Early Modern Gan

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Early Modern Gan (近代贛語, Qin-tai Gon-ngi) indicates the historical layer of Gan language since the Qing Dynasty and till the beginning of modern times.

The textbook Lei Zi Meng Qiu (類字蒙求) published in the middle of 19th century is used to know about the linguistic form of Nanchang dialect, and scholars find out the language stays almost the same as before. For example, the nasal ending [-m] disappeared into [-n], and 7 tones were used.

Westerners also began to study Gan language during this period. British diplomatic official Edward Harper Parker is the first westerner who recorded Gan language. He noticed his friend Wen-yuan of Fuzhou merged Muddy consonnats with Aspirate consonnats.

Bibles in some Gan dialects were also published at this time.


  • Liu Lunxin (劉綸鑫), On the history of Gan-Hakka (客贛方言史簡論)
  • Li Jun (李軍) and Chen Changfang (陳昌芳), Characteristics of the rhyming, tonal system of Nanchang dialect of the middle 19th century (19世紀中葉南昌話韻母與聲調系統的特點)
  • Laurent Sagart, Les dialectes Gan
  • You Rujie (游汝傑), 西洋傳教士漢語方言學著作書目考述 Google Books