East Amwell Township, New Jersey

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East Amwell Township, New Jersey
Township
Township of East Amwell
Map of East Amwell Township in Hunterdon County. Inset: Location of Hunterdon County in the State of New Jersey.
Map of East Amwell Township in Hunterdon County. Inset: Location of Hunterdon County in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of East Amwell Township, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of East Amwell Township, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°26′06″N 74°49′23″W / 40.434993°N 74.82303°W / 40.434993; -74.82303Coordinates: 40°26′06″N 74°49′23″W / 40.434993°N 74.82303°W / 40.434993; -74.82303[1][2]
Country  United States of America
State  New Jersey
County Hunterdon
Incorporated April 6, 1846
Government[6]
 • Type Township (New Jersey)
 • Mayor Peter Kneski (term ends December 31, 2013)[3]
 • Administrator Timothy L. Matheny[4]
 • Clerk Terri Stahl[5]
Area[1]
 • Total 28.561 sq mi (73.972 km2)
 • Land 28.459 sq mi (73.707 km2)
 • Water 0.102 sq mi (0.264 km2)  0.36%
Area rank 94th of 566 in state
8th of 26 in county[1]
Elevation[7] 203 ft (62 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][10]
 • Total 4,013
 • Estimate (2013)[11] 3,967
 • Rank 413th of 566 in state
11th of 26 in county[12]
 • Density 141.0/sq mi (54.4/km2)
 • Density rank 529th of 566 in state
23rd of 26 in county[12]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code 08551 - Ringoes[13]
08559 - Stockton[14]
Area code(s) 609 and 908[15]
FIPS code 3401918820[1][16][17]
GNIS feature ID 0882180[1][18]
Website www.eastamwelltownship.com

East Amwell Township is a township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 4,013,[8][9][10] reflecting a decline of 442 (-9.9%) from the 4,455 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 123 (+2.8%) from the 4,332 counted in the 1990 Census.[19]

East Amwell Township is located in the southeastern corner of Hunterdon County where it borders both Somerset and Mercer Counties. It includes the Unincorporated community of Ringoes, the oldest known settlement in Hunterdon County, as well as the communities of Larison's Corner, Weert's Corner and part of Reaville.[20]

Amwell Township was established by a royal patent from Queen Anne in 1708. Its territory comprised 200 square miles (520 km2) and included present day Delaware Township, Raritan Township, Readington Township, East Amwell Township and West Amwell Township and portions of Clinton, Lebanon and Tewksbury Townships. Both East Amwell Township and West Amwell Township were formed on April 6, 1846, when Amwell Township was split in two. Territory was gain in 1854 from Delaware Township, Raritan Township and West Amwell Township, and again from those same three townships in 1897.[21]

Geography[edit]

East Amwell Township is located at 40°26′06″N 74°49′23″W / 40.434993°N 74.82303°W / 40.434993; -74.82303 (40.434993,-74.82303). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 28.561 square miles (73.972 km2), of which, 28.459 square miles (73.707 km2) of it was land and 0.102 square miles (0.264 km2) of it (0.36%) was water.[1][2]

The northern areas of East Amwell are in Amwell Valley, while the southern sections are in The Sourlands region.

History[edit]

During the American Revolutionary War, a small but important skirmish occurred in East Amwell when local militia under Capt. John Schenck ambushed a party of British dragoons near Larison's Corner. The "Ambush of Geary" on December 14, 1776, helped rein in British scouting parties in Hunterdon County in the crucial weeks before Washington's crossing of the Delaware.[22]

East Amwell was the location of the estate owned by Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh.[23] Their firstborn son, Charles Augustus Lindbergh III, was abducted from their home and later found dead nearby. See Lindbergh kidnapping for more information about the incident involving the Lindbergh child.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 1,330
1860 1,865 40.2%
1870 1,802 −3.4%
1880 1,696 −5.9%
1890 1,375 −18.9%
1900 1,327 −3.5%
1910 1,203 −9.3%
1920 1,102 −8.4%
1930 1,210 9.8%
1940 1,218 0.7%
1950 1,525 25.2%
1960 1,981 29.9%
1970 2,568 29.6%
1980 3,468 35.0%
1990 4,332 24.9%
2000 4,455 2.8%
2010 4,013 −9.9%
Est. 2013 3,967 [11] −1.1%
Population sources: 1850-1920[24]
1850-1870[25] 1850[26] 1870[27]
1880-1890[28] 1890-1910[29]
1910-1930[30] 1930-1990[31]
2000[32][33] 2010[8][9][10]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,013 people, 1,518 households, and 1,155 families residing in the township. The population density was 141.0 per square mile (54.4/km2). There were 1,580 housing units at an average density of 55.5 per square mile (21.4/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 95.81% (3,845) White, 1.25% (50) Black or African American, 0.05% (2) Native American, 1.42% (57) Asian, 0.00% (0) Pacific Islander, 0.67% (27) from other races, and 0.80% (32) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.82% (113) of the population.[8]

There were 1,518 households, of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.9% were non-families. 17.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.01.[8]

In the township, 22.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 18.2% from 25 to 44, 39.1% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.8 years. For every 100 females there were 106.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.0 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $105,846 (with a margin of error of +/- $12,725) and the median family income was $124,659 (+/- $16,916). Males had a median income of $87,727 (+/- $15,438) versus $53,491 (+/- $7,390) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $46,986 (+/- $4,981). About 0.8% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over.[34]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 4,455 people, 1,581 households, and 1,305 families residing in the township. The population density was 155.3 people per square mile (60.0/km²). There were 1,624 housing units at an average density of 56.6 per square mile (21.9/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 96.97% White, 0.72% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.92% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population.[32][33]

There were 1,581 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.8% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.4% were non-families. 13.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.07.[32][33]

In the township the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 31.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.[32][33]

The median income for a household in the township was $85,664, and the median income for a family was $90,000. Males had a median income of $60,945 versus $39,306 for females. The per capita income for the township was $37,187. About 1.8% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over.[32][33]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

East Amwell Township Township is governed under the Township form of government with a five-member Township Committee. The Township Committee is elected directly by the voters in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year as part of the November general election.[6] At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor and another as Deputy Mayor.

As of 2013, members of the East Amwell Township Committee are Mayor Peter Kneski, Deputy Mayor Dart Sageser, Pat Cregar, Tim Mathews and David Wang-Iverson.[35][36]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

East Amwell Township is located in the 7th Congressional District[37] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[9][38][39] Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, East Amwell Township had been in the 23rd state legislative district.[40] Prior to the 2010 Census, East Amwell Township had been part of the 12th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.[40]

New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District is represented by Leonard Lance (R, Clinton Township).[41] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[42][43] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[44][45]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 15th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[46][47] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[48] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[49]

Hunterdon County is governed by a five-member Board of Chosen Freeholders, who serve three-year terms of office at-large on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held each January, the freeholders select one member to serve as the board's Director and another to serve as Deputy Director.[50] As of 2014, Hunterdon County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director J. Matthew Holt (R; Clinton Town, 2015),[51] Freeholder Deputy Director John King (R; Raritan Township, 2015),[52] Suzanne Lagay (R; Holland Township, 2016),[53] John E. Lanza (R; Flemington, 2016)[54] and Robert G. Walton (R; Hampton, 2014).[55][56] Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Mary H. Melfi (R; Flemington, 2017),[57] Sheriff Fredrick W. Brown (R; Alexandria Township, 2016)[58] and Surrogate Susan J. Hoffman (R; Kingwood Township, 2018).[59][60][61]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 3,059 registered voters in East Amwell Township, of which 875 (28.6%) were registered as Democrats, 956 (31.3%) were registered as Republicans and 1,224 (40.0%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties.[62]

In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 54.8% of the vote here (1,405 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 42.4% (1,088 votes) and other candidates with 1.7% (44 votes), among the 2,564 ballots cast by the township's 3,180 registered voters, for a turnout of 80.6%.[63] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 57.3% of the vote here (1,452 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 41.8% (1,059 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (30 votes), among the 2,534 ballots cast by the township's 3,043 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 83.3.[64]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 61.2% of the vote here (1,196 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 29.2% (571 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 7.4% (145 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (20 votes), among the 1,953 ballots cast by the township's 3,094 registered voters, yielding a 63.1% turnout.[65]

Education[edit]

The East Amwell Township School District serves public school students in pre-Kindergarten through eighth grade at East Amwell Township School. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's one school had an enrollment of 450 students and 43.1 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.44:1.[66]

Public school students in ninth through twelfth grades attend Hunterdon Central High School, part of the Hunterdon Central Regional High School District, which serves over 3,000 students in central Hunterdon County. Students from Delaware Township, East Amwell Township, Flemington Borough, Raritan Township and Readington Township attend Hunterdon Central High School.[67]

Transportation[edit]

As of 2010, the township had a total of 68.03 miles (109.48 km) of roadways, of which 42.84 miles (68.94 km) were maintained by the municipality, 17.15 miles (27.60 km) by Hunterdon County and 8.04 miles (12.94 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.[68]

Route 31 passes through mostly along the western border with West Amwell. Route 179 and US Route 202 pass through near Ringoes.

Three major county roads that go through are CR 514 (along the border with Raritan), CR 518 and CR 579.

The closest limited access road is Interstate 95 in neighboring Hopewell.

Wineries[edit]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with East Amwell Township include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 9, 2013.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  4. ^ Township Administrator, Township of East Amwell. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  5. ^ Office of the Township Clerk, Township of East Amwell. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  6. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 103.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of East Amwell, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for East Amwell township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 7. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for East Amwell township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - 2013 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2014.
  12. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Ringoes, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  14. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Stockton, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Ringoes, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 3, 2013.
  16. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  17. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 27, 2012.
  18. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  20. ^ Demographics, Township of East Amwell. Accessed November 14, 2012. "East Amwell is at the base of the Sourland Mountains. Its 28.68 square miles encompasses the communities of Ringoes, Weert's Corner, Larison's Corner and a portion of Reaville."
  21. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 154. Accessed October 25, 2012.
  22. ^ "The Amwell Skirmish", Nature's Grapevine of Washington Crossing State Park, Winter 2006. Accessed November 14, 2012. "On December 14th, a patrol of eight dragoons under the command of Cornet Francis Geary was dispatched from the main force at Pennington and proceeded up the road to Flemington. On the return leg of their raid they were attacked from the woods along present day Route 31, just north of Ringoes by Capt. John Schenk and a squad of citizen soldiers from the Amwell Militia."
  23. ^ a b Gill, Barbara (1981). "Lindbergh kidnapping rocked the world 50 years ago". The Hunterdon County Democrat. Retrieved 2008-12-30. So while the world's attention was focused on Hopewell, from which the first press dispatches emanated about the kidnapping, the Democrat made sure its readers knew that the new home of Col. Charles A. Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh was in East Amwell Township Hunterdon County. 
  24. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed September 4, 2013.
  25. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 267, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed September 4, 2013. "East Amwell was formed from Amwell in 1856; in 1860 it contained a population of 1,865; and in 1870, 1,802. The Sourland Mountains are partly in this township and partly in Hillsborough township, Somerset county." Note that the establishment date is listed as 1856 (not 1846) and that no population is provided for 1850.
  26. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 139. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed September 4, 2013. No population is provided.
  27. ^ Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 258. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed September 4, 2013.
  28. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 98. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  29. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 337. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  30. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  31. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  32. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for East Amwell township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  33. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for East Amwell township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  34. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for East Amwell township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  35. ^ Mayor and Township Committees, East Amwell Township. Accessed September 4, 2013.
  36. ^ The Township of East Amwell , Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed September 4, 2013.
  37. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  38. ^ 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 56, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  39. ^ Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  40. ^ a b 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 56, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  41. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  42. ^ Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  43. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  44. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  45. ^ Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
  46. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 29, 2014.
  47. ^ District 15 Legislators, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 29, 2014.
  48. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  49. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  50. ^ About the Board, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  51. ^ Matt Holt, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  52. ^ John King, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  53. ^ Suzanne Lagay, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  54. ^ John E. Lanza, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  55. ^ Robert G. Walton, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  56. ^ Hunterdon County Board of Chosen Freeholders, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  57. ^ Hunterdon County Clerk Mary H. Melfi, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  58. ^ Frederick W. Brown; Hunterdon County Sheriff, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  59. ^ Surrogate Susan J. Hoffman, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  60. ^ 2014 Elected Officials, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Accessed June 30, 2014.
  61. ^ Wichert, Bill. "Hunterdon County sheriff re-elected, GOP newcomers win freeholder seats", The Star-Ledger, November 5, 2013. Accessed June 30, 2014. "County Sheriff Frederick Brown won a second three-year term over Democratic challenger Paul Carluccio. County Surrogate Susan Hoffman, who ran unopposed, also won re-election to a five-year term.When they join the all-Republican freeholders board in January, Lanza and Lagay will fill the seats vacated by Republicans George Melick and Will Mennen."
  62. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Hunterdon, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  63. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Hunterdon County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  64. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Hunterdon County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  65. ^ 2009 Governor: Hunterdon County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  66. ^ District information for East Amwell Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed December 1, 2014.
  67. ^ Hunterdon Central Regional High School 2013 Report Card Narrative, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed September 4, 2013. "Located in beautiful, historic Hunterdon County in central New Jersey, Hunterdon Central Regional High School serves the five municipalities of Delaware Township, East Amwell Township, Flemington Borough, Raritan Township, and Readington Township."
  68. ^ Hunterdon County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  69. ^ James Buchanan, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 27, 2007.
  70. ^ Gene Andrew Maguire, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed June 10, 2007.
  71. ^ Brown, William Mawbey; and Lee, Francis Bazley. Biographical, Genealogical and Descriptive History of the State of New Jersey, p. 284. New Jersey Historical Publishing Company, 1900. Accessed November 14, 2012.
  72. ^ Myers, William S. Prominent Families of New Jersey, p. 1078. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1945. ISBN 0806350369. Accessed November 14, 2012.

External links[edit]