Anatomically modern humans

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Homo sapiens sapiens
Adult H. s. sapiens male (left) and female (right) from Southeast Asia
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Tribe: Hominini
Genus: Homo
Species: H. sapiens
Subspecies: H. s. sapiens
Trinomial name
Homo sapiens sapiens
Range of H. s. sapiens (red and light red)

The term anatomically modern humans[1] (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens[2] (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

Anatomically modern humans evolved from archaic Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago.[3] The emergence of anatomically modern human marks the dawn of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens,[4] i.e. the subspecies of Homo sapiens that includes all modern humans. The oldest fossil remains of anatomically modern humans are the Omo remains, which date to 195,000 (±5,000) years ago and include two partial skulls as well as arm, leg, foot and pelvis bones.[5][6]

Other fossils include the proposed Homo sapiens idaltu from Herto in Ethiopia that are almost 160,000 years old[7] and remains from Skhul in Palestine that are 90,000 years old.[8]

Nomenclature and anatomy[edit]

The binomial name for the taxonomic species of the human population is Homo sapiens. The species is usually taken to have emerged from a predecessor within the Homo genus around 200,000 years ago.[9][10]

Anatomical comparison of skulls of Homo sapiens (left) and Homo neanderthalensis (right)
(in Cleveland Museum of Natural History)
Features compared are the braincase shape, forehead, browridge, nasal bone, projection, cheek bone angulation, chin, and occipital contour.

General build[edit]

Generally, modern humans are more lightly built than the archaic people from which they have evolved. Humans are a very variable species; modern humans can show remarkably robust traits, and early modern humans even more so. Despite this, modern humans differ from archaic people (the Neanderthals and Denisovans) in a range of anatomical details. Most of these differences have been identified in the skull, which has copious anatomical details and is also often the only part of a skeleton that is found in archaeological digs.

Braincase anatomy[edit]

The cranium lacks a pronounced occipital bun in the neck, a bulge that anchored considerable neck muscles in Neanderthals. Modern humans, even the earlier ones, generally have a larger fore-brain than the archaic people, so that the brain sits above rather than behind the eyes. This will usually (though not always) give a higher forehead, and reduced brow ridge. Early modern people and some living people do however have quite pronounced brow ridges, but they differ from those of archaic forms by having both a supraorbital foramen or notch, forming a groove through the ridge above each eye.[11] This splits the ridge into a central part and two distal parts. In current humans, often only the central section of the ridge is preserved (if it is preserved at all). This contrasts with archaic humans, where the brow ridge is pronounced and unbroken.[12]

Modern humans commonly have a steep, even vertical forehead whereas their predecessors had foreheads that sloped strongly backwards.[13] According to Desmond Morris, the vertical forehead in humans not only houses larger brains, but plays an important role in human communication through eyebrow movements and forehead skin wrinkling.[14]

Jaw anatomy[edit]

Compared to archaic people, the anatomically modern humans have smaller teeth. This results in a smaller, more receded dentary, making the rest of the jaw-line stand out, giving an often quite prominent chin. The central part of the mandible forming the chin carries a triangularly shaped area forming the apex of the chin called the mental trigon, not found in archaic humans.[15] Particularly in living population, the use of fire and tools require less jaw muscles, giving slender, more gracile jaws. Compared to archaic people, modern humans have smaller lower faces.

Body skeleton[edit]

The body skeleton of even the earliest and most robustly built modern humans was less robust than those of Neanderthals (and from what little we know from Denisovans), having essentially modern proportions. Particularly the bones of the lower limbs (the radius/ulna and tibia/fibula) are as long or longer than the bones of the upper limbs (the humerus and femur). In ancient people, particularly Neanderthals, the lower limbs were shorter, usually thought to be an adaptation to cold climate.[16] The same adaptation can be found in some modern people living in the polar regions though.[17]

Archaic Homo sapiens had robust skeletons indicating that they lived a physically demanding life; this can mean that anatomically modern humans, with their gracile frames, had become dependent on technology rather than on raw physical power to meet the challenges of their environment.

Time of the Hominans[edit]

Skulls of the Hominans

Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics.[18] With the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled to 850 cm3.[19] Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first of the hominina 1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. It is believed that these species were the first to use fire and complex tools. Modern humans evolved from Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessor and, some 50,000 to 100,000 years ago, took the place of local populations of Homo erectus, Homo denisova, Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis.[20][21]

Humanity timeline[edit]

Quaternary extinction event Quaternary extinction event Holocene extinction Holocene extinction Yellowstone Caldera Yellowstone Caldera Toba catastrophe theory Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo antecessor Homo sapiens Homo habilis Homo georgicus Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo (genus) Homo (genus)

Dates approximate, consult articles for details
(From 2000000 BC till 2013 AD in (partial) exponential notation)
See also: Java Man (-1.75e+06), Yuanmou Man (-1.75e+06 : -0.73e+06),
Lantian Man (-1.7e+06), Nanjing Man (- 0.6e+06), Tautavel Man (- 0.5e+06),
Peking Man (- 0.4e+06), Solo Man (- 0.4e+06), and Peştera cu Oase (- 0.378e+05)

Major origin models[edit]

Major origin models

As it is usually presented, there are two major competing models on this subject – recent African origin and multiregional evolution. The debate concerns both the relative amount of replacement or interbreeding that occurred in areas outside of Africa, when waves of humans (or human ancestors) left it to colonize other areas, and the relative importance of more recent waves as opposed to more ancient ones.

mtDNA Tree

The mainstream view, known as the "Out of Africa" or "recent African origin" model, holds that all or nearly all modern human genetic diversity around the world can be traced back to the first anatomically modern humans to leave Africa. This model is supported by multiple and independent lines of evidence, such as the fossil record and genetics. Usually, focusing on the diffusion of humanity by land.[26]

Historically, critics of this view are often bracketed together as holding a "multiregional hypothesis", which was being studied in the early 1980s into the 2000s.[27] Such critics argue that significant amounts of older non-African genetic lineages have survived in various parts of the world through inter-breeding with anatomically modern humans.[28] According to versions of the multiregional model the various human populations around the world today will have surviving genetic material that goes back as far as early humans such as Homo erectus. The human evolutionary genetics data set (Jobling, Hurles and Tyler-Smith, 2004) favor the "Out of Africa" model. Analyses of modern Europeans suggest that no mitochondrial DNA (direct maternal line) originating with Neanderthals has survived into modern times.[29][30][31]

However the recent sequencing of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes shows some admixture. A draft sequence publication by the Neanderthal Genome Project in May 2010 indicates some form of hybridization between archaic humans and modern humans took place after modern humans emerged from Africa. An estimated 1 to 4 percent of the DNA in Europeans and Asians (i.e. French, Chinese and Papua probands) is non-modern, and shared with ancient Neanderthal DNA and not with Sub-Saharan Africans (i.e., Yoruba and San probands),[32] while Melanesians have an additional 1–6% of Denisovan origin.[33]

In practice, controversy is generally about specific periods and specific proposals for periods of such interbreeding. The existence and importance of gene flow out of Africa is generally accepted, while the possibility of isolated instances of inter-breeding between recent sub-Saharan arrivals and their less "modern" contemporaries at various stages of prehistory is not particularly controversial.[34][better source needed] Nonetheless, and according to recent genetic studies, modern humans seem to have mated with "at least two groups" of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans.[35]

Early modern humans[edit]

Skhul V (c. 100,000 BC) exhibiting a mix of archaic and modern traits.

History of finds[edit]

The first early modern humans to be found were the Cro-Magnons in Europe. During the latter half of the 20th century, new finds from all over the world, like those quoted above and others greatly expanded our knowledge of the origin and spread of modern humans. The term Cro-Magnon was sometimes used for all of these, but has now been replaced by the term early modern humans in literature, the term Cro-Magnon now used for finds similar to the original find.[36][37]

Robusticity of early modern humans[edit]

Many of the early modern human finds, like those of Omo, Herto, Skhul, and Peştera cu Oase exhibit a mix of archaic and modern traits.[38][39] Skhul V, for example, has prominent brow ridges and a projecting face. However, the brain case is quite rounded and distinct from that of the Neanderthals and is similar to the brain case of modern humans. It is now known that modern humans north of Sahara and outside of Africa have some archaic human admixture, though whether the robust traits of some of the early modern humans like Skhul V reflects mixed ancestry or retention of older traits is uncertain.[40][41]

Terms and classification[edit]

The term "early" when applied to modern humans is usually restricted to finds from the upper Palaeolithic, ending about 10,000 years ago.[37] This coincides with the end of the last ice age, which also saw the end of the ice age megafauna. At this point the human population of the world switched from a culture of big game hunting to smaller game and later to agriculture.[42][43] With higher population densities, better tools and less demands for brute strength, people all over the world became less robust, resulting in the comparatively more gracile population of today.[44] Thus, anatomically modern humans can roughly be divided into two groups, the early (robust) and post-glacial (gracile) populations.

There are recognized subspecies, for example H. s. sapiens[45] and H.s. idaltu.[46]

Grouping Appellations[47]
Subspecies Populations
Humans H. s. sapiens H. sapiens
H. s. idaltu
Neanderthals H. s. neanderthalis H. neanderthalensis
Archaic Humans H. s. heidelbergensis[48][49] H. heidelbergensis
H. s. rhodesiensis H. rhodesiensis
H. s. antecessor[50] H. antecessor
Denisova hominin[51][52][53] (?)

Modern human behavior[edit]

There is considerable debate regarding whether the earliest anatomically modern humans behaved similarly to recent or existing humans. Modern human behaviors characteristic of recent humans includes a language, the capacity for abstract thought and the use of symbolism to express cultural creativity. There are two opposing hypotheses regarding the origins of modern behavior. Some scholars argue that humans achieved anatomical modernity first, around 200,000 years ago. Later, around 50,000 years ago, humans then adopted modern behaviors. This hypothesis is based on the record of fossils and biogenic substances from periods before 50,000 years ago[54][55] and the human artifacts found after 50,000 years ago.[56] Correspondingly, as stated by Paul Mellars, the view distinguishes anatomically modern humans from behaviorally modern humans.[57]

The opposing view is that humans achieved anatomical and behavioral modernity simultaneously.[58] For example, most views argue that humans had evolved a lightly built skeleton.[59] During this transition to anatomical modernity, this could have occurred through increased human cooperation.[60][61] Additionally, this could have occurred through the increased use of technology, traits characteristic of modern behavior.

See also[edit]

Fossils
Fossil, List of fossil sites (fossils of primates, transitional fossils, and human evolution fossils), Paleontology
Genetic evolution
Haplogroups (Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam), Human evolution (Lamarckism, Modern evolutionary synthesis, and Epigenetics)
Genetic history
Africa, Europe, British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Americas, Italy, North Africa, South Asia
Migration
Early human migrations, Coastal migration, Human migration, Historical migration
Population
Paleodemography (Number of humans who have ever lived), Population reconstruction, World population estimates, Sorites paradox
Religion
Evolutionary origin of religions, Creation myths, Theistic evolution
Lists and charts
List of countries and islands by first human settlement, Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures

Further reading[edit]

Pre-20th- and early 20th-century publications
Contemporary publications

References and notes[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Matthew H. Nitecki, Doris V. Nitecki. Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans. Springer, Jan 31, 1994
  2. ^ Major Events in the History of Life. Edited by J. William Schopf. Pg 168.
  3. ^ Human Evolution: A Neuropsychological Perspective. By John L. Bradshaw. Pg 185
  4. ^ See: Race (human classification) for more on H. s. sapiens
  5. ^ "Fossil Reanalysis Pushes Back Origin of Homo sapiens". Scientific American. February 17, 2005. 
  6. ^ McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H.; Fleagle, John G. (17 February 2005). "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia". Nature 433 (7027): 733–736. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..733M. doi:10.1038/nature03258. PMID 15716951. 
  7. ^ White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C. (2003). "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature 423 (6491): 742–747. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..742W. doi:10.1038/nature01669. PMID 12802332{{inconsistent citations}} 
  8. ^ Trinkaus, E. (1993). "Femoral neck-shaft angles of the Qafzeh-Skhul early modern humans, and activity levels among immature near eastern Middle Paleolithic hominids". Journal of Human Evolution (INIST-CNRS) 25 (5): 393–416. doi:10.1006/jhev.1993.1058. ISSN 0047-2484. 
  9. ^ There is no universal consensus on terminology. See Masters of the Planet: The Search for Our Human Origins. Ian Tattersall. Page 82 (cf. Unfortunately this consensus in principle hardly clarifies matters much in practice. For there is no agreement on what the 'qualities of a man' actually are," [...])
  10. ^ Some scholars include humans of up to 600,000 years ago under the same species. See Handbook of Death and Dying, Volume 1. Clifton D. Bryant. 2003. Page 811. (cf. [...] "'Archaic' Homo sapiens cranium, dating to approximately 600,000 years ago, gives insight into early man's beliefs on death. The Bodo cranium" [...]
  11. ^ Bhupendra, P. "Forhead anatomy". Medscape references. Medscape. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  12. ^ "How to ID a modern human?". News, 2012. Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "Encarta, Human Evolution". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  14. ^ Desmond Morris (2007). "The Brow". The Naked Woman: A Study of the Female Body. ISBN 0-312-33853-8. 
  15. ^ Tattersall, Jeffrey H. Schwartz, Ian (2003). The human fossil record Craniodental Morphology of Genus Homo (Africa and Asia) (vol 2). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 327–328. ISBN 0471319287. 
  16. ^ Steegmann, A. Theodore; Cerny, Frank J.; Holliday, Trenton W. (2002). "Neandertal cold adaptation: Physiological and energetic factors". American Journal of Human Biology 14 (5): 566–583. doi:10.1002/ajhb.10070. PMID 12203812. 
  17. ^ Stock, J.T. (October 2006). "Hunter-gatherer postcranial robusticity relative to patterns of mobility, climatic adaptation, and selection for tissue economy". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131 (2): 194–204. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20398. PMID 16596600. 
  18. ^ Heng HH (May 2009). "The genome-centric concept: resynthesis of evolutionary theory". BioEssays 31 (5): 512–25. doi:10.1002/bies.200800182. PMID 19334004. 
  19. ^ Java Man, Curtis, Swisher and Lewin, ISBN 0-349-11473-0
  20. ^ Stringer, C.B. (1994). "Evolution of Early Humans". In Steve Jones, Robert Martin, David Pilbeam. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-32370-3.  Also ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5 (paperback)
  21. ^ McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis. Evolution: the first four billion years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3. 
  22. ^ See also: Most recent common ancestor
  23. ^ Connections not shown: African H. erectus and Archaic Asians and between Asian H. erectus and Archaic Africans; Gene flow between geographic regions and within time.
  24. ^ See also: Milford H. Wolpoff and Franz Weidenreich
  25. ^ "Eve" is next to the jagged arrow pointing to "Outgroup", and her distance from any nonafrican groups indicates that living human mitochondrial lineages coalesce in Africa.
  26. ^ Other views include maritime dispersal of humans. See, "Neanderthals were sailing the Mediterranean 100,000 years ago". 2/29/12 4:40pm. http://io9.com/5889484/neanderthals-were-sailing-the-mediterranean-100000-years-ago
  27. ^ Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Edited by Scott Elias, Cary Mock. Pg 384.
  28. ^ Our Species Mated With Other Human Species, Study Says. nationalgeographic.com. (news/2002) (cf. "Out of Africa" theory does not support the idea of interbreeding between archaic and modern humans.)
  29. ^ Krings M, Stone A, Schmitz RW, Krainitzki H, Stoneking M, Pääbo S (July 1997). "Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans". Cell 90 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80310-4. PMID 9230299. 
  30. ^ No Neandertals in the Gene Pool, Science (2004).
  31. ^ Serre, D; Langaney, A; Chech, M; Teschler-Nicola, M; Paunovic, M; Mennecier, P; Hofreiter, M; Possnert, G; Pääbo, S (2004). "No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans". PLoS Biology 2 (3): 313–7. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020057. PMC 368159. PMID 15024415. 
  32. ^ Green, RE, Krause, J et al., Briggs, Adrian W., Maricic, Tomislav, Stenzel, Udo, Kircher, Martin, Patterson, Nick, Li, Heng, Zhai, Weiwei, Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang, Hansen, Nancy F., Durand, Eric Y., Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo, Jensen, Jeffrey D., Marques-Bonet, Tomas, Alkan, Can, Prüfer, Kay, Meyer, Matthias, Burbano, Hernán A., Good, Jeffrey M., Schultz, Rigo, Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer, Butthof, Anne, Höber, Barbara, Höffner, Barbara, Siegemund, Madlen, Weihmann, Antje, Nusbaum, Chad, Lander, Eric S. et al. (May 2010). "A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome". Science 328 (5979): 710–22. Bibcode:2010Sci...328..710G. doi:10.1126/science.1188021. PMID 20448178. 
  33. ^ Reich, D et al., Patterson, Nick, Kircher, Martin, Delfin, Frederick, Nandineni, Madhusudan R., Pugach, Irina, Ko, Albert Min-Shan, Ko, Ying-Chin, Jinam, Timothy A., Phipps, Maude E., Saitou, Naruya, Wollstein, Andreas, Kayser, Manfred, Pääbo, Svante, Stoneking, Mark (2011). "Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into southeast Asia and oceania". Am J Hum Genet 89 (4): 516–28. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMC 3188841. PMID 21944045. 
  34. ^ See: Archaic human admixture with modern humans.
  35. ^ Mitchell, Alanna (January 30, 2012). "DNA Turning Human Story Into a Tell-All". New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2012. 
  36. ^ Brace, C. Loring (1996). "Cro-Magnon and Qafzeh — vive la Difference" (PDF). In Haeussler, Alice M.; Bailey, Shara E. Dental anthropology newsletter: a publication of the Dental Anthropology Association (Tempe, AZ: Laboratory of Dental Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University) 10 (3): 2–9. ISSN 1096-9411. OCLC 34148636. Retrieved 31 March 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Fagan, B.M. (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 864. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. 
  38. ^ Oppenheimer, S. (2003). Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. ISBN 1-84119-697-5. 
  39. ^ Trinkaus, E.; Moldovan, O.; Milota, Ș.; Bîlgăr, A.; Sarcina, L.; Athreya, S.; Bailey, S. E.; Rodrigo, R. et al. (2003). "An early modern human from Peștera cu Oase, Romania". PNAS 100 (20): 11231–11236. Bibcode:2003PNAS..10011231T. doi:10.1073/pnas.2035108100. PMC 208740. PMID 14504393. 
  40. ^ Reich, David; Green, Richard E.; Kircher, Martin; Krause, Johannes; Patterson, Nick; Durand, Eric Y.; Viola, Bence; Briggs, Adrian W.; Stenzel, Udo; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Maricic, Tomislav; Good, Jeffrey M.; marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Fu, Qiaomei; Mallick, Swapan; Li, Heng; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Stoneking, Mark; Richards, Michael; Talamo, Sahra; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kelso, Janet; Slatkin, Montgomery & Pääbo, Svante (2010). "Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia". Nature 468 (7327): 1053–1060. Bibcode:2010Natur.468.1053R. doi:10.1038/nature09710. PMID 21179161{{inconsistent citations}} 
  41. ^ Trinkaus, Erik (October 2005). "Early modern humans". Annual Review of Anthropology 34 (1): 207–30. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.030905.154913. 
  42. ^ Martin P. S. (1989). "Prehistoric overkill: A global model". In Martin, P.S., Klein, R.G. Quaternary extinctions: A prehistoric revolution. Tucson, AZ: Univ. Arizona Press. pp. 354–404. ISBN 0-8165-1100-4. 
  43. ^ Updating Martin's global extinction model. Richard Gillespie. Quaternary Science Reviews. Volume 27, Issues 27–28, December 2008, Pages 2522–2529. Ice Age Refugia and Quaternary Extinctions: An Issue of Quaternary Evolutionary Palaeoecology.
  44. ^ McBrearty, S. (1990). "The Origin of Modern Humans". MAN, journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 25 (1): 129–143. JSTOR 2804113. 
  45. ^ Includes all contemporary humans alive today.
  46. ^ Based on fossil evidence of about 160,000 years ago.
  47. ^ Word by which a particular person or thing is called and known. ( http://www.dict.org/ )
  48. ^ The Facts on File Dictionary of Evolutionary Biology. Edited by Elizabeth Owen, Eve Daintith. Pg 115
  49. ^ The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. By Richard Dawkins. Pg 63
  50. ^ The human condition: an introduction to philosophy of human nature. By Nina Rosenstand. Pg 42. (cf. [...] early form of Homo sapiens was discovered, now named Homo sapiens antecessor, [...]
  51. ^ Sample, Ian (March 24, 2010). "New species of human ancestor found in Siberia". The Guardian{{inconsistent citations}} 
  52. ^ Brown, David (March 25, 2010). "DNA from bone shows new human forerunner, and raises array of questions". Washington Post{{inconsistent citations}} 
  53. ^ Krause, Johannes; Fu, Qiaomei; Good, Jeffrey M.; Viola, Bence; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P. & Pääbo, Svante (2010). "The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia". Nature 464 (7290): 894–897. Bibcode:2010Natur.464..894K. doi:10.1038/nature08976. PMID 20336068{{inconsistent citations}} 
  54. ^ Companion encyclopedia of archaeology. Vol. 2. Page 763 (cf., ... "effectively limited to organic samples" [ed. organic compounds ] "or biogenic carbonates that date to less than 50 ka (50,000 years ago).")
  55. ^ See: Radiocarbon dating.
  56. ^ See: Later Stone Age and Upper Paleolithic.
  57. ^ Mellars, Paul (2006). "Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (25): 9381–6. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.9381M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510792103. PMC 1480416. PMID 16772383. 
  58. ^ Late Mousterian lithic technology: its implications for the pace of the emergence of behavioural modernity and the relationship between behavioural modernity and biological modernity
  59. ^ D. Jeffrey Meldrum, Charles E. Hilton. From Biped to Strider: The Emergence of Modern Human Walking, Running and Resource Transport. Springer, Mar 31, 2004
  60. ^ The Biology of Religious Behavior. Edited by Jay R. Feierman. Pg 220
  61. ^ The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology. Edited by Jennifer Vonk, Todd K. Shackelford. Pg 429.

External links[edit]

General information
Museums of Natural History