East Kalimantan

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East Kalimantan
Kalimantan Timur (Indonesian)
Kaltim (Abbrv.)
Province
Flag of East Kalimantan
Flag
Coat of arms of East Kalimantan
Coat of arms
Motto: Ruhui Rahayu
("Perfect harmony the blessing from God")
Location of  East Kalimantan  (dark green)[Legend]
Location of  East Kalimantan  (dark green)

[Legend]

Coordinates: 1°3′N 116°19′E / 1.050°N 116.317°E / 1.050; 116.317
Borneo 1945
Kalimantan 14 Aug 1950
Restoration from Dutch occupation 17 Aug 1950
Separation of union with Kalimantan 1 Jan 1957
Capital (and largest city) Samarinda
Government
 • Governor Awang Faroek I.
 • Vice Governor Farid Wadjdy
 • Secretary Irianto Lambrie
 • Chief Justice Yudha Pranoto
Area(excluding the area separated off in 2012 as North Kalimantan)
 • Total 139,461.82 km2 (53,846.51 sq mi)
  (at 2010 Census)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 3,026,060
 • Density 22/km2 (56/sq mi)
  (excluding population separated off in 2012 as North Kalimantan)
Demonym Kaltim
Demographics
 • Official Language(s) Indonesian
 • Recognised Regional Language(s) Kutai Malay, Banjar, Dayak and Buginese
 • Ethnic groups 29.6% Javanese[2]
18% Bugis
[3]
52.4% other
[2]
Time zone WITA (UTC+8)
Website www.kaltimprov.go.id

East Kalimantan (Indonesian: About this sound Kalimantan Timur), is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo. It has a population of about 3 million,[4] and its capital is Samarinda.

East Kalimantan has a total area of 139,461.82 square kilometres (53,846.51 sq mi)[5] and is the second least densely populated province in Kalimantan.[6] The majority of the region shares a maritime border to the east with West Sulawesi and North Sulawesi; its coastline faces the Makassar Strait and the Celebes Sea. Its former northernmost region is now North Kalimantan; to its south, East Kalimantan borders the South Kalimantan province. The province bordered Sabah before the split, but still borders Sarawak.

East Kalimantan is now divided into 6 regencies and 3 cities. Awang Faroek Ishak is its governor and Farid Wadjdy as its vice governor.[7]

History[edit]

This province is the location of the oldest Hindu kingdom in Indonesia, Kutai, the existence of which is attested to by a stone manuscript, or Prasasti, which is now kept in the National Museum in Jakarta. The manuscript is written in the Pallava alphabet and the Sanskrit language. The replica of this manuscript can be seen in the Governor's Office in Samarinda.

Inscriptions on seven stone pillars (yupa posts) erected in the fifth century BCE on the command of a local ruler, King Mulavarman, records his victories, his generosity to Brahmins, his princely genealogy.[8]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1971 733,797 —    
1980 1,218,016 +66.0%
1990 1,876,663 +54.1%
1995 2,314,183 +23.3%
2000 2,455,120 +6.1%
2010 3,550,586 +44.6%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010.
These figures include the population of the city and four northerly regencies split off in 2012 to form the new North Kalimantan Province.

Administration[edit]

Until 2012, East Kalimantan was divided into ten regencies and four cities. On 22 October 2012, the Indonesian House of Representatives agreed to the creation of a new province named North Kalimantan out of four of the Regencies in East Kalimantan, namely Malinau Regency, Nunukan Regency, Tana Tidung Regency and Bulungan Regency, together with one city, Tarakan. Accordingly these were split off to form the new province of North Kalimantan on 25 October 2012, leaving the following regencies and cities to comprise the reduced East Kalimantan:

Name Area (km2) Population
2005 estimate
Population
2010 Census
Capital
Paser Regency 11,603.94 174,420 231,593 Tana Paser
North Penajam Paser Regency
(Penajam Paser Utara)
3,333.06 120,508 142,693 Penajam
Balikpapan City 503.30 469,884 559,196 Balikpapan
West Kutai Regency
(Kutai Barat)
33,052.00 151,227 165,934 Sendawar
Kutai Kartanegara Regency 27,263.10 490,607 626,286 Tenggarong
Samarinda City 574,439 726,223 Samarinda
Bontang City 497.57 120,348 140,787 Bontang
East Kutai Regency
(Kutai Timur)
35,747.50 174,018 253,904 Sangatta
Berau Regency 34,127.47 148,437 179,444 Tanjung Redeb
Totals[9] 139,461.82 2,423,888 3,026,060 Samarinda

Ecology[edit]

Logging road in East Kalimantan: logged forest on the left, primary forest on the right

Illegal logging has removed much of the original forests of the province.[citation needed] Less than half the original forest remains in places such as the Kayan Mentarang the Kutai national parks.

The projects that supports tropical rainforest conservation includes a WWF project [10] and Samboja Lestari lodge, one of Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation's reforestation and orangutan rehabilitation projects.[11]

Economy[edit]

East Kalimantan's economy heavily depends on earth resources such as oilfield exploration, natural gas, coal and gold.[citation needed] Balikpapan has an oil refinery plant that was built by Dutch governance before World War II, destroyed during World War II, and rebuilt after Indonesian independence.[citation needed]

Other developing economic sectors include agriculture and tourism.[citation needed]

Obstacles to economic development include a lack of transportation infrastructure.[citation needed] Transportation depends on traditional boats connecting coastal cities and areas along main river, Mahakam River.[citation needed]

In 2012, Russia's state railway firm Joint Stock Company (JSC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the East Kalimantan Governor over railway lines to transport coal and other freight. The first stage will connect an area near Balikpapan port to West Kutai Regency in a 183-kilometer line and is estimated to cost about $1.8 billion. It will commence in 2013 and by 2017 it is hoped that it carry 20 million tons of coal annually. The second phase will connect a line to Murung Raya in Central Kalimantan with a 60 kilometer line, which will cost an estimated $600 million.[12]

Several oil fields have been discovered in the Mahakam River Delta including Attaka, Badak (1971), Semberah, Nilam, Sanga Sanga, Bekapai (1972), Handil (1974), Samboja, Jakin and Sepinggan.[13][14][15] The Handil, Badak and Bekapai fields are anticline structural traps with oil reservoir sandstones between 450 and 2900 m.[13]:399 The delta is in the Kutei basin, bounded by the Mankalihat and Paternoster carbonate arch, containing Eocene shales overlain by Oligocene fluvial deposits during marine regression, culminating in formation of the delta in the late Miocene.[13]:400

Tourist sites[edit]

In addition to Derawan Islands, East Kalimantan has a unique natural site, Labuan Cermin Lake at Biduk-biduk district which features fresh water on top with about 2 meters thickness and sea water underneath it. Both fresh water fish and sea water fish live in the lake inhabiting their respective habitat layer. "Cermin" means mirror in Indonesian language and the lake was named so due to the clarity of the water.[16]

North Kalimantan Province[edit]

North Kalimantan was formally inaugurated as the 34th province of Indonesia on April 15, 2013. The new province was previously part of East Kalimantan Province and Irianto Lambrie will be acting as the governor of it until a new governor is chosen by their people in an election.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
  2. ^ a b "Statistics Kaltim – Population by immigration category and country background. Absolute numbers" (in Indonesian). kaltim.bps.go.id. 
  3. ^ "BPS -". Kaltim.bps.go.id. 
  4. ^ "Population". Statistics Kaltim. 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2012-12-22. 
  5. ^ revised area following removal of Tarakan city and 4 regencies to form the new North Kalimantan province in 2012.
  6. ^ "Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010 Data Agregat Per Provinsi". Badan Pusat Statistik. 
  7. ^ "Organisasi". Kaltimprov.go.id. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  8. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  9. ^ Totals adjusted to take account of the removal of Tarakan City and four regencies, as confirmed by Biro Pusat Statistik.
  10. ^ http://www.panda.org/heart-of-borneo/ WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative - orang-utan, rhinoceros and pygmy elephant cling for survival.
  11. ^ http://www.sambojalodge.com/
  12. ^ "Russian firm signs MoU to build $2.4 billion railway". February 8, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c Verdier, A.C., Oki, T., and Suardy, A., 1980, Geology of the Handil Field (East Kalimantan-Indonesia), in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade:1968-1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813063, p. 401
  14. ^ Huffington, R.M., and Helmig, H.M., Discovery and Development of the Badak Field, East Kalimantan, Indonesia,1980, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade:1968-1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813063, p. 441
  15. ^ DeMatharel, M., Lehmann, P., Oki, T., Geology of the Bekapai Field, in Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade:1968-1978, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M.T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, ISBN 0891813063, p. 459
  16. ^ http://www.mediaindonesia.com/mediatravelista/index.php/read/2011/06/28/2818/2/Air-Laut-dan-Tawar-Menyatu-di-Danau-Labuan-Cermin
  17. ^ "Provinsi Kalimantan Utara Diresmikan 15 April". March 22, 2013. 

External links[edit]