Earthquakes in Western Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Western Australia has had a regular history of earthquakes throughout its geological history.

During European occupation — and since the science of seismology has developed — some earthquakes are better known due to their impact on urban areas.

On Saturday last (4th August 1849), about a quarter past four o'clock a.m., several inhabitants of Perth were awoke by what they conceived to be a slight shock of an earthquake.

[1][2]

The Meckering earthquake of October 1968 is considered the main impacting earthquake on Western Australia of the twentieth century.

Recording[edit]

Prior to scientific equipment being utilised to record earthquakes, newspaper reports appear to be the main source of historical information.[3] Perth Observatory was the recording location from 1923 to 1959, when the Mundaring Geophysical Observatory was operated by the Bureau of Mineral Resources between March 1959 and April 2000.[4] Subsequent to the closing of the Mundaring observatory, recording locations are more dispersed throughout the state.[5]

Significant earthquakes[edit]

locations of significant earthquakes

Western Australia's largest recorded earthquake to date was at Meeberrie station, north of Mullewa, in April 1941. See the separate section below. The Cadoux earthquake of 1979 with magnitude 6.1 caused surface rupturing, about 15 km long.[6]

The Calingiri earthquake of June 1971, along with the Meckering and Cadoux earthquake record led to the identification of a zone of seismicity known as the South West Seismic Zone.[7] This zone has now been significantly mapped and analysed and is the most active zone in Western Australia.[8]

Exmouth 1906[edit]

The earthquake which occurred in 1906 about 400 km NW of Exmouth occurred before world earthquake monitoring had really developed. With an estimated magnitude of 7.5, it is probably the largest earthquake known to have occurred in the Australian region.[9][10]

Kalgoorlie 1917[edit]

On 28 August 1917, tremor was reported near midnight in Kalgoorlie, which resulted in an underground rock fall, killing one miner and injuring several others.[11] Also in the 1990s further seismic activity required consideration of seismic activity.[12]

Meeberrie Station 1941[edit]

The largest earthquake to date in Western Australia was on 29 April 1941 at Meeberrie at 01.35.39 am (Lat -26.90 and Long 115.80) with a magnitude of 7.3. (Some sources give 7.2.) [13][14][15]

The Meeberrie earthquake was one of the largest to have occurred in Australia. Its Richter magnitude was 7.2 and it was felt over a wide area of Western Australia. Damage from the earthquake was small because of the low population in the epicentral region, but the shaking at Meeberrie homestead was very severe.

All the walls of the homestead were cracked, several rainwater tanks burst, & widespread cracking of the ground occurred. Although questionnaires were distributed by the WA Government Astronomer, there has been scant updated information received on known damage.

[16][17]

Yallingup 1946[edit]

On 20 April 1946 a magnitude 5.7 earthquake occurred near Yallingup at 9:13pm on 19 April 1946 (5:13 local time on 20 April), which was felt at Kirup. A tremor was reported at 5:30 am at Caves House Yallingup and at Busselton on 30 April, which is probably the same event, reported on the wrong date.[18]

Gabalong 1955[edit]

Gabalong, 30 August 1955, magnitude 5.8 Gabalong, a small community about 30 km east of Moora and 200 km NNE of Perth. The earthquake, at 9.52 pm local time, was felt at MM VI at Yericoin and Miling, and MM V in Moora. It was felt in Perth at intensities between MM II and MM IV, and at Dongara at MM II. It was preceded by a magnitude 5.3 earthquake at the same location at 2.09 pm on the same day. It was a SouthWest Seismic Zone earthquake, and because of the poor location capabilities at the time, may well be related to a series of earthquakes near Yericoin, which started with a magnitude 5.1 earthquake on 2 May 1949.[19]

Busselton 1959[edit]

A magnitude 5.0 earthquake occurred at 12:07 GMT on 3 October (8.07 pm local time) at 34.5 degrees south, 114.5 degrees east. It was felt at Busselton, Yallingup, Margaret River, Bunbury, Cape Naturaliste and Cape Leeuwin.[20]

Near Brookton 1963[edit]

18 January 1963 at Nourning Spring, approximately 20 km NE of Brookton and approximately 100 km ESE of Perth. It was felt at Intensity VII at Nourning Springs, VI at Brookton, and MM II at Perth. It occurred at 1:49 pm local time, and had a magnitude of 5.4, although it was given a magnitude of 4.9 originally. Many earthquake questionnaires were distributed for this event, and a good isoseismal map was prepared.[21]

Meckering 1968[edit]

See Meckering

Lake Tobin 1970[edit]

24 March 1970, magnitude 6.7 near Lake Tobin in the Canning Basin, was the first in a location which had many more earthquakes over the following years. In all, there were three earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or more (24/3/70, M 6.7, 16/7/71, M6.4 and 3/10/75, M 6.2), and 25 earthquakes of magnitude 5.0 or more, the last of which occurred on 13/2/1982.[22]

Calingiri 1971[edit]

See Calingiri

Cadoux 1979[edit]

See Cadoux

Collier Bay 1997[edit]

This earthquake, 10 Aug 1997, magnitude 6.3 just off the WA north coast, was the largest Australian earthquake since the magnitude 6.7 earthquake near Tennant Creek, in the Northern Territory, in January 1988.[23]

Burakin Swarm 2000–01[edit]

Located near Cadoux (but not on the same physical feature) the Burakin event was named the most significant seismic activity for 40 years.[24]

South of Albany 2001[edit]

This very large earthquake on 12 Dec 2001, magnitude 7.1 occurred about 1000 km southeast of Albany. It was felt in Albany. It was an intraplate earthquake, as it occurred about 1000 km north of the (constructive) boundary between the Indo-Australian and Antarctic plates.[25]

Kalgoorlie 2010[edit]

On 20 April 2010, a magnitude 5.0 earthquake occurred close to Kalgoorlie.[26] The quake caused damage to a number of hotels along Burt street in Boulder and an underpass also on Burt street collapsed, work in the Superpit and many other mines around Kalgoorlie was stopped.[27]

Southwest region earthquakes[edit]

See South West Seismic Zone

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Report of an earthquake felt in Perth on 4 Aug. 1849. The Inquirer, 8 Aug. 1849, p.3a - see also Report of an earthquake at Cossack on Sept. 10 1886 Western mail, 18 Sept. 1886, p.17
  2. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/hazards/earthquake/gallery.jsp?id=GA9724 and Jones, T. (2005) Natural hazard risk in Perth, Western Australia :compiled by T. Jones, M. Middelmann and N. Corby sponsored by Australian Academy of Science, Institute of Australian Geographers, Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia; editors, R.L. Heathcote and B.G. Thom. Perth, W.A. : Australian Government/Geoscience Australia/Bureau of Meteorology, 2005.
  3. ^ Everingham, I.B. and Tilbury, L. (1971) Information on Western Australian Earthquakes which occurred during the periods 1894-1900 and 1923-1960 Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources Record 1971/80 - quoted as utilising newspaper sources by Gordon and Lewis 1980 p,213 - note also Everingham, I.B. and Tilbury, L. (1972) Information on Western Australian earthquakes 1849-1960. Royal Society of Western Australia. Journal 55, 90-96.
  4. ^ Gordon, F.R and J.D. Lewis (1980) The Meckering and Calingiri earthquakes October 1968 and March 1970 Geological Survey of Western Australia Bulletin 126 ISBN 0-7244-8082-X - Appendix 1 - page 213 Catalogue of Larger Earthquakes recorded in Southwestern Australia and in National archives ref CA 3539 Mundaring Geophysical Observatory, WA http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/scripts/AgencyDetail.asp?M=0&B=CA_3539
  5. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20080712-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/welcome/seismic_monitoring.html noting that circumstances may have changed since the publication of that archived document
  6. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical/cadoux.html
  7. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  8. ^ GPS-geodetic monitoring of the South West Seismic Zone of Western Australia: progress after two observation epochs in 2002 and 2006 M Leonard, D Darby, G Hu. The Australian southwest seismic zone (SWSZ) is a north-south trending belt of intra-plate earthquake activity that occurs in the southwest of Western Australia, bounded by 30.5°S to 32.5°S and 115.5°E to 118°E. This is one of the most seismically active areas in Australia, with nine earthquakes over magnitude 5.0 occurring between 1968 and 2002, the largest of these was the M6.8 Meckering earthquake in 1968. Since the SWSZ lies as close as ~150 km from the ~1.4 million population of the Perth region, it poses a distinct seismic hazard.
  9. ^ See List of earthquakes in W.A. 1849-1924 (1929) - in - 'Results of rainfall observations made in Western Australia, p. 91-93, 'Results of rainfall observations made in Western Australia : including all available annual rainfall totals from 1374 stations for all years of record up to 1927, with maps and diagrams : and record of notable meteorological events : also appendices, presenting monthly and yearly meteorological elements of Perth, Broome and Kalgoorlie'. Australia. Bureau of Meteorology.Melbourne : H. J. Green, 1929.
  10. ^ Possible report in Butler, Jack. An elderly Aboriginal's recollection of an earthquake he experienced in the Ashburton district, 19 Nov. 1906 / Jack Butler and Peter Austin. Aboriginal history, Vol.10, no.1 (1986), p.78-84
  11. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  12. ^ "Earthquake in Kalgoorlie on 3 September 1991 forces rethink on long term future of underground operations". Gold gazette, 18 March 1991, p. 3
  13. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical/meeberrie.html
  14. ^ The Geraldton Guardian and Express, Tuesday 29 April 1941
  15. ^ Bureau of Mineral Resources Rept No. 132, by I.B. Everingham, 1968 - The Seismicity of Western Australia.
  16. ^ http://www.ema.gov.au/ema/emadisasters.nsf/83edbd0553620d8cca256d09001fc8fd/574856364a736fd9ca256d3300057d00?OpenDocument
  17. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/hazards/earthquake/historic.jsp
  18. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  19. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  20. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  21. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  22. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  23. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  24. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20080712-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/welcome/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical/the_burakin_swarm.html
  25. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/25962/20040718-0000/www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/seismicity_of_western_australia/wa_historical.html
  26. ^ Magnitude 5.2 - WESTERN AUSTRALIA United States Geological Survey 20 April 2010
  27. ^ Earthquake strikes Goldfields The West Australian 20 April 2010