East Nusa Tenggara

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East Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara Timur
Province
Flag of East Nusa Tenggara
Flag
Official seal of East Nusa Tenggara
Seal
Location of East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Location of East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia
Coordinates: 10°11′S 123°35′E / 10.183°S 123.583°E / -10.183; 123.583Coordinates: 10°11′S 123°35′E / 10.183°S 123.583°E / -10.183; 123.583
Country Indonesia
Capital Kupang
Government
 • Governor Frans Lebu Raya
Area
 • Total 47,876 km2 (18,485 sq mi)
Population (2014 Estimate)[1]
 • Total 5,070,746
 • Density 110/km2 (270/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Atoni, or Dawan (22%), Manggarai (15%), Sumba (12%), Belu (9%), Lamaholot (8%), Rote (5%), Lio (4%)[2]
 • Religion Roman Catholicism (55%), Protestantism (34%), Islam (8%), Other (3%)[3]
 • Languages Indonesian
Time zone CIT (UTC+8)
Website nttprov.go.id

East Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara TimurNTT) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the eastern part of the Lesser Sunda Islands and includes West Timor. It has a total area of 47,876 sq.km, and the population at the 2010 Census was 4,679,316; the latest estimate (at January 2014) is 5,070,746. The provincial capital is Kupang on West Timor.

The province consists of about 566 islands, the largest and most dominant are Flores, Sumba, and the western half of Timor (that is, West Timor). The eastern part of Timor is the independent country of East Timor. Other islands include Adonara, Alor, Komodo, Lembata (formerly called Lomblen), Menipo, Raijua, Rincah, Rote Island (the southernmost island in Indonesia), Savu, Semau, and Solor. The highest point in the province is Mount Mutis in the Timor Tengah Selatan district, 2,427 meters above sea level.[4]

East Nusa Tenggara is the only province in Indonesia where Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.

Nusa Tenggara Timur, in Indonesian, means "eastern southeastern islands".

History[edit]

After the declaration of Indonesian independence in 1945, the eastern part of Indonesia declared the State of East Indonesia.[5] The state was further included in the United States of Indonesia as part of the agreement with the Dutch contained in the transfer its sovereignty to Indonesia in 1949.

In 1950, United States of Indonesia dissolved itself into a unitary state and began to divide its component area into provinces. In 1958, by Indonesian law (Undang-Undang) No. 64/1958, three provinces were established in the Lesser Sunda Islands, namely Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara.[6] The area of East Nusa Tenggara province included the western part of Timor island, Flores, Sumba and other several small islands in the region. The province was sub-divided into twelve regencies and the City of Kupang, which had regency-level status.[7]

Following the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998 and the passage of a new regional autonomy law, there was a dramatic proliferation (known as pemekaran) of regional governments across Indonesia (at both provincial and regency level). Several new regencies were created in East Nusa Tenggara by the division of existing regencies:

Therefore, as of early 2013, there were twenty-one regencies plus the one autonomous city (Kupang) in the province.

Closer look to the islands of East Nusa Tenggara

Administrative divisions[edit]

The province is divided into twenty-one regencies and one city. These are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and at the latest (2014) Estimates:[11]

Name Est. Statute Area
(km2)
Population
2010 Census
Population
2014
estimate[11]
Capital
West Manggarai Regency
(Manggarai Barat)
(includes Komodo and Rinca)
2003 UU 8/2003 2,947 221,430 240,017 Labuan Bajo
Manggarai Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 1,687 292,037 316,610 Ruteng
East Manggarai Regency
(Manggarai Timur)
2007 UU 36/2007 2,502 252,754 273,623 Borong
Ngada Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 1,621 142,254 154,156 Bajawa
Nagekeo Regency 2007 UU 2/2007 1,417 129,956 140,869 Mbay
Ende Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 2,047 260,428 282,133 Ende
Sikka Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 1,732 300,301 325,137 Maumere
East Flores Regency
(Flores Timur)
(includes Adonara and Solor)
1958 UU 69/1958 1,813 232,312 251,820 Larantuka
Lembata Regency
(Lomblen)
1999 UU 52/1999 1,267 117,638 127,563 Lewoleba
Alor Regency
(Alor Archipelago)
1958 UU 69/1958 2,865 190,253 205,724 Kalabahi
Northern (Flores) group 19,897 2,138,363 2,317,652
West Sumba Regency
(Sumba Barat)
1958 UU 69/1958 737 111,023 120,162 Waikabubak
East Sumba Regency
(Sumba Timur)
1958 UU 69/1958 7,000 227,835 246,544 Waingapu
Central Sumba Regency
(Sumba Tengah)
2007 UU 3/2007 1,869 62,510 67,647 Waibakul
Southwest Sumba Regency
(Sumba Barat Daya)
2007 UU 16/2007 1,445 283,818 308,438 Tambolaka
Southwestern (Sumba) group 11,052 685,186 742,791
Sabu Raijua Regency Oct.
2008
461 72,960 78,987 West Savu
Rote Ndao Regency 2002 UU 9/2002 1,280 119,711 129,813 Baa
Kupang City 160 335,585 364,014 Kupang
Kupang Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 5,437 303,998 329,706 Oelmasi
South Central Timor Regency
(Timor Tengah Selatan)
1958 UU 69/1958 3,947 440,470 477,598 Soe
North Central Timor Regency
(Timor Tengah Utara)
1958 UU 69/1958 2,670 229,603 248,786 Kefamenanu
Belu Regency 1958 UU 69/1958 2,446 352,400 381,399 Atambua
Malaka Regency 2012 included in
Belu Regency
included in
Belu Regency
included in
Belu Regency
Betun
Southeastern (Timor) group 16,401 1,854,767 2,010,303

Provincial Government[edit]

Below is a list of Governors who have held office in the East Nusa Tenggara.

  • J. Lala Mentik (1960–1965)
  • El Tari (1966–1978)
  • Ben Mboi (1978–1988)
  • Hendrik Fernandez (1988–1993)
  • Herman Musakabe (1993–1998)
  • Piet Alexander Tallo (1998–2008)
  • Frans Lebu Raya (2008–present)

Demographics[edit]

Religion in East Nusa Tenggara - 2010 Census[12]
Religion Percent
Christianity
  
90%
Islam
  
8%
Hinduism
  
0.6%
Traditional beliefs
  
0.4%

The population of the province was 4,679,316 in 2010,[12] but the most recent estimate was 5,070,746 (as at January 2014). The religious mix is atypical of Indonesia with around 90% Christian (majority Catholic, but with a large Protestant population), 8% Muslim, 0.6% Hindu or Buddhist, and 0.4% holding traditional beliefs. East Nusa Tenggara has become a refuge for Indonesian Christians fleeing from conflict in Maluku and Irian Jaya[citation needed].

The secondary school enrolment rate of 39% is dramatically below the Indonesian average (80% in 2003/04, according to UNESCO). Lack of clean drinking water, sanitation, and health facilities mean that child malnutrition (32%) and child mortality (71 per 1000) are higher than in most of the rest of Indonesia.[13] Maternal and infant mortality are high partly because of poor access to health facilities in isolated rural areas.[14] Malaria is a significant problem in parts of the province with the result that the rate of infant mortality caused by malaria, in recent years, as been the highest across Indonesia.[15]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1971 2,295,287 —    
1980 2,737,166 +19.3%
1990 3,268,644 +19.4%
1995 3,577,472 +9.4%
2000 3,952,279 +10.5%
2010 4,683,827 +18.5%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010

Economy[edit]

By several economic indicators, the provincial economy is weaker than the Indonesian average with high inflation (15%), unemployment (30%) and interest rates (22-24%), making it one of the poorest province in Indonesia.

Borassus flabellifer
Asian palmyra palm, sugar palm
Borassus flabellifer.jpg
Scientific classification

Agriculture[edit]

A main part of the economic activity in the province is subsistence agriculture. Important local crops include corn and some smallholder plantation crops such as coffee. In some places such as Sumba, the lontar palm (Borassus flabellifer) dominates local agricultural activities and is a very important part of the local economy.[16] In these areas, the lontar palm provides timber and thatching as well as food in the form of fruits, and palm sugar which is obtained by tapping the fruit stems. The sugary sap can be used to make alcoholic drinks. In other parts of the province such as West Manggarai, the sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) has a useful role in the local economy.[17] The degree of mechanisation in agriculture is low. Large animals (buffaloes, horses) are widely used throughout the province.[18]

Natural resources[edit]

A significant part of the economic activity in the province involves the development of natural resources, including forestry and numerous local mining ventures. Some of the activity is controversial, however, because regulatory controls over the use of natural resources are not always effective. There have been disputes in some areas over the use of land. Manganese mining, for example, in the central part of the island of Timor has been controversial.[19] Nearby, in the Mount Mutis area to the east of Kupang, amongst some local groups there is concern at the way local resources are being developed by mining companies.[20]

There is also significant activity in the informal mining sector. Across the province, villagers sometimes exploit localised opportunities to undertake unregulated mining or mineral-based projects. In West Timor, for example, in the South Central Timor Regency, villagers living near the south coast in the Kolbano area south of the town of Soe sometimes collect coloured stones which, in turn, are sold to companies which export the stones to countries such as Australia, China, Malaysia, Singapore, and elsewhere.[21]

The cultivation of seaweed is an important activity in some parts of the province. In the Alor Islands, for example, village-based informal cultivation of seaweed helps boost local incomes. Much of the seaweed is exported in unprocessed form, including to countries such as Japan in north Asia. One view is that more needs to be done to encourage further domestic processing of the seaweed to add value before export; however the local skills and facilities for further processing are not well-developed and it is not clear that a program to encourage further processing would be successful.[22]

Tourism[edit]

The provincial government aims to promote tourism.[23] There are various interesting locations in the province.[24] The basic infrastructure to support the tourist sector (such as transport facilities, accommodation, and adequate and reliable information) needs to be strengthened but several main features of the tourist sector in the province include:[25]

Various local community groups in the province work to promote the local tourist industry although, as yet, many of these activities are still somewhat underdeveloped and need strengthening.[27]

Malaria is a significant problem in some parts of the province. Tourists should take appropriate cautionary measures.

Growth and development[edit]

Levels of poverty in the province compared with other parts are Indonesia are relatively high. In 2010, 23% of the population were classified as poor (using very modest poverty lines of around $25 and $17 per person per month for urban and rural areas respectively) compared to the all-Indonesia average of 13.3%.[28] The numbers of street children in the province, for example, are relatively high.[29] Localised food shortages are common.[30] Around 50% of the children in the province suffer from stunting.[31] The challenges of promoting development and lifting living standards in a rather isolated area of Indonesia such as NTT are considerable. The main problems of development include the following:

  • Differences in living standards between urban and rural areas are large; rural poverty is widespread.[32]
  • Agriculture is underdeveloped with little use of modern technology or capital, and poor access to markets
  • Deforestation, which exacerbates problems of water management and access to water in the province[33]
  • Infrastructure in the province is underdeveloped. Roads are often poor, especially in rural areas. There is relatively little electricity throughout NTT; electricity use in 2010 was at the very low level of around 90 kWh per capita compared to the all-Indonesia rate of around 630 kWh (and often over 10,000 kWh per capita in the main OECD countries).
  • Access to water in a major problem. The province is dry for much of the year and in rural areas many of the villages must rely on unreliable and untreated local springs and other sources for water supplies.[34] The percentage of households relying on spring water was around 40% in 2010, the highest for any province in Indonesia and well above the all-Indonesia average of 14%.[35] Water shortages are thus a major local social and political issue in the province.[36]
  • Local education and medical facilities are poor and neglected. Although the numbers of schools and local medical clinics are adequate compared to other parts of Indonesia, the quality of services provided in these institutions is often poor.
  • Resources available to the provincial and regency governments are very limited so it is difficult for local governments to improve the supply of public services.

Well-known figures[edit]

Well-known figures from the province include the following:

  • Izaak Huru Doko, an independence fighter who organised resistance against the Dutch NICA (Netherlands-Indies Civil Administration) in the 1940s[37]
  • Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes, regarded as the first Indonesian radiologist in Indonesia. The W.Z Johannes hospital in Kupang is named after him.[38]
  • Frans Seda, a politician and finance minister (1966–1968) of Indonesia
  • Adrianus Mooy, an economist who was governor of Bank Indonesia (1988–1993) and Executive Director of ESCAP
  • Ben Mboi, former East Nusa Tenggara governor
  • Herman Johannes, scientist, government minister, and Rektor of Gadjah Mada University (1961–1966)

Sources of information[edit]

Useful sources of detailed information about the province (mainly in Indonesian) are the following:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2003 
  3. ^ 2008 estimate
  4. ^ "The Meto People on Mutis Mountain". Travel Destination Indonesia. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  5. ^ Statute of Staatsblad No. 143, 1946.
  6. ^ Government of Indonesia (11 August 1958), Establishment of the First-level Administrative Regions of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara (in Indonesian ed.), Indonesia Ministry of Law and Justice, UU No. 64/1958, retrieved 2007-08-24 [dead link]
  7. ^ Government of Indonesia (9 August 1958), Establishment of the Second-level Administrative Regions under the First-level Administrative Region of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara (in Indonesian ed.), Indonesia Ministry of Law and Justice, UU No. 69/1958, retrieved 2007-08-24 [dead link]
  8. ^ Government of Indonesia (4 October 1999), Establishment of Lembata Regency in the East Nusa Tenggara province (in Indonesian ed.), Indonesia Ministry of Law and Justice, UU No. 52/1999, retrieved 2007-08-24 [dead link]
  9. ^ Government of Indonesia (10 April 2002), Establishment of Rote-Ndao Regency in the East Nusa Tenggara province (in Indonesian ed.), Indonesia Ministry of Law and Justice, UU No. 9/2002, retrieved 2007-08-24 [dead link]
  10. ^ Government of Indonesia (25 February 2003), Establishment of West Manggarai Regency in the East Nusa Tenggara province (in Indonesian ed.), Indonesia Ministry of Law and Justice, UU No. 8/2003, retrieved 2007-08-24 [dead link]
  11. ^ a b Estimasi Penduduk Mennurat Jenis Kelamin dan Provinsi di Indonesia Tahun 2014.
  12. ^ a b Statistics Indonesia [Central Statistics Bureau] (2012), Statistik Indonesia, Statistical yearbook of Indonesia 2011, Jakarta.
  13. ^ Yemris Fointuna, "Babies in East Nusa Tenggara face threat of malnutrition", The Jakarta Post, 30 March 2011.
  14. ^ "The Ills of Medical Care in Flores", The Jakarta Globe, 13 April 2009.
  15. ^ Yemris Fointuna, "Malaria threatens children in E. Nusa Tenggara", The Jakarta Post, 27 August 2012.
  16. ^ James J. Fox (1977), Harvest of the palm: ecological change in Eastern Indonesia, Harvard University Press, Boston.
  17. ^ Markus Makur, "Abraham Manggas: Rescuing sugar palms", The Jakarta Post, 14 August 2012.
  18. ^ Markus Makur, "Horses down, buffaloes up in NTT", The Jakarta Post, 5 May 2012.
  19. ^ Yemris Fointuna, "Bishop urges a stop of manganese mining in W. Timor", The Jakarta Post, 16 April 2011.
  20. ^ Emmy Fitri, "'Indonesian Avatar' Fights Miners in Nusa Tenggara Timur", The Jakarta Globe, 15 February 2012.
  21. ^ Yemris Fointuna, "East Nusa Tenggara: Farmers shift tactics to collecting stones", The Jakarta Post, 4 August 2012.
  22. ^ "Farming the Alor Islands: One man's weed", The Economist, 18 December 2013.
  23. ^ A useful guide to NTT which is in Indonesian but which, nevertheless, has much accessible information and maps about NTT is by Gagas Ulung (2011), Exotic NTT: 200 tempat paling menantang dan eksotis di provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur: wisata alam, bahari, budaya, dan tradisi [Exotic NTT: 200 of the most challenging and exotic places in Nusa Tenggara Timur: tourism for nature, the sea, culture, and tradition], PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.
  24. ^ A short guide to some of the key sites on Flores is Anett Keller, "Beauty and the East", The Jakarta Post Weekender, 30 November 2011
  25. ^ "NTT natural wonders to boost economic development". July 6, 2012. 
  26. ^ Neville Kemp, "Bird-watching on Timor a rewarding experience", The Jakarta Post, 3 May 2005.
  27. ^ Markus Makur, "Yoseph Ugis: Never give up", The Jakarta Post, 28 December 2012.
  28. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), Statistik Indonesia; Statistical Pocketbook of Indonesia: 2010, Jakarta, 2011.
  29. ^ Panca Nugraha, "NTB home to 12.000 street children", The Jakarta Post, 29 March 2012.
  30. ^ "100,000 People Facing 'Food Crisis' in Eastern Indonesia: Official", The Jakarta Globe, 13 September 2011.
  31. ^ Lydia Tomkiw, "Villagers Being Enlisted in Fight Against Infant Stunting", The Jakarta Globe, 13 September 2011.
  32. ^ Taco Bottema, Keppi Sukesi and Simon Seran, "NTT at a Crossroads", 14 October 2009, a report commissioned by the United Nations in Indonesia.
  33. ^ Markus Makur, Marselinus Agot: Three million trees for Manggarai Raya', The Jakarta Post, 30 September 2011.
  34. ^ Yemris Fointuna, "Water deficit leads to consumption of dirty water", The Jakarta Post, 17 September 2012.
  35. ^ BPS statistics, op cit.
  36. ^ "10 years on E. Nusa Tenggara village still suffers from water crisis", The Jakarta Post, 4 May 2012.
  37. ^ Tim Gudang Ilmu (2011), Pahlawan Indonesia & profilnya: edisi terlengkap [Profiles of heroes of Indonesia; a complete edition], Gudang Ilmu, Jakarta.
  38. ^ Tim Gudang Ilmu, op. cit.

External links[edit]