Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln is a title that has been created eight times in the Peerage of England.
Earls of Lincoln, First Creation (1143) 
The Earldom was created for the first time probably around 1143 as William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, is mentioned as Earl of Lincoln in 1143 in two charters for the Abbey of Affligem, representing his wife Adeliza of Louvain, former wife of King Henry I.
Earls of Lincoln, Second Creation (after 1143) 
- William de Roumare, Earl of Lincoln (1096–1155) (reverted to Crown)
The Earldom was created for a second time by King Stephen sometime after 1143 for William de Roumare. However, in 1149 or 1150, as William had gone over to the side of Empress Matilda, the King Stephen took the earldom off him and elevated Gilbert de Gant as Earl of Lincoln.
Earls of Lincoln, Third Creation (about 1149) 
- Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln (1120–1156) (reverted to crown)
Earls of Lincoln, Fourth Creation (1217) 
The Earldom was created for a fourth time in 1217 for Ranulph de Blondeville. He had no issue. In April 1231, with the consent of the King, he gifted the Earldom before his death to his sister Hawise of Chester, and she was were formally invested by King Henry III in October 1232. She then gifted the Earldom, again with the consent of the King, to her daughter Margaret de Quincy suo jure, and her son-in-law John de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract. They were formally invested by Henry III in November 1232. Their grandson, the third Earl, married Margaret Longespee. Their daughter Alice inherited the earldom. She was the wife of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. They had no children and the earldom reverted to the Crown on Alice's death in 1348.
- 1217-1231 Ranulf de Blondeville, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1172–1232)
- 1231-1232 Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln suo jure (1180–c.1242) (received as inter vivos gift Apr 1231)
- 1232-1240 John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln (1192–1240) (held jointly by the right of his wife - see below)
- 1232-1266 Margaret de Quincy, 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure (c. 1206–1266) (received as inter vivos gift 23 Nov 1232)
- 1272-1311 Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (1251–1311) (Earldom administered in wardship by his mother Alice of Saluzzo from 1266–1272)
- 1311-1348 Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln suo jure (1281–1348) (reverted to the Crown as she died without issue)
The above list does not contain the men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives who were Countess of Lincoln sou jure, except for John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln. He is included in the above list because he was created Earl of Lincoln by Royal Charter (together with his wife Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln). The other men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives were:
- Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, married Margaret de Quincy in January 1242, died November 1245
- Thomas of Lancaster, husband of Alice de Lacy, became Earl of Lincoln on the death of his father-in-law in February 1311, died March 1322
- Sir Ebolo Lestrange, married Alice de Lacy before November 1324, died September 1335
- Hugh de Frenes, married Alice de Lacy before March 1336, died c. January 1337
As Earl of Lincoln these husbands had immense power with the right to control the estates of their wives.
The above list also does not include Margaret Longespee, the lady who was titled Countess of Lincoln by right of her husband Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln.
Earls of Lincoln, Fifth Creation (1349) 
The Earldom was created for a fifth time in the following year, 1349, when it was revived for Alice's nephew-in-law Henry of Grosmont, who was later created Duke of Lancaster. It became extinct on his death in 1361.
Earls of Lincoln, Sixth Creation (1467) 
- John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1462–1487)
The Earldom was created for a sixth time in 1467 for John de la Pole. He was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, and Elizabeth of York. He predeceased his father and the title became extinct on his death in 1487.
Earls of Lincoln, Seventh Creation (1525) 
- Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1516–1534)
The Earldom was created for the seventh time in 1525 for Henry Brandon. He was the only son of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his wife Mary Tudor. He died at the age of eleven in 1534 when the title became extinct.
Earls of Lincoln, Eighth Creation (1572) 
This creation of the Earldom was made for the eighth time in 1572 for the naval commander Edward Clinton, 9th Baron Clinton (see the Baron Clinton for earlier history of the family). He served as Lord High Admiral under Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented Launceston and Lancashire in the House of Commons. His son, the third Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Great Grimsby and Lincolnshire. In 1610 he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Clinton.
His great-grandson, the fifth Earl, died without surviving issue in 1692 when the earldom and barony separated. The barony fell into abeyance between his aunts (see the Baron Clinton for further history of this title). He was succeeded in the earldom by his second cousin once removed, the sixth Earl. He was the grandson of Sir Edward Clinton, second son of the second Earl. His son, the seventh Earl, served as Paymaster of the Forces, as Constable of the Tower and as Cofferer of the Household. Lord Lincoln married Lucy Sydney (d. 1736), daughter of Robert Sydney, 2nd Earl of Leicester (see the Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family).
His eldest son, the eighth Earl, died as a child and was succeeded by his younger brother, the ninth Earl. He was Cofferer of the Household and Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire and Cambridgeshire. He married his first cousin Catherine Pelham (d. 1760), daughter and heiress of Henry Pelham. In 1756 his uncle the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, with remainder to his nephew Lord Lincoln, and on the Duke's death in 1768 Lincoln succeeded as second Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne according to the special remainder. He assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname of Pelham the same year.
The Duke's two elder sons, George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton, and Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln, both predeceased him. He was therefore succeeded by his third son, the third Duke. He was a Major-General in the Army. On his early death the titles passed to his son, the fourth Duke. He served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire from 1809 to 1839. He was succeeded by his son, the fifth Duke. He was a prominent politician and held office as Chief Secretary for Ireland, as Secretary of State for the Colonies and as Secretary of State for War. His eldest son, the sixth Duke, briefly represented Newark in the House of Commons. The Duke married Henrietta Adele, the wealthy heiress and daughter of Henry Thomas Hope.
He was succeeded by his eldest son, the seventh Duke, who died childless and was succeeded by his younger brother. In 1881 the eighth Duke assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname of Hope on inheriting the substantial Hope estates through his paternal grandmother. On his death the titles passed to his only son, the ninth Duke. He had two daughters but no sons and was succeeded by his third cousin, the tenth Duke. He was the great-grandson of Lord Charles Pelham-Clinton, second son of the fourth Duke. He died unmarried in December 1988, having held the titles for only a month. On his death the dukedom became extinct while he was succeeded in the earldom by his distant relative, the eighteenth Earl, a descendant in the tenth-generation of The Hon Sir Henry Fynes-Clinton, third son of the second Earl. Lord Lincoln lived all his life in Australia, and reportedly learned of his succession from a British newspaper. He wrote a book: Memoirs of an Embryo Earl. The eighteenth Earl died in 2001 and was succeeded by his grandson, whose father had died in 1999. The nineteenth Earl is a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London, and still lives in Australia.
Several other members of the Clinton family have also gained distinction. Edward Clinton, Lord Clinton, son of the fourth Earl, was Member of Parliament for Callington. The Honourable George Clinton, youngest son of the sixth Earl, was a Naval Commander, politician and Colonial administrator. His son General Sir Henry Clinton was Commander-in-Chief of the British in North America from 1778 to 1782. His sons General Sir William Henry Clinton and Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Clinton were also successful military commanders. Lord Edward Pelham-Clinton GCVO, second son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier and courtier.
The seat of the Dukes of Newcastle was Clumber House near Worksop, Nottinghamshire. However, the house was demolished in 1938. The surrounding estate was sold to the National Trust in 1946 and is now a country park featuring a noteworthy Walled Kitchen Garden open to the public.
An extensive collection of papers of the Pelham-Clinton Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne has been deposited at the department of Manuscripts and Special Collections, The University of Nottingham.
- Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln (1512–1585)
- Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of Lincoln (1539–1616)
- Thomas Clinton, 3rd Earl of Lincoln (1568–1619)
- Theophilus Clinton, 4th Earl of Lincoln (1600–1667)
- Edward Clinton, Baron Clinton (1624–1657)
- Edward Clinton, 5th Earl of Lincoln (died 1692)
- Francis Clinton, 6th Earl of Lincoln (1635–1693)
- Henry Clinton, 7th Earl of Lincoln (1684–1728)
- George Clinton, 8th Earl of Lincoln (1718–1730)
- Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, 9th Earl of Lincoln (1720–1794), succeeded as 2nd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne
- George Pelham-Clinton, Lord Clinton (1745–1752)
- Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (1750–1778)
- Henry Pelham-Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (1777–1779)
- Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle, 10th Earl of Lincoln (1752–1795)
- Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle, 11th Earl of Lincoln (1785–1851)
- Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of Newcastle, 12th Earl of Lincoln (1811–1864)
- Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham-Clinton, 6th Duke of Newcastle, 13th Earl of Lincoln (1834–1879)
- Henry Pelham Archibald Douglas Pelham-Clinton, 7th Duke of Newcastle, 14th Earl of Lincoln (1864–1928)
- Henry Francis Hope Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 8th Duke of Newcastle, 15th Earl of Lincoln (1866–1941)
- Henry Edward Hugh Pelham-Clinton-Hope, 9th Duke of Newcastle, 16th Earl of Lincoln (1907–1988)
- Edward Charles Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle, 17th Earl of Lincoln (1920–1988)
- Edward Horace Fiennes-Clinton, 18th Earl of Lincoln (1913–2001)
- Edward Gordon Fiennes-Clinton, Lord Fiennes (1943–1999)
- Robert Edward Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln FZS (born 19 June 1972). Lincoln is the son of Edward Gordon Fiennes-Clinton, Lord Fiennes, and Julia Howson. He succeeded his grandfather in 2001. Educated at Pinjarra High School, he currently lives in Parmelia, Western Australia. Lord Lincoln is a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London
The heir presumptive is the present holder's younger brother the Honourable William Roy Howson (b. 1980). He assumed by Government Licence in 1996 the surname of Howson in lieu of Fiennes-Clinton.
The heir presumptive's heir apparent is his son Jordan Ryder Howson (b. 2004).
See also 
- Lundy, Darryl. "Robert Edward Fiennes-Clinton, 19th Earl of Lincoln". The Peerage.[unreliable source] at thePeerage.com
- Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,[page needed]
- Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages [self-published source][better source needed]
- Linda E., Portraits of medieval women: family, marriage, and politics in England, 1255-1350
- Biographies of the Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne and their predecessors, with links to online catalogues, from Manuscripts and Special Collections at The University of Nottingham