East India

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East India
Location of East India
Country India
States and territories
Largest City Kolkata
Most populous cities (2011)
Area
 • Total 418,323 km2 (161,515 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 226,925,195
 • Density 540/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Official languages

East India (also known as Eastern India) is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of West Bengal,[1] Bihar,[2][3] Jharkhand, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands. West Bengal's capital Kolkata is the largest city of this region. The states of Odisha and West Bengal share some cultural and linguistic characteristics with Bangladesh and with the state of Assam.[citation needed]. Bengali is the most spoken language of this region and it is also the second most spoken language in India after Hindi.Oriya is the only language in east India accorded the status of a Classical Language of India. Together with Bangladesh, West Bengal formed the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal before partition in 1947. The historic region of Bengal which was ruled by Nawabs of Bengal comprises the present, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Bangladesh from where the British started their conquest of India.

The bulk of the region lies on the east coast of India by the Bay of Bengal, and on the Indo-Gangetic plain. Jharkhand, on the Chhota Nagpur plateau, is a hilly and a heavily forested state rich in mineral wealth. The region is bounded by the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal on the east. It is connected to the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by the narrow Siliguri Corridor in the north east of West Bengal.

History[edit]

The extent of the Maurya Empire.
The extent of the Gupta Empire.

The region was the historical centre of the Nanda, Mahameghavahana dynasty Maurya, Kharavela, Sunga, Kalinga, Eastern Ganga dynasty, Shishunaga dynasty, Gupta and Pala empires that ruled much of the Indian sub-continent at their prime. In medieval India, it was incorporated into the Mughal, Maratha and then the British empire. After independence in 1947, the states joined the Indian Union and took their current form after the States Reorganization Act of 1956. Today, they continue to face problems of overpopulation, environmental degradation and pervasive corruption despite significant economic and social progress.

After the Kalinga War The Maurya king Ashoka send out emissaries to spread Buddhism across Asia. The famous university of Nalanda was in East India. Chinese travellers visited Buddhist and Hindu temples and libraries in the universities of Magadha Empire. The Emperor of Kalinga Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela was one of the most powerful monarchs of ancient India. The Jain thirkhankar Mahaveer was born here and founded Jainism.

Islamic invasions in the 13th century resulted in the collapse of Hindu kings and most Buddhists, especially in East Bengal, converted to Islam. East India including Bihar and West Bengal was part of the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. Odisha remained a powerful Hindu dynasty under the rule of Soma/Keshari Dynasty, Eastern Ganga Dynasty, Surya Dynasty till the end of the 16th century. The mighty Nalanda University existed at Nalanda which was destroyed by Bakhtiar Khilji during the 12th century and also defeated Sena Dynasty. Sher Shah Suri, who became king of India after defeating Humayun, founded the city of Patna on the ruins of ancient Patliputra.

With the arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century, outposts were established in Odisha Coast and Bengal. The European traders established their trade centres in the famous ports of Balasore, Pipili, Palur in the Odisha Coast during the rule of the last independent Hindu king Gajapati Prataprudra Dev. The Portuguese were in Chittagong, Dutch in Chinsura, French in Pondicherry and the English founded Calcutta. In 1756, the British East India Company defeated the local Indian Muslim rulers in Plassey and established British Rule in the subcontinent. Its capital Calcutta grew into one of the world's greatest ports. Tea from Calcutta was off-loaded by American separatists in the American War of Independence in the 1770s. In the 19th century, Calcutta's traders and merchants traded with the rest of the British Empire, continental Europe, the United States and China. Indentured Indian labourers from Bihar, sailed to new homes in Fiji, Mauritius, Guyana, Surinam and South Africa.

India's independence movement had strong roots in East India. The feudal land system, established through the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was unpopular among the peasant cultivators and the numerous agricultural labourers found all over Bihar and Bengal (Khetmazdoors). The Indian War of Independence in 1857 started in Bengal. British war propaganda asserted there were atrocities by the mutinous soldiers in the Black Hole of Calcutta. Eventually the British prevailed and Calcutta remained capital of Britain's Asian dominions until 1911. The Indian National Congress was founded in Calcutta. During Gandhi's freedom movement, the Bihari village of Champaran was an important supporter of non-violent resistance. Great poets of the stature of Rabindranath Tagore championed the movement for self-rule.

The Partition also had its roots in undivided Eastern India. The Muslim League was founded in Dhaka in 1906. In the 1937 provincial elections, it came to power in Bengal in alliance with the Krishak Praja Party. in 1944, it gained an absolute majority in the Bengal Assembly, and Hussein Suhrawardy became the Chief Minister. After widespread communal violence during the Direct Action Day protests in Calcutta, leading to further communal violence across British India, the creation of Pakistan became inevitable. In 1947, further communal violence displaced millions as independence and partition of British India occurred. Some Bihari and Bengali Muslims fled to the newly created East Pakistan. Most East Bengal Hindus fled to India.

The 1950s saw industrial progress in East India. These were cut short with the conflict in neighbouring East Pakistan and by the Communist movement at home. In 1971, in the course of Bangladesh's independence struggle, millions of refugees poured into East India. From the turn of the century West Bengal's economic recovery flew through its roofs and now racks second largest GDP contributor after Maharastra according to List of Indian states by GDP and is now the third fastest-growing economy.

Bihar and Odisha struggled with economic issues but developed steadily. Jharkhand became a separate state on 15 November 2000. The economic boom since 2005 started to spread new malls, highways, airports and IT office complexes, but not evenly across the region.

Education[edit]

Nalanda, Puphagiri and Vikramshila universities as one of the primary institutions of higher learning in ancient India which are present in East India. East India is home to some great universities and Institutions of National Importance.

Bihar[edit]

Main article: Education in Bihar

One of the first great universities in recorded history, the Nalanda University, of this ancient University including a consortium led by Singapore along with China, India and is located in the state of Bihar, while another recently discovered one, Puspagiri University in Odisha. There has been various plans for revival Japan.

Famed Buddhist Nalanda University & Monastery ruins in Bihar
Software Technology Park of India, IIT Patna

Jharkhand[edit]

Odisha[edit]

Main article: Education in Odisha
Ratnagiri, Odisha Odisha: Part of Puspagiri University
Udayagiri, Odisha Part of Puspagiri University
Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata

West Bengal[edit]

Auditorium of IIM Calcutta

Urban areas[edit]

There are many ancient cities are established in eastern India. These city are Pataliputra, Mithila (ancient), Champapuri, Dantapura, Sisupalgarh, Tosali, Gaya, Jaugada, Rajapura, Asurgarh, and banga Chandrakanta (Kosala Kingdom).

West Bengal[edit]

JL Nehru Road, one of the CBD in Kolkata
Durgapur Steel plant

West Bengal's capital Kolkata, the capital of British India until 1911, is the biggest metropolis and economically dominant city of the region and third largest in India and one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. It is also the main centre of commerce or the commercial capital of Eastern and north eastern India. Kolkata is very fast transforming itself to become city equipped with every facilities for IT and ITES and also financial outsourcing hub and its satellites Salt Lake City, Kolkata and Rajarhat are taken the burdens of India's IT and financial boom. There are many Satellite town also situated in Kolkata, some of them are Salt Lake City, Kolkata, Rajarhat, Kolkata West International City, Kalyani, West Bengal, Calcutta Riverside. It is also known as city of joy, cultural capital of India, Social and Intellectual capital of India etc. However, the mid-sized cities of Durgapur, Siliguri, Asansol in West Bengal are emerging urban areas.West Bengal is also the largest contributor of GDP among all other eastern state for India and it is also one of the faster-growing states in India.

West Bengal is also the hub of industry in Eastern India and it is also the home to the tallest skylines located in this region and are also among one of the tallest buildings in the country. It is also the home of history of rising India.

Bihar & Jharkhand[edit]

Bihar has Patna, Bhagalpur, Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Gaya and Munger are important urban areas. In Jharkhand the major urban areas are mainly dominated by industrial cities such as Ranchi, Bokaro Steel City, Deoghar Jamshedpur and Dhanbad.

Skyline near Golghar in Patna

Patna is the capital of the Bihar, its most populous city and the second most populous city in Eastern India. It is the administrative, industrial and educational centre of the state. Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. Ancient Patna, known as Pataliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Gupta and Pala.

Pataliputra was a seat of learning and fine arts. Its population during the Maurya period (around 300 BCE) was about 400,000.

The modern city of Patna is situated on the southern bank of the Ganges. The city also straddles the rivers Sone, Gandak and Punpun. The city is approximately 35 km long and 16 km to 18 km wide. It is the second largest city of Eastern India.

In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna second in India (after Delhi) for ease of starting a business. As of 2004-2005, Patna had the highest per capita gross district domestic product in Bihar, at INR31,441. Using figures for assumed average annual growth, Patna is the 21st fastest-growing city in the world and 5th fastest-growing city in India by the City Mayors' Foundation. Patna registered an average annual growth of 3.72% during 2006-2010. The city is also home to many tutorials and coaching institutes who prepare students for various entrance exams..IIT NIT NIFT AIIMS and other leading educational institutions are running successfully in Patna. City is also developing excellent road infrastructure to boom its economy. Ganga expressway and elevated corridors are under some of the on going projects in the city. A world class museum is also on its way to completion. The old museum of the city will be replaced by one of the biggest mall in east India. The city also comprises malls, amusement parks, retail giants like Pantaloons, Vishal, Big bazaar, Reliance trends etc. Construction of Patna Metro is also going to start soon.

IT parks are also developing in and around the city.

Patna recorded a per capita of Rs 30,441. The per capita level for 2007 was higher than Bangalore or Hyderabad, which are both leading centres for global software development.

The Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Gaya, Bodhgaya, and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here.

Odisha[edit]

Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Odisha. The city has a long history of over 2000 years starting with Chedi dynasty (around the 2nd century BCE) who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital. Historically Bhubaneswar has been known by different names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari (city of temples) otherwise known as the temple city of India. The largest city of Odisha, Bhubaneswar today is a center of economic and religious importance in the region. With the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Government of India in the '90s, Bhubaneswar received large investments in the fields of telecommunications, IT and higher education, particularly engineering. The city is home to around 60 engineering colleges (as of 2009)[4] and the number is growing every year. The city is also home to many tutorials and coaching institutes who prepare students for various entrance exams.

Retail and Real Estate have also emerged as big players. Recent times have seen large scale retail chains such as Reliance, Vishal MegaMart, Big Bazaar, Pantaloon, Pal Heights, Indulge, New Leaf, Habib's, had opened outlets in Bhubaneswar. Large corporations like DLF Universal and Reliance Industries have entered the real estate market in the city. DLF Limited is developing an Infopark spread over an area of 54 acres (220,000 m2) in the city. Expanding its business portfolio, the Kolkata-based Saraf Group, promoters of Forum Mart shopping malls is constructing another Shopping mall named Forum Lifestyle mall a 550,000 sq ft (51,000 m2) lifestyle mall in Bhubaneswar with 1,200 car parks. The rich minerals resources of Odisha have been the backbone of the economy dominated by Government. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) and private organizations like Jindal, Vedanta and TATAS. Despite this rapid growth, an ample number of the populace live in slums. Migration from rural areas, especially from the northern districts of Andhra Pradesh, has led to the growth of slums which are a major challenge to the city's growth. The slum dwellers work as auto rickshaw drivers or small vendors but this is not true for everyone. A lot of them are unemployed and are being drawn into crime. The main problem of the city is transport as the quality and length of roads have not increased with respect to the rise in number of vehicles. Purchasing power of people of this city is quite high but this city does not get enough highlightment and often neglected by big channels like Discovery, NatGeo, etc.

Rajpath at night in Bhubaneshwar city

The Government has fostered growth in this sphere by the development of IT Parks such as Infocity 1 and the new Infocity 2. The Info City was conceived as a five star park, under the Export Promotion Industrial Parks (EPIP) Scheme to create high quality infrastructure facilities for setting up Information Technology related industries. Infosys and Satyam Computer Services Ltd. have been present in Bhubaneswar since 1996-97. Its current head count stands at around 5000. The first part of the TCS centre is ready and has a capacity to accommodate nearly 1,200 professionals but the software major has only 250 employees at present. The Finland telecommunication company, Nethawk, has its India R&D center at Bhubaneswar. The Canadian giant, Gennum Corporation has its India development centre at Bhubaneswar. The famous auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers Pvt. Ltd. also have a center in Bhubaneswar. The private STP is located at Infocity in Chandaka, Bhubaneswar with a view to provide incubation and infrastructure facilities to new and young entrepreneurs in the MSME sector, The intelligent building of the JSS STP is spread in a sprawling 3-acre (12,000 m2) campus and houses state-of-art technology to fulfil the growing demands of highly competent IT professionals.

The Eastern India particularly Jharkhand is rich in mineral resources which resulted in Economic boom in Damodar Valley region and regions near Kolkata which resulted in development of cities such as Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Dhanbad and Ranchi.

Languages[edit]

Bengali is the dominant language of West Bengal as well as the whole of East India, spoken by well over 90 million people.[citation needed] HIndi along with Maithili, Magahi and Bhojpuri is the dominant language of Bihar. Santhali and Magahi are the dominant language of Jharkhand, however 34% people of Jharkhand are tribals (2001 Census) and speak their own tribal languages and use Hindi as second language.

Oriya is the dominant language of the state of Odisha. Oriya is the only classical language in east India and first Indo-Aryan language-family and sixth Indian language to be considered as a classical language in the basis of being old and not burrowed from other languages.[5][6] [7] [8] [9] The Indo-Aryan languages spoken in this region descend from the Magadhi Prakrit, which was spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha. Bengali, Oriya and Assamese emerged as distinct languages from Magadhi Prakrit and Maithili around the 9th century CE.

Many of the minority adivasis (indigenous tribal people) of East India belong to the Munda branch of the Austroasiatic language family. Major representatives of this group include the Munda, Santal, Oraon and Ho peoples. Santals are the largest tribal group from the region.

Climate[edit]

Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by monsoon in West Bengal.
National Highway 31A winds along the banks of the Teesta River near Kalimpong, in the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in West Bengal.

The region lies in the humid-subtropical zone, and experiences hot summers from March to June, the monsoon from July to October and mild winters from November to February. The interior states have a drier climate and slightly more extreme climate, especially during the winters and summers, but the whole region receives heavy, sustained rainfall during the monsoon months. Snowfall occurs in the extreme northern regions of West Bengal and Daringbadi in Odisha.[10]

Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and USA,[11] raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.[12]

Religion and culture[edit]

Kolkata, West Bengal is the cultural capital of the country

The majority of the population of East India is Hindu with Muslim, Christian, Buddhist and Sikh minorities. The Muslims constitute a very large minority in this region, with 25% of the population in Bengal and 17% in Bihar. They can be found in each and every District of West Bengal and Bihar. Hindus formed 94% of total population of Odisha. Christians are the largest minority in Odisha.

Durga, Jagannath and Shiva are particularly popular Hindu deities in this region. Durga & Kali are patron deities of Bengal and Mithila whereas Jagannath or Vishnu is patron god among Oriya people. Shiva is popular in all areas of eastern states.

Among tribals of the region Hinduism is the dominant religion. Some tribals also follow their indigenous religions (Sarana).

There are several places of pilgrimage for Hinduism. Puri in Odisha is one of the four holy City/Dham of Hindu religion and particularly known for Rath Yatra festival. Bhubaneswar is considered to be the "City of Temples".Konark houses an old sun temple.

Bihar Sharif is an important pilgrimage centre for Muslims all over Bihar.

Dakshineswar Kali Temple is a famous historical Kali temple in West Bengal. Kalighat Kali temple in Kolkata is the most important of all Shakti Peethas in India. Belur Math in Kolkata is the headquarters of the Ramkrishna Mission founded by Swami Vivekananda. In Bihar, Gaya is known for temple for salvation of ancestors. Other places are Sultanganj in Bhagalpur and Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga in Deoghar, Jharkhand. Bodh Gaya is the city sacred to Buddhism. There are also other cities sacred to Jains in Bihar and Jharkhand.

Cuisine[edit]

West Bengal

Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal which is now divided between the Indian state of West Bengal and today's Bangladesh. Other regions, such as Tripura, and the Barak Valley region of Assam (in India) including some parts of Odisha, Jharkhand and Bihar also have large native Bengali populations and share this cuisine. With an emphasis on fish, vegetables and lentils served with rice as a staple diet, Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle (yet sometimes fiery) flavours, and its huge spread of confectioneries and desserts. It also has the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once.

Bengali food has inherited a large number of influences, both foreign and pan-Indian, arising from a historical and strong trade links with many parts of the world. Bengal fell under the sway of various Turkic rulers from the early thirteenth century onwards, and was then governed by the British for two centuries (1757–1947).

Odisha

Oriya cuisine refers to the cooking of the eastern Indian state of Odisha. Foods from this area are rich and varied, while relying heavily on local ingredients. The flavours are usually subtle and delicately spiced, quite unlike the fiery curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. Fish and other seafood such as crab and shrimp are very popular. Chicken and mutton are also consumed, but somewhat occasionally. Only 6% of the population of Odisha is vegetarian, and this is reflected in its cuisine. The oil base used is mostly mustard oil, but in festivals ghee is used. Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals, while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yogurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas. Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. Festivals and fasts witness a cuisine without onion and garlic, whereas other days witness an aroma of garlic and onion paste in curries. One can find restaurants serving food without onion and garlic in major places like Puri and other coastal area, which is run by Brahmin owners.

Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries if not millennia. The kitchen of the famous Jagannath temple in Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world, with a thousand cooks, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people everyday.

In fact, some well-known recipes, usually credited to Bengal, are of Odishan origin. This is because during the Bengal Renaissance, Brahmin cooks from Odisha, especially from Puri, were employed on the Bengali–Odishan border. They were famed for their culinary skills and commonly referred to as Ude Thakurs (Oriya Cooks). As a result, a few Oriya delicacies got incorporated into the Bengali kitchen.

Dance[edit]

Nandini Ghosal performing Odissi, a classical dance from Odisha
The Mohiniyattam is being performed to commemorate of 150th birth anniversary of Tagore. It was an Indo-Bangladesh joint celebration in 2011 in Kolkata.

Odissi (Odissi) is the only classical dance in eastern India. It originates from the state of Odisha, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences.[13][14] Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written circa 200 BCE.

Mahari Dance is one of the important dance forms of Odisha and originated in the temples of Odisha. History of Odisha provides evidence of the 'Devadasi' cult in Odisha. Devadasis were dancing girls who were dedicated to the temples of Orissa. The Devadasis in Orissa were known as 'Maharis' and the dance performed by them came to be known as Mahari Dance. Gotipua dance is another form of dance in Odisha. In Oriya colloquial language Gotipua means single boy. The dance performance done by a single boy is known as Gotipua dance.

There are many folk dances in east India, with the best-known being Ghumura Dance, Sambalpuri and Chhau dance.

Chhau dance (or Chau dance) is a form of tribal martial dance originating in Mayurbhanj, the princely state of Odisha. It is also seen in the Indian states of West Bengal, Jharkhand and Odisha. There are three regional variations of the dance. Seraikella Chau was developed in Seraikella, the administrative head of the Seraikela Kharsawan district of Jharkhand; Purulia Chau in Purulia district of West Bengal; and Mayurbhanj Chau in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha.

Ghumura Dance Archaeological evidence shows[15] cave paintings from the pre-historic period discovered by Gudahandi of Kalahandi and Yogi Matha of Nuapada district that represent the Ghumura and Damru, among other instruments. These paintings date to as early as 8000 BCE and from such painiting the antiquity of musical instrument Ghumura and Damru can be imagined. The origin of Ghumura goes back to ancient times. There is a beautiful waterfall in the river valley of Indravati which was initially recognized by Chindak Nagas of Chakrakot.[16] Many believe that Ghumura dance originated from this river valley and gradually spread into the areas between Indravati and Mahanadi, indicating this dance form belongs to the 10th century CE.

The western Orissa has also great variety of dance forms unique to Odisha culture. The children's verses are known as "Chhiollai", "Humobauli" and "Dauligit". The adolescent poems are "Sajani", "Chhata", "Daika", "Bhekani". The eternal youth composes "Rasarkeli", "Jaiphul", "Maila Jada", "Bayamana", "Gunchikuta" and "Dalkhai". The work-man's poetry comprises "Karma" and "Jhumer", both pertaining to Lord Vishwakarma and the "Karamashani" goddess. The professional entertainers perform Dand, Danggada, Mudgada, Ghumra, Sadhana, Sabar – Sabaren, Disdigo, Nachina – Bajnia, Samparda and Sanchar. They are performed on a variety of occasions and their rhymes and rhythms change accordingly.

Bengali dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as from the broader Indian dance tradition.

Dance forms of Bihar are another expression of rich traditions and ethnic identity. There are several folk dance forms that can keep one enthralled, such as dhobi nach, jhumarnach, manjhi, gondnach, jitiyanach, more morni, dom-domin, bhuiababa, rah baba, kathghorwa nach, jat jatin, launda nach, bamar nach, jharni, jhijhia, natua nach, bidapad nach, sohrai nach, and gond nach.

Music[edit]

Main article: Rabindra Sangeet
Black-and-white close-up photograph of a piece of wood boldly painted in unmixed solid strokes of black and white in a stylized semblance to "ro" and "tho" from the Bengali syllabary.

Rabindra Sangeet, also known as Tagore Songs, are songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. They have distinctive characteristics in the music of Bengal, popular in India and Bangladesh.[17] "Sangeet" means music, "Rabindra Sangeet" means Songs of Rabindra.

Rabindra Sangeet used Indian classical music and traditional folk music as sources.[dead link][citation needed][18] Tagore wrote some 2,230 songs.[citation needed]

Rabindranath Tagore was a towering figure in Indian music. Writing in Bengali, he created a library of over 2,000 songs now known by Bengalis as 'rabindra sangeet' whose form is primarily influenced by Hindustani classical, sub-classicals, Karnatic, western, bauls, bhatiyali and different folk songs of India. Many singers in West Bengal and Bangladesh base their entire careers on the singing of Tagore musical masterpieces. The national anthem of India and national anthem of Bangladesh are Rabindra Sangeets.

West Bengal's capital Kolkata is also the cultural capital of India.[19]

Panchali is a form of narrative folk songs of the Indian state of West Bengal. The word Panchali probably originates from panchal or panchalika, meaning puppet. According to another school of that, Panchali originates from the word panch, which means five in Bengali language, referring to the five elements of this genre: song, music, extempore versifying, poetic contests, and dance.

Music Of Odisha[edit]

Odissi music is a classical music in India originated from the eastern state of Odisha. Indian Classical music has five significant branches: Avanti, Panchali, Udramagadhi, Hindustani and carnatic. Of these, Udramagadhi exists in the form of Odissi music.[20] Generally, Odissi is one of the classical dances of India performed with Odissi music. Odissi music got shaped during the time of famous Oriya poet, Jayadeva, who composed lyrics meant to be sung. By the 11th century CE folk music of Odisha existing in the form of Triswari, Chatuhswari, and Panchaswari was modified into the classical style. However, Odissi songs were written even before the Oriya language developed. Odissi music has a rich legacy dating back to the 2nd century BCE, when king Kharvela, the ruler of Odisha (Kalinga) patronized this music and dance.[21]

Like Hindustani and Carnatic systems, Odissi music is a separate system of Indian classical music and is having all the essential as well as potential ingredients of Indian Classical form. But it has not come to limelight due to apathy from the time of British rule in Orissa, want of its proper study, revival, propagation, etc. Despite the fact, the traditional music form could be saved and maintained in its pristine form. Thanks to the musicians particularly of Jaga Akhadas of Puri district, who could develop and maintain the music. The music movement of Orissa, however, took a different turn after independence.

Like other aspects of her culture, music of the sacred land (Orissa) is charming, colourful, variegated encompassing various types. The existing musical tradition of Orissa, the cumulative experience of the last two thousand five hundred years if not more, can broadly be grouped under five categories such as: (1) Tribal Music, (2) Folk Music, (3) Light Music, (4) Light-Classical Music, (5) Classical Music, which need a short elucidations for better understanding the subject in all India context.

The tribal music as the title signifies is confined to the tribals living mainly in the hilly and jungle regions and sparsely in the coastal belt of Orissa. It is interesting to note that Orissa has the third largest concentration of tribes constituting about one fourth of the total population. They are distributed over 62 tribal communities.

Orissa is the treasure house of Folk Songs which are sung on different festivals and specific occasions in their own enjoyment. Folk music in general is the expression of the ethos and mores of the folk communities. Of the bewildering variety of folk music of Orissa, mention may be made of Geeta, Balipuja Geeta, Kela Keluni Geeta, Dalkhai Geeta, Kendra Geeta, Jaiphula Geeta, Ghumura Geeta, Ghoda Nacha and Danda Nacha Geeta, Gopal Ugala and Osa-Parva-Geeta etc.

Bhajan, Janan, Oriya songs based on ragas, Rangila Chaupadi etc. are grouped under Light classical music, which forms an important segment of Orissan music. Sri Geetagovinda, Anirjukta Pravadha, Divya Manusi Prabandha, Chautisa, Chhanda, Chaupadi (now known as Odissi), Champu, Malasri, Sariman, Vyanjani, Chaturang, Tribhang, Kuduka Geeta, Laxana and Swaramalika are the various sub-forms, which individually or collectively constitute the traditional Odissi music. These sub-forms of the traditional Odissi music, can be categorised under the classical music of Orissa.

Sports[edit]

The East Zone cricket team is a first-class cricket team that represents eastern India in the Duleep Trophy and Deodhar Trophy. It is a composite team of five first-class Indian teams from eastern India competing in the Ranji Trophy: Assam, Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa and Tripura.

In West Bengal[edit]

The most popular sports in Kolkata are football and cricket. The city is a centre of football activity in India and is home to top national clubs such as Mohun Bagan A.C., Kingfisher East Bengal F.C., Prayag United S.C., and the Mohammedan Sporting Club.[22][23] Calcutta Football League, which was started in 1898, is the oldest football league in Asia.[24] Mohun Bagan A.C., one of the oldest football clubs in Asia, is the only organisation to be dubbed a "National Club of India".[25][26] As in the rest of India, cricket is popular in Kolkata and is played on grounds and in streets throughout the city.[27][28] Kolkata has an Indian Premier League franchise known as the Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Tournaments, especially those involving cricket, football, badminton, and carrom, are regularly organised on an inter-locality or inter-club basis.[29] The Maidan, a vast field that serves as the city's largest park, hosts several minor football and cricket clubs and coaching institutes.[30] Eden Gardens, which has a capacity of 90,000 as of 2011,[31] hosted the final match of the 1987 Cricket World Cup. It is home to the Bengal cricket team and the Kolkata Knight Riders. The multi-use Salt Lake Stadium, also known as Yuva Bharati Krirangan, is the world's second-largest football facility by seating capacity as of 2010.[32] The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.[33][34] Kolkata has three 18-hole golf courses. The oldest is at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club, and was the first golf club to be built outside the United Kingdom.[35][36] The other two are located at the Tollygunge Club and at Fort William. The Royal Calcutta Turf Club hosts horse racing and polo matches.[37] The Calcutta Polo Club is considered the oldest extant polo club in the world.[38][39][40] The Calcutta South Club is a venue for national and international tennis tournaments; it held the first grass-court national championship in 1946.[41][42] In the period 2005–2007, Sunfeast Open, a tier-III tournament on the Women's Tennis Association circuit, was held in the Netaji Indoor Stadium; it has since been discontinued.[43][44]

The Calcutta Rowing Club hosts rowing heats and training events. Kolkata, considered the leading centre of rugby union in India, gives its name to the oldest international tournament in rugby union, the Calcutta Cup.[45][46][47] The Automobile Association of Eastern India, established in 1904,[48][49] and the Bengal Motor Sports Club are involved in promoting motor sports and car rallies in Kolkata and West Bengal.[50][51] The Beighton Cup, an event organised by the Bengal Hockey Association and first played in 1895, is India's oldest field hockey tournament; it is usually held on the Mohun Bagan Ground of the Maidan.[52][53] Athletes from Kolkata include Sourav Ganguly and Pankaj Roy, who are former captains of the Indian national cricket team; Olympic tennis bronze medallist Leander Paes, golfer Arjun Atwal, and former footballers Sailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, P. K. Banerjee, and Subrata Bhattacharya.

The Cricket Association of Bengal (CAB) is the governing body for cricket in West Bengal. Its headquarters is in the famous Eden Gardens stadium. It organizes different types of cricket tournaments in West Bengal.
Cricket Association of Bengal is affiliated to the Board of control for cricket in India is the parent body or governing the game of Cricket in Bengal, and involved in conducting the game of cricket in Bengal. The Cricket Association of Bengal promotes and develops Cricket by conducting various League Tournaments, tournaments for the age group Under-13, Under-16, and Under-19 and Under-21 categories. CAB also conducts National and International Tournaments.

In Odisha[edit]

Entrance to the Barabati Stadium in Cuttack, Odisha.

Odisha Cricket Association (abbreviated OCA) is the governing body of the Cricket activities in the Odisha state of India and the Odisha cricket team. It is affiliated to the Board of Control for Cricket in India. The Odisha Cricket Association promotes and develops Cricket by conducting various League Tournaments, Tournaments for the age group Under-13, Under-15, Under-17, and Under-19, Under-22 and Under-25 categories besides organising and conducting National Tournaments. The OCA started a local Twenty-20 tournament, Odisha Premier League (OPL) in the lines of Indian Premier League in 2011.

OCA manages the famous Barabati Stadium and has got infrastructures and facilities like Odisha cricket academy, newly built Sachin Tendulkar Indoor cricket hall and many grounds like DRIEMS cricket stadium, Ravenshaw university ground, SCB medical ground, Nimpur ground, Basundhara (Bidanasi) ground, Sunshine Ground etc.

The Odisha Premier League (OPL) was initiated by Odisha Cricket Association (OCA), Cuttack, India in line of Indian Premier League (IPL).[54]

Hockey turf in Sundergarh, Odisgh

The popularity of Hockey in Odisha is high. Many National players in Hockey are from Odisha. Lazarus Barla, Prabodh Tirkey, Dilip Tirkey, Ignace Tirkey, Ignace Tirkey, Jyoti Sunita Kullu, Lazarus Barla, Subhadra Pradhan, Birendra Lakra and Anupa Barla are the few name who brought the fame to Indian hockey in International level. Premier Hockey League (PHL) is league competition for field Hockey clubs in the top division of the Indian hockey system. There are seven teams in the PHL and in East India only team is Orissa Steelers who won Premier Hockey League 2007.

References and footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Govt of West Bengal. "Official Site of Government of West Bengal, India". Westbengal.gov.in. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  2. ^ "State Profile". Bihar Government website. 
  3. ^ "Food riots, anger as floods swamp South Asia". Reuters India. 22 August 2008. 
  4. ^ Chitta Baral (3 September 2009). "» Engineering College Clusters in Orissa in 2009". Orissalinks.com. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  5. ^ "Odia gets classical language status". The Hindu. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  6. ^ "Odia set to become classical language". Rediff.com. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "Cabinet nod for Odia as classical language". Yahoo News. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  8. ^ "Decks cleared for Odia to get classical status". The Odisha Sun Times. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 
  9. ^ Swetapadma, Mohapatra (August 2013). Recognition of Classical Status for Odia Language. Government of Odisha. pp. 92–93. ISSN 0970-8669. 
  10. ^ "It's freezing at Daringbadi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 7 January 2011. 
  11. ^ Georg, Feuerstein (2002). The Yoga Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 600. ISBN 3-935001-06-1. 
  12. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006). New Religions in Global Perspective. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 0-7007-1185-6. 
  13. ^ www.TheInfoIndia.com. "Odissi Classical Dance of India — Classical Odissi Dance India, Classical Odissi Dance Vacations India, Classical Odissi Dances Tour in India". Dancesofindia.co.in. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  14. ^ "Odissi Kala Kendra". Odissi.itgo.com. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  15. ^ The Heroic Dance Ghumura, Edited by Sanjay Kumar, Mahabir Sanskrutika, 2002
  16. ^ Epigraphica Indica, IX, p. 179
  17. ^ Ghosh, p. xiii
  18. ^ Huke, Robert E. (2009). "West Bengal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  19. ^ "Kolkata remains cultural capital of India: Amitabh Bachchan — Entertainment — DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  20. ^ "Odissi — A Distinct Style Of Indian Classical Music". Chandrakantha.com. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  21. ^ http://orissagov.nic.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/august-2007/engpdf/Page108-111.pdf
  22. ^ "Mohun Bagan vs East Bengal: India's all-consuming rivalry". FIFA. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  23. ^ Bhabani, Soudhriti (1 September 2011). "Argentine football superstar Messi charms Kolkata". India Today (Noida, India). Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Football in Bengal". Indian Football Association. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Dineo, Paul; Mills, James (2001). Soccer in South Asia: empire, nation, diaspora. London: Frank Cass Publishers. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7146-8170-2. 
  26. ^ "India strive for improvement". FIFA. 15 February 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  27. ^ "What happened to para cricket?". Times of India (New Delhi). TNN. 20 January 2002. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  28. ^ "Para cricket tourney gets off to a cracking start". Times of India (New Delhi). TNN. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  29. ^ "Kolkata culture: Para". Department of Tourism, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  30. ^ "FIFA president visits big three of Kolkata maidan". The Hindu (Chennai). 16 April 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  31. ^ "Eden Gardens". ESPN CricInfo. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  32. ^ Frank, Sybille; Steets, Silke, eds. (2010). Stadium worlds: football, space and the built environment. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 0-415-54904-3. 
  33. ^ Desai, Ashwin (2000). Blacks in whites: a century of cricket struggles in KwaZulu-Natal. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: University of Natal Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-86914-025-0. 
  34. ^ Mukherji, Raju (14 March 2005). "Seven years? Head start". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Retrieved 26 October 2006. 
  35. ^ Bohn, Michael K. (2008). Money golf: 600 Years of bettin' on birdies. Dulles, Virginia, US: Potomac Books. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-59797-032-7. 
  36. ^ Uschan, Michael V. (2000). Golf. San Diego, US: Lucent Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-56006-744-3. 
  37. ^ Himatsingka, Anuradha (9 January 2011). "Royal Calcutta Turf Club in revival mode". Economic Times (New Delhi). Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  38. ^ Singh, Jaisal (2007). Polo in India. London: New Holland Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84537-913-1. 
  39. ^ Jackson, Joanna (2011). A Year in the life of Windsor and Eton. London: Frances Lincoln. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7112-2936-5. 
  40. ^ "History of polo". Hurlingham Polo Association. Retrieved 30 August 2007. 
  41. ^ "About AITA". All India Tennis Association. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  42. ^ Das Sharma, Amitabha (7 April 2011). "Young turks rule the roost". Sportstar (Chennai: The Hindu) 34 (14). Retrieved 27 February 2012. 
  43. ^ Das Gupta, Amitava (15 February 2008). "Sunfeast Open seeks date shift". Times of India (New Delhi). Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  44. ^ "AITA's no to private players". The Telegraph (Kolkata). 2 September 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  45. ^ "Rugby thrives in India". International Rugby Board. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  46. ^ "About CCFC". Calcutta Cricket & Football Club. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  47. ^ Nag, Shivani (29 September 2010). "Kolkata watches as rugby legacy vanishes year after year". Indian Express (New Delhi). Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  48. ^ "About AAEI". Automobile Association of Eastern India. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  49. ^ "The automobile movement in India". The Horseless Age (Horseless Age Co) 14 (9): 202. July–December 1904. Retrieved 7 February 2012. 
  50. ^ "India, Bhutan in car rally". The Telegraph (Kolkata). 6 February 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  51. ^ "About Bengal Motor Sports Club". Bengal Motor Sports Club. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  52. ^ O'Brien, Barry (4 December 2004). "All hail hockey on history high". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  53. ^ "Indian Airlines lift Beighton Cup". Sport (Chennai, India: The Hindu). 11 April 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  54. ^ Orissaacricket.org

Coordinates: 23°15′00″N 86°00′00″E / 23.2500°N 86.0000°E / 23.2500; 86.0000