Constituent Assembly elections were held in East Timor on 30 August 2001, the second anniversary of the independence referendum. One member was elected from each of the country's thirteen districts, whilst a further 75 were elected by proportional representation. The result was a victory for the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor, which won 55 of the 88 seats. Voter turnout was 93%. Following the election the Assembly nominated a transitional Council of Ministers with Mari Alkatiri as Chief Minister.
The Assembly had the mandate of preparing a constitution. It had to be approved by at least 60 of the 88 members within 90 days of the Assembly's first sitting. The new constitution was promulgated in March 2002, and following independence on 20 May, served as its first Parliament. Presidential elections were held in April 2002 in which Xanana Gusmão was victorious.