Earthquake shaking table

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

There are several different experimental techniques that can be used to test the response of structures to verify their seismic performance, one of which is the use of an earthquake shaking table (a shaking table, or simply shake table). This is a device for shaking structural models or building components with a wide range of simulated ground motions, including reproductions of recorded earthquakes time-histories. While modern tables typically consist of a rectangular platform that is driven in up to six degrees of freedom (DOF) by servo-hydraulic or other types of actuators, the earliest shake table, invented at the University of Tokyo in 1893 to categorize types of building construction, ran on a simple wheel mechanism.[1] Test specimens are fixed to the platform and shaken, often to the point of failure. Using video records and data from transducers, it is possible to interpret the dynamic behaviour of the specimen. Earthquake shaking tables are used extensively in seismic research, as they provide the means to excite structures in such a way that they are subjected to conditions representative of true earthquake ground motions.

A World List of Shaking Tables[edit]

Below is an attempt to create a definitive list of shaking tables around the world that are used for seismic testing. The list is almost certainly not complete and not all the data has been verified by the shaking table owners. If you operate a shaking table please help by correcting and updating and adding to this list.

This list was originally based on information from the following documents: Experimental Facilities for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Worldwide, Directory of International Earthquake Engineering Research Facilities and papers by Chowdhury,[2] Duarte,[3] Kamimura and Nakashima [4] and EERI.[5]

Shaking Tables around the world
Region Country Location Size (m) Payload (metric tonnes) Degrees of Freedom X Horiz Disp (mm) Y Horiz Disp (mm) Z Vert Disp (mm) X Horiz Vel (mm/s) Y Horiz vel (mm/s) Z Vert vel (mm/s) X Horiz accel (m/s2) Y Horiz accel (m/s2) Z Vert accel (m/s2) Max Freq (Hz) Details checked
Africa Algeria CGS Laboratory (in construction) [6] 6.1 x 6.1 60 6 ±150 ±250 ±100 ±1100 ±1100 ±1000 ±10 ±10 ±8 100 30/6/2010
Africa South Africa University of Witwatersrand[7] 4 x 4 10 1 ±750 n/a n/a ±1000 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 40 17/7/2009
Asia China China Academy of Building Research, Beijing [8][9] 6.1 x 6.1 60 6 ±150 ±250 ±100 ±1000 ±1200 ±800 ±15 ±10 ±8 50 ?
Asia China Guangzhou University [10] 3 x 3 20 6 ±100 ±100 ±50 ±1000 ±1000 ±1000 ±26 ±26 ±50 50 10/7/2008
Asia China Nanjing University of Technology [9] 3 x 5 15 3 ±120 ±120 ±120 ±500 ±500 ±500 ±10 ±10 ±10 50 ?
Asia China Tongji University, Shanghai [9] 4 x 4 25 6 ±100 ±50 ±50 ±1000 ±600 ±600 ±40 ±20 ±40 50 ?
Asia China Xi'a University of Architecture & Technology 2 x 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Singapore Nanyang Technological University 3 x 3 10 1 ±120 n/a n/a ±650 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 23/7/2008
Asia Hong Kong City University of Hong Kong ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Hong Kong Hong Kong Polytechnic University [11] 3 x 3 10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10 ? ? ? ?
Asia India Jamia Millia Islamia,New Delhi [12] 5 x 5 20 1 ±500 n/a n/a ? ? ? ±20 n/a n/a 100 ?
Asia India IIT Guwahati [13] 2.5 x 2.5 5 1 ±500 n/a n/a ? ? ? ±20 n/a n/a 100 ?
Asia India CPRI Bangalore,[14]Karnataka 3 x 3 10 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India IISc, Bangalore [15] 1 x 1 0.5 6 ±220 ±220 ±100 ±570 ±570 ±570 ±30 ±30 ±20 50 23/7/2008
Asia India SERC, Chennai (1 of 3),[14] Tamil Nadu 4 x 4 30 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India SERC, Chennai (2 of 3),[14]Tamil Nadu 2 x 2 5 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India SERC, Chennai (3 of 3),[16]Tamil Nadu 3 x 3 10 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia India Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research(IGCAR), Chennai,Tamil Nadu 3 x 3 10 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 300 300 ? ±14.715 ±14.715 9.81 100 ?
Asia India IIT Roorkee,[14][17]Uttarakhand 3.5 x 3.5 20 2 ? n/a ? ? n/a ? ? n/a ? ? ?
Asia India IIT Kanpur,[18]Uttar Pradesh 1.2 x 1.8 4 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±50 n/a n/a 50 25/6/2009
Asia India Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur,[19]West Bengal 1.5 x 1.5 ? 1 ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? 19/11/2009
Asia Iran International Institute of Earthquake Engineering ans Seismology(IIEES) 1.4 x 1.2 2 1 ±35 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±40 n/a n/a ? ?
Asia Iran Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST) 2 x 0.5 5 1 ±60 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±6.5 n/a n/a ? ?
Asia Iran Sharif University of Technology (SUT)) 4 x 4 30 3 ±125 ±200 ? ±500 ±800 ? ±50 ±40 ? 50 7/19/2011
Asia Japan Aichi Institute of Technology 11 x 6 136 1 ±150 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Building Research Institute 3 x 4 20 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry [20] 5 x 5 60 1 ±500 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 30 12/3/2008
Asia Japan NIED ‘E-Defence’ Laboratory, Miki City [21] 20 x 15 1200 6 ±1000 ±1000 ±500 ±2000 ±2000 ±700 ±9 ±9 ±15 50 3/3/2008
Asia Japan Fujita Corporation 4 x 4 25 1 ±500 n/a n/a ±1500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 50 ?
Asia Japan Hazama Corp Ltd. 6 x 4 80 3 ±300 ±150 ±100 ±1150 ? ? ±20 ±3 ±2 50 ?
Asia Japan Hitachi Engineering Corp 4 x 4 20 1 ±150 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±20 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Corp. 4.5 x 4.5 35 6 ±100 ±100 ±67 ±750 ±750 ±500 ±15 ±15 ±10 50 ?
Asia Japan JDC Corp. ? 20 6 ±300 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Kawasaki Heavy Industries Corp. ? 30 3 ±75 ? ? ±400 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Kajima Corp. Ltd. (1 of 2) [22] 5 x 5 50 6 ±200 ±200 ±100 ±1000 ±1000 ±500 ±20 ±20 ±20 60 3/3/2008
Asia Japan Kajima Corp. Ltd. (2 of 2) 4 x 4 20 2 ±150 n/a ±75 ±1140 n/a ±4450 ±20 n/a ±10 50 ?
Asia Japan Kumagai-Gumi Corp Ltd 5 x 5 64 6 ±80 ±260 ±50 ±600 ±1500 ±500 ±30 ±10 ±10 70 ?
Asia Japan Kyoto University 5 x 3 14 6 ±300 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Kyoto University Disaster Prevention Research Centre [23] 3.5 diameter ? 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan Ministry of Construction 6 x 8 100 2 ±75 n/a ? ±600 n/a ? ±7 n/a ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Mitsubishi Electric Corp. ? 40 2 ±100 ? ? ±700 ? ? ±25 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corp. ? 100 3 ±50 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±20 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan National Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering 6 x 4 45 3 ±150 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±10 ? ? 40 ?
Asia Japan NIED (Nat. Inst. for Disaster Prevention) (1 of 2) 6 x 6 1100 3 ±1000 ? ? ±2000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 15 ?
Asia Japan NIED (Nat. Inst. for Disaster Prevention) (2 of 2) 12 x 12 500 1 ±220 ? ? ±900 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Nishimatsu Construction Corp 5.5 x 5.5 65 6 ±500 ? ? ±1500 ? ? ±20 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation 15 x 15 908 2 ±200 n/a ±100 ±750 n/a ±375 ±18 n/a ±9 30 ?
Asia Japan NYK Corporation 2.6 x 2.6 20 6 ±200 ? ? ±600 ? ? ±20 ? ? 80 ?
Asia Japan Obayashi-Gumi Corporation 5 x 5 46 3 ±600 ? ? ±2000 ? ? ±30 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Okumura Corp. ? 60 6 ±125 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±30 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd. (1 of 2) ? 60 6 ±300 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±5 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd. (2 of 2) ? 60 6 ±200 ? ? ±750 ? ? ±10 ? ? 70 ?
Asia Japan Port and Airport Research Institute 3.4 x 3.4 55 2 ±200 n/a ±100 ±750 ±500 n/a ±8 ±15 n/a 50 ?
Asia Japan Public Works Research Institute (PWRI) [24] 8 x 8 300 6 ±600 ±600 ±300 ±2000 ±2000 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±10 50 10/5/2008
Asia Japan Sanryo Heavy Industries Corporation 6 x 6 90.7 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Japan Shimizu Corporation 4 x 4 20 3 ±200 ? ? ±1000 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Taisei Corp Ltd 4 x 4 20 2 ±200 ? ? ±450 ? ? ±10 ? ? 50 ?
Asia Japan Tobishima Corp Ltd 4 x 4 20 2 ±75 ? ? ? ? ? ±15 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Tobishima Corp Ltd ? 20 6 ±200 ? ? ±800 ? ? ±10 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Tokyu Const. Corp. 4 x 4 30 6 ±500 ±200 ±100 ±1500 ±1000 ? ±10 ? ? 30 ?
Asia Japan Toshiba Electric Co. 5 x 5 20 2 ±750 n/a ±380 ±400 n/a ±250 ±10 n/a ±7 30 ?
Asia Korea Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development (1 of 2) [25] 2 x 2 5 2 ±75 ±75 n/a ±500 ±500 n/a ±10 ±10 n/a ? 5/2/2009
Asia Korea Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development (2 of 2) 5 x 3 30 1 ±100 n/a n/a ±500 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a ? 5/2/2009
Asia Korea Korea Institute of Machinery and Metals 4 x 4 30 6 ±200 ±200 ±134 ±750 ±750 ±500 ±15 ±15 ±10 50 ?
Asia Korea Pusan National University (1 of 3) [26] 5 x 5 300 2 ±300 ±200 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a ±20 ±20 n/a 60 24/7/2008
Asia Korea Pusan National University (2 of 3) [26] 5 x 5 600 2 ±300 ±200 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a ±30 ±30 n/a 60 24/7/2008
Asia Korea Pusan National University (3 of 3) [26] 4 x 4 300 6 ±300 ±200 ±150 ±1500 ±1500 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±40 60 24/7/2008
Asia Malaysia Sabah University 1.5 x 1.5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Asia Taiwan National Center for Research in Earthquake Engineering [27] 5 x 5 50 6 ±250 ±100 ±100 ±1000 ±600 ±500 ±10 ±30 ±10 50 12/3/2008
Australia Australia University of Melbourne 2 x 2 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Australia Australia University of Technology, Sydney 3 x 3 10 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 50 15/12/2009
Canada Canada Royal Military College 2.7 x 2.7 5 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Canada Canada University of British Columbia (EERF Lab) 4 x 4 30 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Canada Canada University of Sherbrooke ? x ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Europe France Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), AZALEE (1 of 3) [28] 6 x 6 100 6 ±125 ±125 ±100 ±700 ±700 ±700 ±10 ±10 ±25 50 27/01/2011
Europe France Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), VESUVE (2 of 3) [28] 4 x 3 20 1 ±125 n/a n/a ±1000 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 50 27/01/2011
Europe France Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), TOURNESOL (3 of 3) [28] 2 x 2 10 3 ±125 n/a ±100 ±2000 n/a ±1300 ±10 n/a 10 50 27/01/2011
Europe France FCBA Institut technologique [29] 6 x 6 10 1 ±125 n/a n/a ±800 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 02/2011
Europe Greece Aristotle University of Thessaloniki 1.2 x 1.2 15 2 ±50 n/a ±50 ? n/a ? ? n/a ? 30 ?
Europe Greece National Technical University of Athens [31] 4 x 4 10 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 ±1000 ±1000 ±1000 ±20 ±20 ±40 100 12/3/2008
Europe Italy Ansaldo Meccanica Nucleare 3.5 x 3.5 6 3 ±70 ? ? ±860 ? ? ? ? ? 60 ?
Europe Italy Department of Structures for Engineering and Architecture, University of Naples [32] - Shake Table 4 x 4 20 2 ±250 ±250 n/a ±1000 ±1000 n/a 10 10 n/a 50 -
Europe Italy ENEA 4 x 4 10 6 ±125 ±125 ±125 ±500 ±500 ±500 ±30 ±30 ±30 50 ?
Europe Italy Enel. Hydro S.p.A.; business unit ISMES (1 of 3) 4 x 4 60 6 ±100 ±100 ±100 ±550 ±550 ±440 ±30 ±30 ±20 120 ?
Europe Italy European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [33] - Shake Table 5.6 x 7 140 1 ±500 - - ±2200 - - 59 - - 50 -
Europe Italy European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [33] - Bearing Testing System 1.6 x 4.4 5000 (vertical load) 5 ±500 ±265 140 ±2200 ±600 ±250 18 - - 20 -
Europe Italy European Centre for Training & Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE) [33] - Damper Testing System 1.5 x 2 50 1 ±250 - - ±1180 - - 10 - - 20 -
Europe Macedonia Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje (1 of 2) [34] 5 x 5 40 5 n/a ±125 ±60 n/a ±1000 ±500 n/a ±30 ±15 80 20/9/2011
Europe Macedonia Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS), University of SS. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje (2 of 2) [34] 1.4 x 2.5 8 1 ±100 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 80 7/7/2008
Europe The Netherlands European Space Agency (ESA) ESTEC Test Centre [35] 5.5 x 5.5 22.5 6 ±70 ±70 ±70 ±800 ±800 ±800 ±50 ±50 ±50 2-100 23/7/2008
Europe Portugal Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC) 5.6 x 5.6 40 3 ±175 ±175 ±175 ±200 ±200 ±200 ±18 ±11 ±6 20 ?
Europe Russia Hydroproject Research Institute 5 x 5 50 3 ±70 ±70 ±40 ±600 ? ? ±20 ±20 ? 40 ?
Europe Spain CEDEX [36] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Europe Turkey Bogazici University (1 of 2) [37] 3 x 3 10 1 ±120 n/a n/a ±650 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 3/3/2008
Europe Turkey Bogazici University (2 of 2) [37] 0.7 x 0.7 0.1 3 ±120 ±120 ±120 ±1200 ±1200 ±1200 ±100 ±100 ±100 40 3/3/2008
Europe Turkey Middle East Technical University [38] 2 x 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Europe UK University of Bristol (EERC) [39] 3 x 3 17 6 ±150 ±150 ±150 ±1100 ±1100 ±1100 ±60 ±60 ±60 100 29/2/2008
Asia Pakistan Earthquake Engineering Center, University of Engineering & Technology Peshawar [40] 6.0 x 6.0 60 6 ±300 ±300 ±300 ±1100 ±1100 ±1100 ±14.7 ±14.7 ±14.7 50
North America Mexico Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)[41] 4 x 4 20 5 ±150 ±150 ±75 ±1100 ±1100 ±450 ±10 ±10 ±10 60 10/9/2008
USA Colorado ANCO Engineers, Inc Boulder, Colorado [42] 3 x 3 10 3 ±200 ±200 ±200 ±2000 ±2000 ±2000 ±30 ±30 ±30 40 16/10/2012
USA Alabama NASA 3 x 4.5 1 6 ±2440 ? ? ±100 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (1 of 3) [43] 6.1 x 5.5 27 2 ±152 ? ? ±890 ? ? ±60 ? ? 100 16/10/2012
USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (2 of 3) [43] 2.7 x 2.7 4.5 3 ±250 ±250 ±250 ±1120 ±1120 ±1120 ±45 ±45 ±45 100 16/10/2012
USA Alabama Wyle Laboratories (3 of 3) [43] 2.4 x 2.4 4.5 2 ±305 n/a ±228 ±1168 n/a ±838 ±70 n/a ±80 70 16/10/2012
USA North Carolina Duke University [44] 1.2 x 1.2 5 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±500 n/a n/a ±50 n/a n/a 60 15/4/2008
USA California University of California at Berkeley [45] 6.1 x 6.1 45 6 ±127 ±127 ±51 ±762 ±762 ±254 ±15 ±15 ±20 20 30/4/2008
USA California California State University, Fresno [46] 2.4 x 2.0 ? 1 ±125 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ? 19/11/2009
USA California University of California at San Diego [47] 12.2 x 7.6 2000 1 ±750 n/a n/a ±1800 n/a n/a ±10 n/a n/a 20 7/7/2008
USA Connecticut University of Connecticut [48] 1.5 x 1.5 1 1 ±150 n/a n/a ? n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
USA Illinois University of Illinois at Urbana / Champaign 3.7 x 3.7 5 1 ±50 ? ? ±381 ? ? ±30 ? ? 50 ?
USA New York University at Buffalo (State University of New York) (2 identical tables of 3) [49] 3.6 x 3.6 50 6 ±150 ±150 ±75 ±1250 ±1250 ±500 ±12 ±12 ±12 100 12/3/2008
USA New York University at Buffalo (State University of New York) (3 of 3) [49] 3.7 x 3.7 50 5 ±150 n/a ±75 ±762 n/a ±500 ±12 n/a ±23 50 12/3/2008
USA New York Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute[50] 1.7 x 2.6 5 1 ±130 n/a n/a ±270 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
USA Nevada University of Nevada at Reno (3 identical biaxial tables) [51] 4.3 x 4.5 45 2 ±300 ±300 n/a ±1270 ±1270 n/a ±20 ±20 n/a 50 8/2/2010
USA Nevada University of Nevada at Reno (6 axis table) [52] 2.75 x 2.75 50 6 ±75 ±300 ±100 ? ? ? ±20 ±40 ±10 50 13/3/2008
USA Nevada Dynamic Certification Laboratories [53] 2.0 diameter 4.5 6 ±140 ±120 ±150 ±1000 ±1000 ±1200 ±98 ±98 ±108 100 17/7/2012
USA Texas Rice University [54] 0.465m² 7 1 ±75 n/a n/a ±1400 n/a n/a ±20 n/a n/a 50 8/5/2008
USA USA Civil Engineering Research Lab U.S. Army 3.6 x 3.6 45 3 ±300 ? ? ±1300 ? ? ? ? ? 250 ?
USA Virginia The George Washington University - Virginia Campus [55] 3 x 3 ? 6 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Notes: This list is restricted to shaking tables bigger than 2m by 2m or with a capacity of more than 4 tonnes (i.e. tables suitable for seismic testing).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reitherman, Robert (2012). Earthquakes and Engineers: An International History. Reston, VA: ASCE Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9780784410714. 
  2. ^ Chowdhury AH (1983). Shaking table testing facilities around the world. Proceedings of the 4th Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference: Recent Advances in Engineering Mechanics and their Impact on Civil Engineering Practice., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. Vol. 1, pp. 617-620.
  3. ^ Duarte RT (1994). Report of the EAEE Working Group 11: Development of shaking table testing techniques. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vienna, Austria. Vol. 4, pp. 3135-3144.
  4. ^ Kamimura K, Nakashima M (1983). Seismic test facilities for building structures in Japan. Proceedings of the 4th Engineering Mechanics Division Specialty Conference: Recent Advances in Engineering Mechanics and their Impact on Civil Engineering Practice., West Lafayette, Indiana, USA. Vol. 1, pp. 638-641.
  5. ^ EERI (1995). Assessment of earthquake engineering research and testing capabilities in the United States. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Committee on Experimental Research, Oakland, CA. Publication No. WP-01, pp. 1-23.
  6. ^ Presentation on Current activities in Algeria Retrieved 30/6/2010
  7. ^ Press release about Hydraform Donating Earthquake Shake Table to Wits University Retrieved 22/10/2009
  8. ^ China Academy of Building Research - Major Laboratories Retrieved 10/7/2008
  9. ^ a b c Shaking table blog Retrieved 10/7/2008
  10. ^ Earthquake Engineering Research Test Center Retrieved 10/7/2008
  11. ^ Centre for urban hazards mitigation Retrieved 24/7/2008
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ IIT Guwahati, Department of Civil Engineering,Assam
  14. ^ a b c d Earthquake Resistant design practice and research in India, The Structural Engineer, 18 March 2008
  15. ^ Development of a digitally-controlled three-axis earthquake shake table,Karnataka Retrieved on 10/7/2008
  16. ^ SERC Chennai Advanced Seismic Testing and Research Laboratory Retrieved on 22/10/09
  17. ^ IIT Roorkee, Department of Earthquake Engineering
  18. ^ IIT Kanpur, Department of Civil Engineering
  19. ^ School of Disaster Mitigation Engineering (SDME)
  20. ^ CRIEPI Hybrid Seismic Testing System Shaking table Retrieved 12/3/2008
  21. ^ The NIED ‘E-Defence’ Laboratory in Miki City Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  22. ^ Kajima’s English Website Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  23. ^ MTS website Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  24. ^ Public Works Research Institute large 3D shaking table Retrieved on 10/5/2008
  25. ^ See p 14 of document - Hyundai Institute of Construction Technology Development Retrieved on 10/1/2009
  26. ^ a b c KOCED Multi platform seismic simulation facility Retrieved on 1/12/2010
  27. ^ NCREE's English Website Retrieved on 29/2/2008
  28. ^ a b c Seismic Mechanic Studies Laboratory Retrieved 27/11/2011
  29. ^ See p 1 of document - FCBA Retrieved on 11/2011
  30. ^ IABG Test Laboratory Retrieved 23/7/2008
  31. ^ NTUA Laboratory for Earthquake Engineering Retrieved on 12/3/2008
  32. ^ [2] Retrieved 29/11/2013
  33. ^ a b c EUCENTRE TREES Lab Retrieved 06/09/2008
  34. ^ a b Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, IZIIS Retrieved on 20/09/2011
  35. ^ HYDRA multi-axis vibration test facility Retrieved 23/7/2008
  36. ^ CEDEX Structures laboratory Retrieved on 23/11/2009
  37. ^ a b Bogazici University Shaking Table Laboratory Retrieved on 3/3/2008
  38. ^ Middle East Technical University Retrieved 23/7/2008
  39. ^ Bristol University Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Retrieved on 29/2/2008
  40. ^ NWFP UET Earthquake Research and Education Centre
  41. ^ Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mesa Vibradora Laboratorios
  42. ^ ANCO Engineers shaking tables Retrieved on 15/10/2012
  43. ^ a b c Wyle Laboratories shaking tables Retrieved on 16/10/2012
  44. ^ Duke University Structural Dynamics and the Seismic Response Control Laboratory Retrieved on 15/4/2008
  45. ^ University of California, Berkeley, Earthquake Simulator Laboratory Retrieved on 30/4/2008
  46. ^ Department of Civil Engineering Retrieved 19/11/2009
  47. ^ UCSD Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table Retrieved 12/3/2008
  48. ^ University of Connecticut Advanced Hazards Mitigation Lab Retrieved 8/5/2008
  49. ^ a b University at Buffalo’s Structural Engineering and Earthquake Simulation Laboratory (SEESL) Retrieved on 13/3/2008
  50. ^ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Structural Engineering Laboratories Retrieved 8/5/2008
  51. ^ NEES Equipment Site at the University of Nevada, Reno Retrieved 12/3/2008
  52. ^ NEES Equipment Site at the University of Nevada, Reno Retrieved 8/2/2010
  53. ^ Dynamic Certification Laboratories Retrieved 17/7/2012
  54. ^ Rice University, Dynamic Systems Laboratory Retrieved 8/5/2008
  55. ^ [3] Retrieved 8/13/2013