List of Asian cuisines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from East Asian cuisine)
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: Asian cuisine
location of Asia.

This is a list of Asian cuisines, by region. A cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions,[1] usually associated with a specific culture or region. Asia, being the largest and most populous continent, has a great many cuisines...

Central Asian cuisine[edit]

Location of Central Asia. In some definitions, it also includes Afghanistan (south of area shown).
  • Central Asian cuisine, the cuisine of "the six stans", includes food from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan.
    • Afghan food
      Afghan cuisine – cuisine of the Afghani people, largely based upon Afghanistan's chief crops: cereals like wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are dairy products (yogurt and whey), various nuts, and native vegetables, as well as fresh and dried fruits. Afghanistan is also well known for its grapes.
    • Kazakh cuisine – cuisine of Kazakhstan. Traditional Kazakh cuisine revolves around mutton and horse meat, as well as various milk products. For hundreds of years Kazakhs were herders who raised fat-tailed sheep, Bactrian camels, and horses, relying on these animals for transportation, clothing, and food.[2]
    • Kyrgyz cuisine – originating in Kyrgyzstan, is similar in many respects to that of its neighbors, particularly Kazakh cuisine. Traditional Kyrgyz food includes mutton and horse meat, and milk products. The cooking techniques and major ingredients have been strongly influenced by the nation's nomadic way of life.
    • Tajik cuisine – traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, has much in common with Afghan, Iranian, Russian, and Uzbek cuisines. Plov, also called osh, is the national dish in Tajikistan, as in other countries in the region. It consists of chunks of mutton, carrots and rice fried in a large cast-iron cauldron similar to a Dutch oven. Green tea is the national drink. Traditional Tajik meals start with a spread of dried fruit, nuts, halwa, and other sweets arrayed on the table in small dishes, and then progress to soup and meat, before finishing with plov.
    • Turkmen cuisine – cuisine of Turkmenistan. It is similar to that of the rest of Central Asia. Plov is the staple, everyday food, which is also served at celebrations. Turkmenistan is perhaps most famous for its melons, especially in the former Soviet Union, where it was once the major supplier. Meals are almost always served with naan, Central Asian flat bread, known locally as "çörek."
    • Uzbek cuisine – cuisine influenced by local agriculture, as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance, and Uzbek cuisine has been characterized as "noodle-rich".[3] Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is a part of various Uzbek dishes. Uzbekistan's signature dish is palov (osh) made with rice, pieces of meat, grated carrots and onions.

East Asian cuisine[edit]

Location of East Asia.
Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is a specialty in Cantonese cuisine.
Szechuan cuisine – A Chengdu-style, hot-pot stew
The Shilin Night Market in Taipei, Taiwan

East Asian cuisine – evolved with a common usage of oils, fats and sauces in the preparation of dishes (with the notable exception of Japanese cuisine).

  • Chinese cuisine originated in what is known as the Eight Great Traditions, though it can be generalized into northern styles that feature oils and strong flavors derived from ingredients such as vinegar and garlic while southern styles tend to favor fresh ingredients that are lightly prepared. It has become widespread throughout many other parts of the world — from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa. In recent years, connoisseurs of Chinese cuisine have also sprouted in Eastern Europe and South Asia. American Chinese cuisine and Canadian Chinese food are popular examples of local varieties. Local ingredients would be adopted while maintaining the style and preparation technique.
    • Wine in China
    • Great Traditions
      • Eight Great Traditions – Regional cultural differences vary greatly amongst the different regions of China, giving rise to eight main regional cuisines, or Eight Great Traditions (八大菜系, Bā Dà Cài Xì)
        1. Anhui is derived from the native cooking styles of the Huangshan Mountains region in China and is similar to Jiangsu cuisine. It is known for the use of wild herbs, from both land and sea, and simple methods of preparation.
        2. Cantonese comes from Guangdong Province in southern China[8] Due to Guangdong's location on the southern coast of China, fresh live seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine. Canton has long been a trading port and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine. Char siu is a popular way to flavor and prepare pork in Cantonese cuisine.[9]
        3. Fujian is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of the province of Fujian, China. Many diverse seafoods and woodland delicacies are used, including a myriad of fish, shellfish and turtles, along with edible mushrooms and bamboo shoots, provided by the coastal and mountainous regions of Fujian.[10]
        4. Hunan, sometimes called Xiang cuisine, consists of the cuisines of the Xiang River region, Dongting Lake and western Hunan Province, in China. The cuisine is well known for its hot spicy flavor, fresh aroma and deep color. Common cooking techniques include stewing, frying, pot-roasting, braising, and smoking. Due to the high agricultural output of the region, ingredients for Hunan dishes are many and varied.
        5. Jiangsu is derived from the native cooking styles of the Jiangsu region in China. Food texture is often soft, but not to the point of mushy or falling apart. Other characters includes the strict selection of ingredients according to the seasons, emphasis on the matching color and shape of each dish and emphasis on using soup to improve the flavor.
        6. Shandong in Chinese is more commonly known as Lu cuisine, and is derived from the native cooking styles of Shandong, an eastern coastal province of China. Possibly Shandong's greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine has been in the area of brewing vinegars. Hundreds of years of experience combined with unique local methods have led to Shandong's prominence as one of the premier regions for vinegar production in China.
        7. Sichuan is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in the Sichuan Province of southwestern China famed for bold flavors, particularly the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavor of the Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Peanuts, sesame paste, and ginger are also prominent ingredients in Szechuan cooking.[11]
        8. Zhejiang is derived from the native cooking styles of the Zhejiang region in China. Food made in the Zhejiang style is not greasy, having instead a fresh and soft flavor with a mellow fragrance.[12]
        • Four Great Traditions – are often considered as the standouts of Chinese cuisine and due to their influence are proclaimed as the Four Great Traditions (四大菜系, Sì Dà Cài Xì).
          1. Cantonese
          2. Sichuan
          3. Shandong
          4. Huaiyang cuisine – often viewed as the representation of the entire Jiangsu cuisine.
      • Chinese cultural subcuisines
      • Chinese cuisines, by region
Different types of nigiri-sushi
Kaiseki is a traditional multi-course Japanese dinner. The term also refers to the collection of skills and techniques used in the preparation of such meals, and are analogous to Western haute cuisine.[13]
    • Japanese cuisine is known for its emphasis on seasonality of food (, shun),[14] quality of ingredients and presentation. Japanese regional cuisine includes a vast array of regional specialities known as kyōdo ryōri in Japanese, many of them originating from dishes prepared using local ingredients and traditional recipes.[15] Sushi and sashimi are both part of the cuisine of the island nation. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities by far the most Michelin stars of any country in the world (for example, Tokyo alone has more Michelin stars than Paris, Hong Kong, New York, LA and London combined).[16][17]
    • Traditional cooking methods eschew the use of oils and fats, with a focus on featuring the delicate flavors of the natural ingredients. Due to an abundant seafood supply, the traditional Japanese diet featured minimal use of meat; however, modern Japanese cuisine includes an extensive variety of popular meat dishes. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients.
      • Japanese wine
      • Okinawan cuisine is the cuisine of the Japanese island of Okinawa. Due to difference in culture, climate, vegetables and other ingredients between Okinawa and mainland Japan, Okinawan cuisine is very different from Japanese cuisine. The cuisine incorporated influence from Chinese cuisine and Southeast Asian cuisine due to trade. The sweet potato, introduced in Okinawa in 1605, became a staple food in there from then until the beginning of the 20th century. An article about Okinawan food written by Kikkoman stated that Goya (bitter melon) and Nabera (luffa or towel gourd) were "likely" introduced to Okinawa from Southeast Asia. Since Ryukyu had served as a tributary state to China, Ryukyuan cooks traveled to Fujian Province to learn how to cook Chinese food; Chinese influence seeped into Okinawa in that manner. The same Kikkoman article states that the method of distillation of awamori likely originated from Siam (Thailand) and traveled to Okinawa during the 15th century. After the lord of the Kagoshima Domain invaded the Ryukyus Okinawan cooks traveled to Japan to study Japanese cuisine, causing that influence to seep into Okinawan cuisine.[18]
      • Ainu cuisine
Hanjeongsik, a full-course Korean meal with an array of banchan (side dishes)[19]
    • Korean cuisine originated from ancient prehistoric traditions in the Korean peninsula, evolving through a complex interaction of environmental, political, and cultural trends.[20] Korean cuisine is largely based upon rice, vegetables, and meats. Traditional Korean meals are noted for the number of side dishes (banchan) that accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Kimchi is served often, sometimes at every meal. Commonly used ingredients include sesame oil, doenjang (fermented bean paste), soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, pepper flakes and gochujang (fermented red chili paste). Korean regional cuisine (Korean: hyangto eumsik, literally "native local foods"),[21] is characterized by local specialties and distinctive styles within Korean cuisine. The divisions reflected historical boundaries of the provinces where these food and culinary traditions were preserved until modern times. Korean barbecue, or gogi gui, refers to the Korean method of grilling beef, pork, chicken, or other types of meat. Such dishes are often prepared at the diner's table on gas or charcoal grills that are built into the center of the table itself. It features cooking methods such as sautéing and what is known in the West as barbecue. Strong flavors featuring spices derived from chili peppers can also be found in dishes such as kimchi.[22]
    • Mongolian cuisine – local culinary traditions of Mongolia and Mongolian styled dishes. The extreme continental climate has affected the traditional diet, so the Mongolian cuisine primarily consists of dairy products, meat, and animal fats. Use of vegetables and spices is limited.
    • Taiwanese cuisine

Southeast Asian cuisine[edit]

Location of Southeast Asia.
Personal serving of nasi Bali, in Indonesia, rice surrounded by numbers of side dishes including sate lilit.
Thai Kaeng phet pet yang: roast duck in red curry.

Southeast Asian cuisine – includes a strong emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with a strong aromatic component that features such flavors as citrus and herbs such as mint, cilantro (coriander) and basil. Ingredients in the region contrast with the ones in the Eastern Asian cuisines, substituting fish sauces for soy sauce and the inclusion of ingredients such as galangal, tamarind and lemon grass. Cooking methods include a balance of stir-frying, boiling and steaming.[22]

South Asian cuisine[edit]

Location of South Asia.
An assortment of spices and herbs. Spices are an indispensable food ingredient in much of India.

West Asian cuisine[edit]

Location of Western Asia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cuisine." Thefreedictionary.com. Accessed June 2011.
  2. ^ "Kazakhstan," Food in Every Country, accessed April 18, 2011, http://www.foodbycountry.com/Kazakhstan-to-South-Africa/Kazakhstan.html.
  3. ^ "The noodle-rich cuisine of Uzbekistan", The Village Voice, Dining, 19 January 1999.
  4. ^ "Fujian Cuisine. Beautyfujian.com. Accessed June 2011.
  5. ^ "Regions of Chinese food-styles/flavors of cooking." University of Kansas, Kansas Asia Scholars. Accessed June 2011.
  6. ^ "Eight Cuisines of China – Shandong & Guangdong." Travel China Guide. Accessed June 2011.
  7. ^ J. Li & Y. Hsieh. Traditional Chinese Food Technology and Cuisine. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
  8. ^ Hsiung, Deh-Ta. Simonds, Nina. Lowe, Jason. [2005] (2005). The food of China: a journey for food lovers. Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-681-02584-4. p17.
  9. ^ TVB. "TVB." 廣東菜最具多元烹調方法. Retrieved on 2008-11-19.
  10. ^ 徐, 文苑 (2005), 中国饮食文化概论, 清华大学出版社, pp. 79–80 
  11. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 126. 
  12. ^ "Beijing 2008 Olympics - Zhejiang Cuisine". People's Daily Online. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  13. ^ Bourdain, Anthony (2001). A Cook's Tour: Global Adventures in Extreme Cuisines. New York, NY: Ecco. ISBN 0-06-001278-1. 
  14. ^ "A Day in the Life: Seasonal Foods", The Japan Forum Newsletter No. September 14, 1999.
  15. ^ "Japanese Cuisine. Thefoodieshandbook.co.uk. Accessed July 2011.
  16. ^ (Japanese) "「ミシュランガイド東京・横浜・鎌倉2011」を発行 三つ星が14軒、二つ星が54軒、一つ星が198軒に", Michelin Japan, November 24, 2010.
  17. ^ Tokyo is Michelin's biggest star From The Times November 20, 2007
  18. ^ Ishige, Naomichi. "Food Forum Okinawa." Kikkoman. Retrieved on November 30, 2009.
  19. ^ The Chosun Ilbo. "Hanjeongsik, a full-course Korean meal." English.chosun.com. Accessed 6/11/2008.
  20. ^ "Korean Cuisine (한국요리 韓國料理)" (in Korean). Naver / Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  21. ^ 향토음식 Nate Korean-English Dictionary
  22. ^ a b c Le, C.N. (2008). "Asian Cuisine & Foods.". Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  23. ^ "Cuisine of Brunei". ifood.tv. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  24. ^ a b c "Indonesian Cuisine." Epicurina.com. Accessed July 2011.
  25. ^ "Indonesian food." Belindo.com. Accessed July 2011.
  26. ^ "Indonesian Cuisine". Diner's Digest. Retrieved 2010-07-11. 
  27. ^ Stung Treng
  28. ^ Regional Thai Cuisines
  29. ^ "Malaysian Food." Malaysianfood.net. Accessed July 2011.
  30. ^ "What is Malay Food?" Malaysianfood.net. Accessed July 2011.
  31. ^ "Philippine Cuisine." Balitapinoy.net. Accessed July 2011.
  32. ^ Alejandro, Reynaldo (1985). The Philippine cookbook. New York, New York: Penguin. pp. 12–14. ISBN 978-0-399-51144-8. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  33. ^ Civitello, Linda (2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley and Sons. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-118-09875-2. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  34. ^ Philippines Country Study Guide. Int'l Business Publications. 2007. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4330-3970-6. Retrieved June 30, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Singapore Food." Singaporefoodhistory.com. Accessed July 2011.
  36. ^ a b c "Modern Thai" (food). Sabaiaz.com. Accessed July 2011.
  37. ^ a b c "Indian Cuisine." Yoursingapore.com. Accessed July 2011.
  38. ^ "www.indiaat60.in/backgrounders/Incredible-India@60-indian-cuisine.pdf" (PDF). 
  39. ^ Chandra, Sanjeev (2008-02-07). "The story of desi cuisine: Timeless desi dishes". The Star. Toronto. Archived from the original on 2008-10-26. 
  40. ^ Indian Grocery Online, Food Shopping Store, Buy, Indian Cuisine
  41. ^ http://www.mit.edu:8001/people/alycem/writing_indiancooking.html
  42. ^ History of Indian Food and Cooking
  43. ^ Veg Voyages
  44. ^ Asia Society
  45. ^ http://www.cafemeetingplace.com/pdf/lesson_dec07.pdf
  46. ^ a b c "The Middle East: Background.", Globalgourmet.com. Accessed January 2007.
  47. ^ Tahini: The Taste of Healthy Middle Eastern Cuisine, The New York Times, October 19, 2009. Last visited January 29, 2010.
  48. ^ Daisy Martinez (2010). Daisy: Morning, Noon and Night: Bringing Your Family Together with Everyday Latin Dishes (Hardvocer ed.). Atria. p. 336. ISBN 1-4391-5753-7. 
  49. ^ Philip Mattar (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East & North Africa (Hardcover ed.). Macmillan Library Reference. p. 840. ISBN 0-02-865771-3. 
  50. ^ a b Cuisine in Bahrain. Allo' Expat Bahrain (Website). Accessed April 2011.
  51. ^ a b http://www.thingsasian.com/stories-photos/3592 Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History. Habeeb Salloum.
  52. ^ a b "Food in Saudi Arabia". Food in Every Country (website). Accessed May 2010.
  53. ^ Nur İlkin - A Taste of Turkish cuisine
  54. ^ Aarssen, Jeroen; Backus, Ad (2000). Colloquial Turkish. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-15746-9. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  55. ^ Gold, Rozanne A Region's Tastes Commingle in Israel (July 20, 1994) in The New York Times Retrieved 2010–02–14