Early childhood education
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Early childhood education (also early childhood learning and early education) refers to the formal teaching of young children by people outside the family or in settings outside the home. "Early childhood" is usually defined as before the age of normal schooling – five years in most nations, though the U.S. National Association for the Education of Young Children defines "early childhood" as before the age of eight.
Early Childhood education often focuses on children learning through play, based on the research and philosophy of Jean Piaget. This belief is centered on the "power of play". It has been thought that children learn more efficiently and gain more knowledge through play-based activities such as dramatic play, art, and social games. This theory plays stems children's natural curiosity and tendencies to "make believe", mixing in educational lessons.
Preschool education and kindergarten emphasize learning around the ages of 3–6 years. The terms "day care" and "child care" do not convey the educational aspects, although many childcare centers use more educational approaches. The distinction between childcare centers and kindergartens has all but disappeared in countries that require staff in different early childhood facilities to have a teaching qualification.
Researchers and early childhood educators both view the parents as an integral part of the early childhood education process. Often educators refer to parents as the child's "first and best teacher".
It is very important for parents to stay engaged in their child's learning process even if they are getting most of their education from a daycare, day home, school etc. The knowledge learnt from a parent will be more cherished and remembered by a child then if any other person taught them, especially at an early age. Early childhood education is crucial to child development and should be entered into cautiously with someone you trust will benefit your child.
Much of the first two years of life are spent in the creation of a child's first "sense of self"; most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year. This is a crucial part of the child's ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people. Early care must emphasize links to family, home culture, and home language by uniquely caring for each child.[according to whom?]
Children who lack sufficient nurturing, nutrition, interaction with a parent or caregiver, and stimulus during this crucial period may be left with developmental deficits, as has been reported in Russian and Romanian orphanages. Children must receive attention and affection to develop in a healthy manner. There is a false belief that more hours of formal education for a very young child confers greater benefits than a balance between formal education and family time. A systematic, international review suggests that the benefits of early childhood education come from the experience of participation; more than 2.5 hours a day does not greatly add to child development outcomes, especially when it detracts from other experiences and family contact.
Note that in some countries/states, and especially in the United Kingdom an infant school caters for the earlier years of primary or elementary education, typically catering for children aged between four and seven years of age. These schools separate children into age groups, teaching the youngest in a separate building from the older pupils. Many believe that education at pre-school ages can significantly affect a person's ability to deal successfully with later life. Some studies supporting this point of view are detailed below.
"Why Does Infant Attention Predict Adolescent Intelligence?" by Sigman, Cohen, and Beckwith. This study found that speaking often to children between the ages of 8 and 24 months of age could significantly improve intelligence later in life. It appears in volume 20 (1997) of the journal Infant Behavior and Development.
A report by Rose and Feldman, August 1997 edition of Child Development suggests that visual recognition skills and tactile-visual skills at ages 7 to 12 months are a significant indicator of later IQ scores.
Visual stimulus and response time as early as 3 months is an indicator of verbal and performance IQ at age 4 years: Dougherty and Haith of the University of Denver, "Infant Expectations and Reaction Time as Predictors of Childhood Speed of Processing and IQ", published in volume 33 (1997) of the journal Developmental Psychology.
Otitis media (a condition that affects hearing) significantly impacts the advancement of infants. "The Effect of Otitis Media with Effusion (ie., with fluid accumulation) on Infants' Detection of Sound" by Lynne Werner and Jeffrey Ward from the University of Washington, Infant Behavior and Development, 20 (2), 1997.
Robert Titzer, of Southeastern Louisiana University, reported on a longitudinal case study in which an infant who was exposed to an interactive video involving words was able to visually recognize more than 100 words by 12 months of age and more than 500 words by age 15 months.
Theory and practice
The Developmental Interaction Approach is based on the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, John Dewey, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. The approach aims to involve children in acquiring competence via learning through discovery.
There are five developmental domains of childhood development- -Physical -Social -Emotional -Language Development -Cognitive Skills
Physical This section refers to how well you're child developing physically. You should keep an eye on their eyesight and how their motor skills are developing, they should be able to do small crafts and do puzzles.
Social This section refers to the connections they've made with people and how well they are interacting with them.
Emotional This section refers to the emotional connections and amount of self-confidence they have.
Language Development This section refers to how well they communicate with people. Also how they represent their feelings and emotions.
Cognitive Skills This section refers to how the child lives in their everyday environment and how they solve everyday problems.
Benefits of early childhood education
In Ypsilanti, Michigan, 3- and 4-year-olds from low-income families who were randomly assigned to a group that did not receive preschool education were five times more likely to have become chronic lawbreakers by age 27 than those who did receive it.
The aforementioned study also found that low-income individuals who were enrolled in a quality preschool program earned on average, by age 40, $5500 per year more than those who were not. Furthermore, the study found that low-income people who were in preschool programs as a child are more likely to graduate from high school, own homes, and have longer marriages. Another study, The Abecedarian Project, shows that low-income children in quality preschool programs are less likely to repeat grades, need special education, or get into future trouble with the law.
The first World Conference on Early Childhood Care and Education took place in Moscow from 27 to 29 September 2010, jointly organized by UNESCO and the city of Moscow. The overarching goals of the are to:
- Reaffirm ECCE as a right of all children and as the basis for development
- Take stock of the progress of Member States towards achieving the EFA Goal 1
- Identify binding constraints toward making the intended equitable expansion of access to quality ECCE services
- Establish, more concretely, benchmarks and targets for the EFA Goal 1 toward 2015 and beyond
- Identify key enablers that should facilitate Member States to reach the established targets
- Promote global exchange of good practices
Notable early childhood educators
- Baby video
- Bright from the Start
- Compensatory education
- Head Start Program
- Montessori education
- Preschool curriculum
- Reggio Emilia approach
- Winner, Melinda (28 January 2009). "The Serious Need for Play". Scientific American.
- Early Years Framework. Scottish Government. 2008. ISBN 978-0-7559-5942-6.
- Oatley, Keith; Jenkins, Jennifer M (2007). Understanding emotions (2nd ed.). Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-4051-3103-2.
- Groark, Christina J., et al (2008). "Special section on Russian orphanages". Infant Mental Health Journal (Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.) 29 (4).
- Farquhar, Sarah-Eve (2008). "The Benefits & Risks of Childcare (ECE) for Young Children: A Review of the Best Available NZ and International Research". New Zealand: ChildForum.
- Shapiro, N.; Nager (1999). "The Developmental-Interaction Approach to Education: Retrospect and Prospect". Occasional Paper Series (New York: Bank Street College of Education).
- "Bank Street Developmental Interaction Approach". State of New Jersey Department of Education.
- Casper, V; Theilheimer, R (2009). Introduction to early childhood education: Learning together. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- "Lifetime Effects: The HighScope Perry Preschool Study Through Age 40". HighScope. 2005.
- Transcript of audio news briefing on the HighScope Perry Preschool Study age 40 findings
- "Long-Term Benefits of Early Childhood Education". National Education Association. 2013.
- "World Conference on Early Childhood Care and Education, Moscow (Russia), 27-29 September 2010".
|About Early childhood education|
- "Early Childhood Education Certification Schools".
- "Early Childhood Care and Education". UNESCO.
- "National Institute for Early Education Research".
- "Early Childhood Education". National Education Association.
- "Heckman Equation for Investing in Early Human Development".
- "International Montessori Index".