|Municipality||New York City|
|- left||Newtown Creek, Flushing River|
|- right||Westchester Creek, Bronx River,
Bronx Kill, Harlem River
|Source||Long Island Sound|
|Mouth||Upper New York Bay|
|Length||16 mi (26 km)|
|Wikimedia Commons: East River|
The East River is a tidal strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island (including the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn) from the island of Manhattan and the Bronx on the North American mainland. In reference to its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the Sound River. The tidal strait usually reverses flow four times a day.
The strait was formed approximately 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. The distinct change in the shape of the strait between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity. The upper portion (from Long Island Sound to Hell Gate), running largely perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide, meandering, and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion (from Hell Gate to New York Bay) runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion. It is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist (or existed before being filled in by human activity), are largely wide and shallow.
The channel 
The East River is dangerous to people who fall in or attempt to swim in it, although as of mid-2007 the water was cleaner than it had been in decades. Anyone in the channel would find there are few places from which to climb out. According to the marine sciences section of the city Department of Environmental Protection, the channel is swift, with water moving as fast as four knots (just as it does in the Hudson River on the other side of Manhattan). That speed can push casual swimmers out to sea. A few people drown in the waters around New York City each year. The strength of the current foiled an effort in 2007 to tap it for tidal power. However, in February 2012 the federal government announced plans that an agreement to install 30 tidal turbines in the channel, projected to begin operations in 2015 and produce 1.05 MW of power.
Historically, the lower portion of the strait (separating Manhattan from Brooklyn) was one of the busiest and most important channels in the world, particularly during the first three centuries of New York City's history. The Brooklyn Bridge, opened in 1883, was the first bridge to span the strait, replacing frequent ferry service. Some passenger ferry service remains between Queens and Manhattan.
The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait.
North of Wards Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Wards Island, at approximately the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, which is spanned by both the Triborough Bridge, and the Hell Gate Bridge. On the south side of Wards Island, it is joined by the Harlem River.
- Upper section
- Lower section
The river is spanned by ten bridges, which from north to south are:
- Throgs Neck Bridge
- Bronx-Whitestone Bridge
- Rikers Island Bridge (From Queens to Rikers Island only)
- Hell Gate Bridge
- RFK-Triborough Bridge (East River Suspension Span)
- Roosevelt Island Bridge (east channel only)
- Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge
- Williamsburg Bridge (Vehicular traffic & Trains of the J M Z subway services)
- Manhattan Bridge (Vehicular traffic & Trains of the B D N Q subway services)
- Brooklyn Bridge
The river is spanned by thirteen tunnels. From north to south, along with uses as of April 2012:
- 63rd Street Tunnel (Trains of the F subway service – upper level; lower level – under construction for LIRR East Side Access project)
- 60th Street Tunnel (Trains of the N Q R subway services)
- 53rd Street Tunnel (Trains of the E M subway services)
- Steinway Tunnel (Trains of the 7 <7> subway services)
- Queens-Midtown Tunnel (Vehicular traffic of Interstate 495)
- East River Tunnels (Long Island Rail Road and Amtrak trains from Penn Station to points north and east)
- 14th Street Tunnel (Trains of the L subway service)
- Rutgers Street Tunnel (Trains of the F subway service)
- Cranberry Street Tunnel (Trains of the A C subway services)
- Clark Street Tunnel (Trains of the 2 3 subway services)
- Montague Street Tunnel (Trains of the N R subway services)
- Joralemon Street Tunnel (Trains of the 4 5 subway services)
- Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (Vehicular traffic of Interstate 478)
- Roosevelt Island Tramway (west channel only)
In popular culture 
- The Brecker Brothers performed a song named after the river and is featured on their 1978 album Heavy Metal Be-Bop.
- Kramer decided to swim in the East River for exercise in the Seinfeld episode "The Nap."
- In the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, the Russian Navy had taken control of the river as part of their invasion of the East Coast of the United States in the fictitious Russo-American War.
- According to words of its author Yasushi Akimoto, one of the best known Japanese songs "Kawa no Nagare no Yō ni" ("swan song" of the famous singer Hibari Misora) also was inspired by this river.
- In The Simpsons episode, "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", Homer receives a letter stating that his vehicle is illegally parked between the World Trade Center Towers and that if he doesn't fix the issue that his car will be "crushed into a cube and thrown into the East River at your expense."
See also 
- List of New York rivers
- Lists of crossings of the East River
- Geography and environment of New York City
- Geography of New York Harbor
- Montrésor, John (1766). A plan of the city of New-York & its environs. London.
- "The East River Flows From Prehistoric Times To Today". The Queens Gazette. July 20, 2005. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "Welcome, Students. Now Watch It.". The New York Times. August 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
- Hogarty, Dave (August 13, 2007). "East River Turbines Face Upstream Battle". Gothamist. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "Turbines Off NYC East River Will Create Enough Energy to Power 9,500 Homes". U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- 第86回 秋元 康 氏
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