
E950 Acesulfame potassium sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E951 Aspartame sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E952 Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium salts, also known as Cyclamate sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E953 Isomalt, Isomaltitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E954 Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E956 Alitame sweetener
E957 Thaumatin (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[22]
E958 Glycyrrhizin (sweetener) flavour enhancer
E959 Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (sweetener) flavour enhancer Approved in the EU.[22]
E960 Steviol glycosides sweetener Approved in the EU.[23]
E961 Neotame sweetener Approved in 2010[21]
E962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt (sweetener) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[22]
E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup (sweetener) (stabiliser) humectant Approved in the EU.[22]
E966 Lactitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E967 Xylitol sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E968 Erythritol sweetener Approved in the EU.[22]
E999 Quillaia extract foaming agent Approved in the EU.[18]

E1000–E1599 (additional chemicals)[edit]

Code Name(s) Purpose Status
E1000 Cholic acid emulsifier
E1001 Choline salts emulsifier
E1100 Amylase stabiliser, flavour enhancer
E1101 Proteases ((i)Protease, (ii)Papain, (iii)Bromelain, (iv)Ficin) stabiliser, flavour enhancer
E1102 Glucose oxidase antioxidant
E1103 Invertase stabiliser Approved in the EU.[20]
E1104 Lipases
E1105 Lysozyme preservative
E1200 Polydextrose stabiliser, thickening agent, humectant, carrier Approved in the EU.[18]
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (carrier) stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1203 Polyvinyl alcohol Approved in 2010[21]
E1204 Pullulan Approved in the EU.[18]
E1400 Dextrin (Dextrins, roasted starch white and yellow) (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1401 Modified starch ((Acid-treated starch) stabiliser) thickening agent
E1402 Alkaline modified starch (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1403 Bleached starch (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1404 Oxidized starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1405 Enzyme treated starch
E1410 Monostarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1411 Distarch glycerol (thickening agent) emulsifier
E1412 Distarch phosphate esterified with sodium trimetasphosphate; esterified with phosphorus oxychloride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1420 Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1421 Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetate (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1423 Acetylated distarch glycerol thickening agent
E1430 Distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine (stabiliser) thickening agent
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1443 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerol
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate (emulsifier) (stabiliser) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch (emulsifier) thickening agent Approved in the EU.[18]
E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate Approved in the EU.[18]
E1501 Benzylated hydrocarbons
E1502 Butane-1, 3-diol
E1503 Castor oil resolving agent
E1504 Ethyl acetate flavour solvent
E1505 Triethyl citrate foam stabiliser Approved in the EU.[18]
E1510 Ethanol
E1516 Glyceryl monoacetate flavour solvent
E1517 Glyceryl diacetate or diacetin flavour solvent
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate or triacetin humectant Approved in the EU.[18]
E1519 Benzyl alcohol
E1520 Propylene glycol humectant Approved in the EU.[18]
E1521 Polyethylene glycol 8000 [24] Approved in 2010[21]
E1525 Hydroxyethyl cellulose thickening agent

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Food labels". Live Well. NHS Choices. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "FAQ - What does the E stand for in the food additives known as E numbers". EUFIC. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  3. ^ European Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners
  4. ^ Food Additives and Ingredients Association, no date, Frequently Asked Questions, accessed 6 March 2010
  5. ^ Food Additives in the European Union
  6. ^ Codex Alimentarius. "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives (Ref: CAC/GL #36 publ. 1989, revised 2009, amended 2011)". Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  7. ^ Food Standards Australia New Zealand, website
  8. ^ See also "Food Additives", Food and Drug Administration website
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Summary of Color Additives for Use in United States in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medical Devices, United States Food and Drug Administration
  11. ^ Additives, Food Standards Australia New Zealand
  12. ^ "Food additives". CBC News. 29 September 2008. Archived from the original on 2013-09-09. 
  13. ^ 21 C.F.R. 74.302
  14. ^ 21 C.F.R. 81.10
  15. ^ 21 C.F.R. 81.30
  16. ^ 21 C.F.R. 82.304
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  21. ^ a b c d e New additives approved for use, Food Standards Agency, Friday 26 November 2010
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers, Food Standards Agency, 26 November 2010
  23. ^ Stevia EU approval
  24. ^ New Zealand Food Safety Authority. "Identifying Food Additives". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 

External links[edit]