Earthquake Early Warning (Japan)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Earthquake Early Warning in Japan: When two or more Seismometers[1] detect P-waves (upper), the JMA immediately analyzes the readings and distributes the warning information to advanced users such as; broadcasting stations and mobile phone companies, before the arrival of S-waves (lower).

The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) (緊急地震速報 Kinkyū Jishin Sokuhō?) is a warning issued, just after an earthquake in Japan is detected.[2] The warnings are issued mainly by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and they issue tips on how to react to the warnings.[3][4]

External audio
The alarm of the Earthquake Early Warning on TVs or radios of NHK[5] by ja:伊福部達[6]
The sign sounds of the Earthquake Early Warning by REIC[7]

Introduction[edit]

The JMA has two Earthquake Early Warning schemes. One is for national meteorological and Hydrological services [8] and another is for the general public.[9] Upon detections of a P-wave from any two or more of the 4,235 seismometers installed throughout Japan (as of 1 April 2010), the JMA automatically analyzes and predicts the rough area of epicenter. By doing rough predictions, JMA is able to warn people in prefectures through TV and radio if strong shake is expected.[9]

An Earthquake Early Warning (alert) (緊急地震速報(警報)) is issued to the general public when an earthquake of Japan seismic scale 5-lower or higher is expected.[10] An Earthquake Early Warning (forecast) (緊急地震速報(予報)) is issued to national meteorological and Hydrological services when an earthquake of Japan seismic scale 3 or higher, or magnitude 3.5 or more is expected, or when a measurement of more than a 100 gals is detected in the amplitude of P-wave or S-wave.[10]

The Earthquake Early Warning is set up to enable people to minimize damages caused by an earthquake: people may protect themselves at home, in the office, or near cliffs. Railway workers may use this warning to slow down trains, and factory workers may use it to stop assembly lines before an earthquake.[2]

The credibility of a warning depends on personal position. After receiving a warning, a person may have few seconds or in some cases, have significantly longer time to take action. However, if the epicenter is very close, there may be cases in which strong tremors come ahead of any warning.[11]

After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the early warning system, along with Japan's tsunami warning system, was considered to be effective by Indian scientist Dr. Shailesh Nayak, who helped develop India's warning system. Although the tsunami nonetheless killed over 10,000 people, It was reckoned that way more people would have lost their lives without the early warning system.[12]

In April 2011, the Chilean Subsecretary of Telecommunications disclosed that they also hope to establish a similar earthquake early warning system.[13]

Hit rate[edit]

The JMA announced the hit rate of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) on 31 May 2012, for the end of fiscal year 2011. The hit rate is defined as being here is that the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale (震度 shindo?) number with warning issued immediately upon P-waves detected is fall or hit within plus-minus 1 Magnitude-Shindo Number, ranges 0 to 7, out of ten numbers actually measured Magnitude-Shindo Number as the single earthquake.[14]

  • Fiscal year 2007: 75%
  • Fiscal year 2008: 82%
  • Fiscal year 2009: 76%
  • Fiscal year 2010: 28%
  • Fiscal year 2011: 56%

For the fiscal years 2007 to 2009 the hit rate was recorded as over over 75%. In the fiscal year 2010 the hit rate came down to 28% due to the number of successive aftershocks after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami which occurred near the end of fiscal year 2010. The hit rate for that year had been 72% until the Tohoku earthquake. Measurement techniques have subsequently been refined to ignore small scale earthquakes; the to hit rate for the fiscal year 2011 increased to 56%. The JMA aims to increase hit rate over 85% in fiscal year 2015.

Format of EEW broadcasts[edit]

Television[edit]

On NHK television channels and other Japanese TV broadcasters [15][16][17][18] (Analog TV and ISDB-T including 1seg), an alert consists of a message window that flashes on the screen showing the earthquake epicenter and the areas most vulnerable to strong tremors. At the same time, two sets of chimes sound, after which a voice announces in Japanese:

The alert also informs viewers whether or not there is a risk of a landslide or tsunami caused by the quake in the affected area. If tsunami warnings are issued, the Emergency Warning Broadcast system breaks into the signal and automatically turns on all radios and televisions in the warned areas tuned to NHK at the time the system is activated, so that the warnings are received properly. All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small populations who speak these languages), as well as Japanese, as of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[19]

Mobile phone networks[edit]

Japan's three major mobile phone carriers, NTT docomo, au (KDDI and Okinawa Cellular) and SoftBank Mobile, have developed simultaneous broadcast systems to allow multiple users to receive an SMS telling of the EEW ('Cell Broadcast'). Mobile phones have had this service since 2007.[20][21][22]

It is now mandatory for 3G cellular phones that were put on the market after 2007 to receive this service, though overseas manufacturers (Nokia, Apple, HTC, LG, Samsung, etc.) are not supported. In August 2011, Apple announced that its iOS 5 iPhone platform will support early warning notification.[23]

NTT docomo[edit]

EEW is enabled by default on all models of the FOMA 905i series (FOMA 905iシリーズ?) released on November 26, 2007, some FOMA High-Speed models of the FOMA 705i series (FOMA 705iシリーズ?) released in February 2008 and all the newer models. NTT docomo started the free Area Mail (ja:エリアメール?) EEW service on December 10.[24][25]

au[edit]

EEW is enabled on all models newer than 2008 Spring models released on January 9, 2008, including W61CA, W61H, W61K, W61SA, W61SH, W62SA and a few smartphone models, such as IS02 (TSI01). KDDI and Okinawa Cellular started EEW broadcast via au's Short Message Service called C-mail (ja:Cメール?) for free on March 25, 2008.[26]

SoftBank Mobile[edit]

On May 30, 2007, SoftBank announced development of an EEW broadcast system similar to those of NTT docomo and au.[27] Deployment of this system was originally planned in the fiscal year 2008 but postponed for two years. On August 25, 2010, EEW service started in all areas of the Kansai region, Tokai region, Tohoku region (seven prefectures), Chugoku region, and Shikoku region as well as limited areas of the Kanto region. The EEW broadcast network covers the whole country since December 7, 2010. As of March 2011, ja:SoftBank 831N is the only model that supports EEW, although more models are expected to support EEW after summer 2010.

Other[edit]

RC Solution Co. developed an iPhone application named "Yurekuru Call for iPhone" to receive EEW, which is distributed on the Apple App Store for free; the application is now also available for Android. Notification of an EEW might be delayed or blocked if communication lines are congested.[28][29] The Japan-localized version of iOS 5 for iPhone has built-in EEW functionality.

Radio receivers[edit]

FM radio type, Iris Ohyama Model:EQA-001, front view (upper), rear view (Lower)

The specific and common chime tone from FM stations is automatically detected internally and turns on the radio (if in sleep mode) and loudly sounds a chime tone and EEW message before shaking occurs by S-wave. Once the S-wave has been analyzed, detailed information on the earthquake, such as its seismic scale and the areas under threat, is announced.

These receivers utilize EEW broadcast from radio stations and are free of specific information fees or connection fees. EEW radio waves can be received even in areas where no broadband Internet access is available. The quality of service, rapidity, and service area may vary from station to station.

Radio Stations with the EEW System[edit]

Cable television[edit]

A rental EEW receiver of JCN Funabashi-Narashino

Japanese cable TV stations offer affordable EEW services. For example, Japan Cablenet (ja:ジャパンケーブルネット?) (JCN) rents out a receiver that receives EEW for advanced users and notifies the user of the estimated Shindo scale and the remaining time (0 to 5 seconds).[36][37] Some cable TV stations also broadcast EEW on community radio FM and provide equipment to prefectural and municipal facilities for free.

The Internet[edit]

Weathernews Inc. (ja:ウェザーニューズ?), a weather information company, started a paid service to broadcast EEW for advanced users, The Last 10-Second, targeted at individuals and businesses on October 15, 2007.[38][39][40] This service requires a computer running Windows 2000 or later with an always-on connection to the Internet and offers an affordable alternative to a costly communication terminal used exclusively for EEW. The EEW application installed on the computer can be configured to receive information on all earthquakes with a JMA magnitude of 3.5 or higher or with a seismic intensity of 3 or higher. Newer versions of the program allow for the announcement of lower-intensity earthquakes. When an EEW warning is issued, the program will announce the approximate location of the epicenter, the expected JMA seismic intensity and display a countdown of when major shaking is to be expected.

After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a similar Windows program was made available for free by the Strategy Corporation (ja:ストラテジー株式会社) called SignalNow Express.[41]

On July 7, 2008, ANET Co., Ltd. (ja:ANET アネット?), a disaster prevention technology company of the Railway Technical Research Institute Group, released an application, EQMessenger, to receive ANET Alert, which ciphers and broadcasts EEW information on the epicenter, the estimated seismic intensity at the user's location, and the remaining time before the arrival of the S-wave.[42] When the estimated seismic intensity exceeds the preset level, EQMessenger can sound a warning and display the epicenter, the intensity estimation point, and the arrival of the tremor on a pop-up map.

Identification of EEW capable devices[edit]

The current Earthquake Early Warning logo used by the Japan Meteorological Agency uses a yellow catfish known as a Namazu (鯰). Many earthquake preparedness activities in Japan use the catfish as a mascot, as Japanese lore suggested that earthquakes were caused by a giant catfish making tremors, or that the sight of catfish foretold of earthquakes.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates information from this version of the equivalent article on the Japanese Wikipedia.
  1. ^ 地震・津波と火山の監視・予測 [Monitoring and prediction of earthquake, tsunami and volcano] (PDF) (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. Retrieved 2011-04-03. Seismometers installed at 4,235 locations are working throughout Japan as of 1 April 2010 (per right side figure on page 1) 
  2. ^ a b "What is the Earthquake Early Warning (or "緊急地震速報 (Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho)" in Japanese)?". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  3. ^ "Earthquake Early Warning Starting 1 October 2007". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  4. ^ "How to respond to earthquake early warnings" (in Japanese). NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  5. ^ giving guidelines
  6. ^ Sankei-MSN News (2011-05-01 21:55) "The Earthquake Early Warning - the chime contained the tone of pains, even examined the 'Godzilla'" http://sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/news/110501/dst11050121570027-n1.htm
  7. ^ guidelines for use
  8. ^ http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/NMHS/indexe_nmhs.html
  9. ^ a b 緊急地震速報について|緊急地震速報の内容 (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  10. ^ a b 緊急地震速報のしくみと予報・警報 [About EEW alert and forecast] (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  11. ^ 緊急地震速報とは (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  12. ^ Amitabh Sinha (2011-03-12). "Early warning system saved Japan worst of tsunami wrath". Indian Express. 
  13. ^ "The Japanese earthquake pushed ISDB-T alert system in Chile". NexTV Latam, TV Telco Latam. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  14. ^ 平成24年報道発表資料 [Fiscal year 2012 (Heisei 24) press release, Material No.2 FY 2011 (Heisei 23) task review report] (PDF) (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. 2012-05-31. p. 25/147 sheet, page 2–15. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  15. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SF23K-K96lo Fuji BS TV and the earthquake early warning
  16. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l2P_sS-8gY4 TBS earthquake early warning
  17. ^ https://vimeo.com/49658171 緊急地震速報 (Kinkyū Jishin Sokuhō) in Tokyo MX TV
  18. ^ https://vimeo.com/49658469 Earthquake early warning on TV Asahi
  19. ^ http://vimeo.com/49649525 An actual recording of an emergency broadcast in English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese
  20. ^ 緊急地震速報に対応した一斉同報配信基盤を開発(NTT docomo press release May 30, 2007)
  21. ^ 緊急地震速報に対応した一斉同報配信基盤を開発(KDDI news release May 30, 2007 )
  22. ^ 「緊急地震速報」について(SoftBank Mobile press release May 30, 2007)
  23. ^ http://9to5mac.com/2011/08/21/ios-5-includes-early-earthquake-warning-notifications-for-japanese-iphone-users/
  24. ^ CEATEC ドコモの905i、緊急地震速報を無償で受信可能に(Nikkei ITPro October 2, 2007)
  25. ^ 緊急速報「エリアメール」
  26. ^ 緊急地震速報の提供開始について KDDI Corporation
  27. ^ 「緊急地震速報」について SoftBank
  28. ^ ゆれくるコール”for iPhone サポートサイト RC Solution Co.
  29. ^ あと何秒で地震が来るか分かるiPhoneアプリに惚れた! Weekly ASCII PLUS, November 30, 2010
  30. ^ http://www.irisohyama.co.jp/news/2009/0820.html Iris Ohyama
  31. ^ http://www.irisohyama.co.jp/news/2010/0310.html Iris Ohyama
  32. ^ http://www.uniden.jp/products/ewr/ewr200.html Uniden
  33. ^ Bay FM's Earthquake Early Warning
  34. ^ Tokyo FM's Earthquake Early Warning
  35. ^ J-Wave's Earthquake Early Warning
  36. ^ 事例報告:地震の揺れが到達する前に緊急地震速報をお知らせしました! Kabushiki-gaisha JCN Funabashi-Narashino
  37. ^ 事例報告:地震の揺れが到達する前に緊急地震速報をお知らせしました! Kabushiki-gaisha Kamakura Cable Communications
  38. ^ 個人向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』10月15日から開始 (Weathernews Inc. press release September 27, 2007)
  39. ^ 個人向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』 Weathernews Inc.
  40. ^ 事業者向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』 Weathernews Inc.
  41. ^ http://www.estrat.co.jp/download.html
  42. ^ 株式会社ANETが緊急地震速報受信ソフト EQMessenger:イーキューメッセンジャー)の発売を開始 ANET Co., Ltd.
  43. ^ [1]

External links[edit]