East Godavari district
|East Godavari district
తూర్పు గోదావరి జిల్లా
|District of Andhra Pradesh|
Location of East Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh
|Administrative division||East Godavari district|
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Kakinada, Amalapuram, Rajahmundry|
|• Assembly seats||19|
|• Total||10,807 km2 (4,173 sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||1005|
East Godavari district is a district in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Its district headquarters is at Kakinada. As of Census 2011, it is the most populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549. Rajahmundry and Kakinada are the two large cities in the Godavari districts. It is also known as the Rice Bowl of Andhra Pradesh with lush paddy fields and coconut groves.
- 1 District formation
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Divisions
- 6 Culture
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transport
- 9 Education
- 10 Tourism
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
In Madras Presidency, The district of Rajahmundry was created in 1823. The Rajahmundry district was reorganized in 1859 into two - the Godavari and Krishna districts. Godavari district was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925. It was formed in 1925 when the old Godavari district was divided into west and east. In 1959 the Bhadrachalam Revenue Division, consisting of Bhadrachalam and Nuguru Venkatapuram Taluks of East Godavari district were merged into the Khammam district for geographical contiguity and administrative viability.
The district, like the rest of the Deccan was under the Nandas and Mauryas in its early history. After the fall of the Mauryan Empire, the district was under the Sathavahanas until the 3rd century under the famous poet king Hala. Coins found during excavations have revealed the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Vasisthi-putra Pulumayi and Yajna Sri Satakarni. Gupta emperor Samudragupta invaded during the rule of both Pishtapura and Avamukta in the district in 350 A.D. Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of the Mathara Dynasty from 375 to 500. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Maharaja Sakthi Varma.
The district passed into the hands of Vishnukundinas during the rule of Vikramendra Varma I during the 5th century. The records indicate that their domain extended over Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur Districts in addition to East Godavari District. Indra Bhattaraka defeated the rulers of Vasistha Kula and re-established Vihsnukundina authority, but was shortly defeated by Kalinga armies. Indra Bhattaraka was followed to the throne by a few others, including Madha Varma III and Manchanna Bhattaraka, who tried to restore their kingdom. Madhava Varma III was the last important ruler of this family.
Chalukyas and Cholas
The Pulakesin II of Badami Chalukyas and his brother Kubja Vishnu Vardhana acquired Pistapura in the 7th century. The Eastern Chalukya dynasty, founded by Kubja Vishnu Vardhana, ruled at first form Pistapura, then from Vengi, and later from Rajahmundry. Many rulers held sway over the kingdom and their history is at times largely a record of disputes over succession. Chalukya Bhima I of this dynasty built a Shiva temple at Draksha Ramam. Jata Choda Bhima of Peda Kallu (Kurnool District) killed Danarnava of this dynasty and occupied Vengi in 973 A.D. Danarnava's two sons, Sakti Varma I and Vimala Aditya, fled from the kingdom and took refuge in the court of the Chola king Rajaraja Chola I. Rajaraja invaded Vengi on behalf of the sons of Danarnava and killed Jata Choda Bhima. Satya Raya of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani did not like the Chola influence in Vengi and the area witnessed many wars between the Cholas and Chalukyas. After the death of Vijaya Aditya VII in 0175 A.D., the Eastern Chalukya dynasty came to an end.
Kulothunga Chola I (Rajendra Chalukya), rival of Vijay Aditya VII, fought along the sides of Cholas and established the Chalukya Cholas province. The district along with the rest of the Vengi kingdom became part of their empire. Major portions of the district were under Velanati Chodas, trustworthy chieftains to his. The famous rulers of this dynasty were Gonka I, Rajendra Choda I, Gonka II and Rajendra Choda II. Vikram Aditya vii of Western Chalukyas occupied this region for short period, but it was recovered by Chalukya Cholas and Velanti Chodas. Velanati chiefs also suppressed rebellions from Haihayas of Kona, Gonka II and Rudra of the Kakatiya dynasty.
Kakatiyas and Delhi Sultanate
Inscriptions at this region including the ones at Draksha Ramam in 13th century throw light on their history. Prola II of the Kakatiya dynasty declared independence from the western Chalukyas and became a subject of Chalukya Cholas. His son Rudra obtained the Godavari delta as gift from the Rajaraja II of Chalukya Cholas. Rudra's authority over the Godavari delta was challenged by the Velanadu Chodas. The Velanati king Rajendra Choda II sent an army under his minister Davana Preggada against Rudra. Rudra was succeeded by his younger brother Mahadeva who died in a conflict with the Yadavas of Devagiri. His son Ganapathi succeeded to the Kakatiya throne. Ganapathi defeated Kalinga armies on the north, Pandyas of Madurai and Cholas with the help of Nellore Chodas. The Kakatiya power remained undisturbed in the Godavari region throughout the reign of Ganapathi and her daughter Rudrama devi. Pratap Rudra ascended the throne in 1295 and faced many attacks from Sultans of Delhi. After his defeat by Muhammad-bin-Tughluq in 1323, the district came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq divided South India into five provinces and appointed governors.
Nayaks, Reddy and other Kingdoms
Delhi sultans faced rebellions from the confederacy of local chiefs under the authority of Prolaya of the Musunuri Nayaks clan. The Reddis of Addanki, Koppula Telagas of Pithapuram and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda actively helped him. Warangal was liberated and Telugu land enjoyed freedom for fifty years. Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka appointed his relatives Toyyeti Anavota Nayaka and Mummadi Nayaka (Korukonda) as governors in Godavari region. Mummadi Nayaka married the niece of Kapaya Nayaka. Mummadi Nayaka lived till 1388. He had three sons who ruled for a period of 40 years and later they were reduced to submission by the Reddys of Kondaveedu and their principality was merged in the kingdom of Kondaveedu. Subsequently, Narasimha Deva IV of Kalinga succeeded in conquering this region, but was repulsed by Anavota Reddy of Rajahmundry. He was succeeded by Anavema Reddy and Kumaragiri of the same dynasty.
Kumaragiri fought many wars with the Racherlas of Rachakonda and the Kalinga rulers. He sent his general Kataya Vema along with Prince Anavota to conquer the eastern region. This resulted in the annexation of a large tract in the north as far as Simhachalam. The newly acquired territory was annexed to the Reddi Kingdom and constituted into a separate province called the eastern kingdom. Prince Anavota ruled this province with Raja-mahendra-varam as his capital. He died a premature death around 1395 and Kataya Vema, the general and brother-in-law of Kumar Giri, was given Rajamahendra Rajya in appreciation of the services rendered by him to the State. Kataya Vema's departure to Raja-mahendra-varam led to the seizure of the throne of Kondaveedu by force by Peda Komati Vema.
Peda Komati Vema's authority was defined by Kataya Vema. Kataya Vema was also involved in conflict with Eruva chief Annadeva Choda, who managed to occupy a large portion of the Rajamahendra Rajya. He was, however, defeated and driven back by Kataya Vema. Later, Kataya Vema died in a battle with Anna Deva Choda. After his death, Allada Reddi placed Kataya Vemas' son Komaragiri on the throne of Rajamahendravaram and ruled the kingdom as his regent. Komarigiri died a premature death. Allada Reddi ruled this region till his death in 1420. About 1423, the Vijayanagara ruler Deva Raya II defeated Vira Bhadra, who was then ruling this kingdom and reduced it to subjection.
After the death of Kapileswara Gajapati in 1470, there was a fight between his sons Hamvira and Purushottama for succession. Hamvira succeeded in occupying the throne with the help of Bahmanis but he could not retain it for long. Purushottama overthrew Hamvira and tried to reconquer Rajahmundry and other places. But Muhammad Shah III led the forces to Rajahmundry. This battle, However, ended with the conclusion of peace treaty. After the death of Muhammad Shah III, Purushottama Gajapathi overran the whole of the Godavari-Krishna doab and drove the Bahmani forces as far south as Kondaveedu. Purushottama was succeeded by his son Prataparudra. The Vijayanagar monarch Krishna Deva Raya invaded his kingdom and brought Rajahmundry under subjugation. However, a treaty was concluded wherein Pratapa Rudra agreed to give his daughter in marriage to Krishna Deva Raya in return of the territory north of the Krishna conquered by Krishna Deva Raya.
Taking advantage of the disturbed conditions, the Qutb Shahi ruler of Golconda, Sultan Quli Qutb Shah, invaded the coastal region and took possession of Rajahmundry and the neighbouring kingdoms. Sultan Quli was murdered and he was succeeded to the throne by his son Jamshid Qutb Shah and then by his grand son Subhan Qutb Shah. During his reign, Ibrahim Qutb Shah had to ward off challenges from Shitab Khan and Vidyadhar. The last ruler of this dynasty was Abdual Hasan Tana Shas, who ruled from 1672 to 1687.
Aurangzeb conquered the sultanate of Golconda in 1687, and Golconda, including East Godavari District, became one of the twenty-two provinces of the Mughal Empire. The Nizam-ul-Mulk (viceroy of Golconda) looked after the administration through military officers called Fauzdars. Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, the new Raja of Vizianagaram, invited the English to occupy the Northern Circars. The tussle that ensued between the French and the English ended with the French losing all possessions in Northern Circars except Yanam.
Salabat Jung was subsequently deposed by his brother Nizam Ali Khan, who leased out Rajahmundry and Chicacole to Hasan Ali Khan. Lord Robert Clive, entered into negotiations with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, and obtained a firman ceding the Northern Circars to the British East India Company in August 1765, but it was kept a secret until March 1766. The fort of Kondapalli was seized by the British, and General Cillaud was sent to Machilipatnam to undertake military operations, if necessary. The Nizam also made brisk preparations for war. War was prevented by the signing of a treaty on November 12, 1766 by which the Company, in return for occupying the Circars, undertook to maintain troops for the Nizam's assistance.
British rule, 1768–1947
By a second treaty, signed on March 1, 1768 the Nizam acknowledged the validity of Shah Alam's grant and resigned the Circars to the Company, receiving as a mark of friendship an annuity of 50,000. Finally, in 1823, the claims of the Nizam over the Northern Circars were bought outright by the Company, and they became a British possession. The Circars were incorporated into Madras Presidency, and Godavari District was constituted, which included present-day East Godavari and West Godavari districts.
Since Indian independence, 1947-present
After India's independence in 1947, the former Madras Presidency of British India became India's Madras State. In 1953, the northern districts of Madras state, including Godavari District, became the new state of Andhra Pradesh. Yanam was relinquished by the French in 1954, but one condition of the cession treaty was the retention of the district's separate and distinct identity, which also applied to the other South Indian enclaves constituting today's Puducherry state.
Geography and climate
East Godavari district occupies an area of 10,807 square kilometres (4,173 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Indonesia's Sumba Island. The district is bounded on north by Visakhapatnam District, Malkangiri District of Orissa on the northwest by Khammam District, on the east and south by the Bay of Bengal and on the west by West Godavari District. The small enclave (12 sq mi (30 km²)) of the Yanam district of Puducherry state lies within this district. The district has hilly terrain to the west and plains to the east. The district headquarters Kakinada lies on the coast. The district receives rainfall from June to October; both southwest and northeast monsoon contribute to the rainfall. Average rainfall varies widely from 100 centimeters at the northern part of the coast to 140 centimeters at the extreme western parts of the hills.
According to the 2011 census East Godavari district has a population of 51,51,549, roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates or the US state of Colorado. This gives it a ranking of 19th in India (out of a total of 640) and 2nd in its state. The district has a population density of 477 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,240 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.1%. East Godavari has a sex ratio of 1005 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 71.35%.
East Godavari district has a total population of 51,51,549; 25,69,419 and 25,82,130 male and female respectively. There was change of 5.10 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001 census. The census data states a density of 477 in 2011 compared to 454 in 2001.
Average literacy rate of East Godavari in 2011 was 71.35% compared to 65.48% in 2001. On a gender basis, male and female literacy was 74.91% and 67.82% respectively.
With regards to sex ratio in East Godavari, it stood at 1005 per 1000 males compared to the 2001 census figure of 993. The average national sex ratio in India is 940 as per the 2011 census.
There were total 4,92,446 children under the age of 0-6 against 6,13,490 of 2001 census. Of total 492,446 male and female were 2,50,086 and 2,42,360 respectively. The child sex ratio as per census 2011 was 969 compared to 978 in 2001. In 2011, children under 0-6 formed 9.56% of East Godavari district compared to 12.52% in 2001.
In 2007–2008 the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1019 households in 38 villages across the district. They found that 92.5% had access to electricity, 96.7% had drinking water, 50.4% toilet facilities, and 30.9% lived in a pucca (permanent) home. 28.6% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 79% of interviewees carried a BPL card.
The district is divided into 6 revenue divisions and 60 revenue Mandals among which 58 are rural and 2 are urban. The district has 57 Mandal Praja Parishads and 1,011 Gram Panchayats and nine municipalities. Total number of villages in the district is 1,379. It is the only district to possess two municipal corporations. They are Kakinada and Rajahmundry.
As per G.O.Ms. No.31, Revenue (Registration & Mandals) Department, Dated 05-06-2002 a new Rural Mandal Routhulapudi (44 villages) with headquarters at Routhulapudi was formed by transferring certain villages from Sankhavaram (12 villages), Kotananduru (31 villages) and Tuni (1 village) Mandals, thereby making total number of Mandals to be 60.
The six revenue divisions are Kakinada, Rajahmundry, Amalapuram, Rampachodavaram, Peddapuram and Ramachandrapuram and they consist of 60 revenue mandals in total. Because of Bifurcation of the Andhra Pradesh, Bhadrachalam Revenue Division (except Bhadrachalam revenue village and Bhadrachalam Temple) from Khammam district got added to the district with effect from 2 June 2014. The added mandals from Bhadrachalam Revenue Division are Bhadrachalam (except Bhadrachalam revenue village and Temple), Chintoor, Vararamachandrapuram and Kunavaram.
- Kakinada (R)
- Kakinada (U)
- Rajahmundry (R)
- Rajahmundry (U)
The culture of East Godavari district is a rich traditional one in all parts of the district, and reflects the true culture of Andhra Pradesh. It is known for Veda-pandits, the Godavari River and the hospitality of the people. The Telugu language originated in this district (in Rajahmundry or Rajamahendri). East Godavari District has produced several stalwarts in area of culture, music, art and cinema. Poet and writer Devulapalli Krishnasastri, famous Musician and Singer M.Balamuralikrishna ( Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna), P.B. Srinivas, Adurthi Subba Rao, C. Pullaiah, actress Jaya Prada belong to this district. Freedom fighter, social worker and politician Durgabai Deshmukh
The key industries that offer employment and source of livelihood to the people are fisheries, plywood unit, paper mill, sugar factorys, sugar and biofuel plants etc. Being the largest part of the rich Godavari delta, agriculture and aquaculture are major parts of the economy for this district. It is part of a Special Economic Zone and the proposed sectors for investment are chemical, petroleum and petrochemical sectors. With the discoveries of oil and natural gas, it has increased its industrial sector. It is the home of two major fertilizer factories and in addition, gas based power plants and oil refineries. Now it is one of the Largest oil & gas hubs in India.
East Godavari is famous for agriculture because of fertile lands which are adequately irrigated throughout the year. Sir Arthor Cotton turned entire Godavari region to fertile position with his wonderful engineering mind, he constructed Dowlesawaram Barrage Across the river Godavari. and is the most prosperous district in the state and is the one of richest district in the country. Statistically it is a potential hinterland for oil and natural gas reserves in the country as many areas are identified as richest sources for oil and Natural gas in Godavari basin.
East Godavari is well connected through Rail, Road, Water and Air. The National Highway 5 connecting Chennai and Howrah passes through this district. Rajahmundry and Samalkot are the railway junctions in the district. The Chennai to Howrah rail line also passes through this district. The district has an airport at Madhurapudi (which is 10 km from Rajahmundry and 65 km from Kakinada). There are regular flights from Rajahmundry to Hyderabad, Chennai, Vijayawada, Bengaluru etc. Kakinada has a major sea port which is predicted to be a potentially important port after Chennai, Paradip, Kolkata and Visakhapatnam along the east coast of India.
There are numerous educational institutes with District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) in Rajahmundry, established in 1989 for the benefit of teacher trainees and in-service teachers. There are many educational institutions that provide education in different fields such as Engineering, Medical, Law, Pharmacy, Polytechnic and Postgraduate colleges etc. Some of the notable universities, colleges are Rangaraya Medical College in Kakinada, GSKM Law College, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Law, SK College of Nursing, Bonam Venkata Chalamayya Group of Institutions, Kakinada Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada etc. In addition to the above listed, the District has lot of B.Ed colleges, Pharma and intermediate colleges.
East Godavari has many visiting places such as Historical Temples, Natural beauty and Nurseries etc. The historical temples are located at Annavaram, Antharvedi, Draksharamam, Kotipalli, Pithapuram, Rajahmundry, Samalkota etc. In these temples most of the temples having "Swayam Bhu" status of the lords and having their own "Stala Purana (history of the place)".
Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, located at a distance of about 15 km from Kakinada on Kakinada–Yanam. Kadiapulanka, at 20 km from Rajahmundry, is the hub of nurseries of myriad varieties of flowers and fruits. Other attractions are Sir Arthur Cotton Museum at Dowleswaram, Korangi Reserve Forest, known for Back waters and Mangrove forests. Eco Tourism projects at Maredumilli and Rampa, second largest Road cum Rail Bridge of Asia in Rajahmundry and Konaseema is known for its scenic greenery and lush green paddy fields, located between the two branches of the Godavari river and the Bay of Bengal.
- "District - East Godavari". Andhra Pradesh Online Portal. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- "East Godavari district profile". Andhra Pradesh State Portal.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Andhra Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1111–1112. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Sumba 10,711"
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "United Arab Emirates 51,48,664"
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Colorado 50,29,196"
- "Indian Districts by Population, Growth Rate, Sex Ratio 2011 Census". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08: India. Andhra Prades" (PDF). International Institute for Population Sciences and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- "How Do I? : Obtain Marriage Certificate". National Portal Content Management Team, National Informatics Centre. 2005. Retrieved 2011-10-03. "To be eligible for marriage, the minimum age limit is 21 for males and 18 for females."
- "Mandals in East Godavari district". AP State Portal. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Tourist Places". East Godavari District Webportal. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
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||Khammam district, Telangana||Malkangiri district, Odisha||Visakhapatnam district|
|West Godavari district||Bay of Bengal|
|West Godavari district||Bay of Bengal||Bay of Bengal|