Eastern Air Lines
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2009)|
|Founded||1926 (as Pitcairn Aviation)|
|Ceased operations||January 18, 1991|
|Airport lounge||Ionosphere Club|
|Parent company||Eastern Air Lines, Inc. (Texas Air Corporation)|
|Headquarters||New York City
Miami-Dade County, Florida
|Key people||Eddie Rickenbacker (First CEO)
Eastern Air Lines was a major United States airline from 1926 to 1991. Before its dissolution it was headquartered at Miami International Airport in an unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, Florida.
Eastern was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines created by the Spoils Conferences of 1930, and was headed by World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker in its early years. It had a near monopoly in air travel between New York and Florida from the 1930s until the 1950s and dominated this market for decades afterward. Labor disputes and high debt loads strained the company in the late 1970s and early 1980s under the leadership of former astronaut Frank Borman. Frank Lorenzo acquired Eastern in 1985 and moved many of its assets to his other airlines, including Continental Airlines and Texas Air. After continued labor disputes and a crippling strike in 1989, Eastern ran out of money and was liquidated in 1991. American Airlines obtained many of Eastern's routes from Miami to Latin America and the Caribbean, while Delta Air Lines, Eastern's main competitor at Hartsfield Airport in Atlanta, acquired many of Eastern's Lockheed L-1011 aircraft.
Eastern pioneered hourly air shuttle service between New York City, Washington, DC and Boston in 1961 as the Eastern Air Lines Shuttle. It took over the South American route network of Braniff International in 1982 and also served London and Madrid in the 1980s.
Eastern Air Lines was a composite of assorted air travel corporations, including Florida Airways and Pitcairn Aviation. In the late 1920s, Pitcairn Aviation won a contract to fly mail between New York City and Atlanta, Georgia on Mailwing single-engine aircraft. In 1929, Clement Keys, the owner of North American Aviation, purchased Pitcairn. In 1930, Keys changed the company's name to Eastern Air Transport. After being purchased by General Motors and experiencing a change in leadership after the Airmail Act of 1934, the airline became known as Eastern Air Lines.
Growth under Rickenbacker
In 1938 World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker bought Eastern from General Motors. The complex deal was concluded when Rickenbacker presented Alfred P. Sloan with a certified check for $3.5 million. In March 1939 Eastern had 15 weekday departures from Newark (six to Washington, five to Miami and one each to Richmond, Atlanta, Houston and San Antonio), two from Chicago to Miami, one from Tampa to Atlanta and one from Tallahassee to Memphis. Those flights and their returns were Eastern's whole scheduled operation; it fit on one page in the Airways Guide. Then as later, Eastern was the fourth largest airline in the country by passenger-miles.
Rickenbacker pushed Eastern into a period of growth and innovation; for a time Eastern was the most profitable airline in the post-war era, never needing state subsidy. In the late 1950s, Eastern's position was eroded by state subsidies to rival airlines and the arrival of the jet age. Rickenbacker's position as CEO was taken over by Malcolm A. MacIntyre, 'a brilliant lawyer but a man inexperienced in airline operations,' on October 1, 1959. His ouster was largely due to his reluctance to acquire expensive jets; like many others, he underestimated their appeal to the public. A new management team headed by Floyd D. Hall took over the operation on 16 December 1963, and Rickenbacker left his position as Director and Chairman of the Board on December 31, 1963, aged 73.
The Jet Age
In November 1959, Eastern Air Lines opened its Chester L. Churchill-designed Terminal 1 at New York City's Idlewild International Airport (later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport). In 1960, Eastern's first jets, Douglas DC-8-21s, started to take over the longer flights, like the non-stops from Chicago and New York to Miami. The DC-8s were joined in 1962 by the Boeing 720 and in 1964 by the Boeing 727, which Eastern (along with American, and United) had helped Boeing develop. Eastern was the first airline to fly the 727 on February 1, 1964. Shortly after that, "Captain Eddie" Rickenbacker retired and a new image was adopted, which included the now famous hockey stick design, officially Caribbean Blue over Ionosphere Blue. Eastern was also the first US carrier to fly the Airbus A300 and the launch customer for the Boeing 757.
On April 30, 1961, Eastern inaugurated Eastern Air Lines Shuttle. Initially 95-seat 1049s and 1049Cs left New York-LaGuardia every two hours, 8 AM to 10 PM, to Washington National and to Boston. Flights soon became hourly, 7 AM to 10 PM out of each city. Shuttle emphasized convenience and simplicity—revolutionary in an era when air travel was considered a luxury.
Eastern bought the Lockheed L-1011 and Airbus A300 widebody jets; the former would become known in the Caribbean as El Grandote (the huge one). Although Eastern had purchased four 747s, the delivery slots were sold to Trans World Airlines (TWA) when Eastern decided to purchase the L-1011. Due to massive delays in the L-1011 program, mainly due to problems with the Rolls-Royce RB211 engines, Eastern leased two Boeing 747s from Pan Am in 1971/72 and operated between Chicago and San Juan as well as New York to Miami and San Juan.
Just before Walt Disney World opened in 1971, Eastern became its "official airline." It remained the official airline of Walt Disney World and sponsored a ride at the Magic Kingdom park (If You Had Wings in Tomorrowland where Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin is currently located) until its contracting route network forced Disney to switch to Delta shortly before Eastern's 1989 bankruptcy filing.
The famous "Wings of Man" campaign in the late 1960s was created by advertising agency Young & Rubicam, and restored Eastern's tarnished image until the late 1970s, when former astronaut Frank Borman became president and it was replaced by a new campaign, "We Have To Earn Our Wings Every Day". The new campaign, which featured Borman as a spokesperson, was used until the mid-to-late 1980s.
Under bankruptcy, Eastern launched a "100 Days" campaign, in which it promised to "become a little bit better every day".
The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 aggravated Eastern Air Lines position, forcing it into a low-fare environment in which its high costs put the airline at a disadvantage.
In 1975, Eastern was headquartered at 10 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City. After Frank Borman became president of Eastern Air Lines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center to Miami-Dade County, Florida.
Eastern's massive Atlanta hub was in direct competition with Delta Air Lines, where the two carriers competed heavily to neither's benefit. Delta's less-unionized work force and slowly expanding international route network helped lead it through the turbulent period following deregulation in 1978.
In 1980, a Caribbean hub was started at Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (known at the time as "Isla Verde International Airport") near San Juan, Puerto Rico. In 1982, Eastern acquired Braniff's South American route network. By 1985, Eastern was the largest IATA airline in terms of passengers and operated in 26 countries on three continents.
During this era, Eastern's fleet was split between their "silver-colored hockey stick" livery (the lack of paint reduced weight by 100 pounds) and their "white-colored hockey stick" livery (on its Airbus-manufactured planes, the metallurgy of which required paint to cover the aircraft's composite skin panels).
In 1983 Eastern became the launch customer of Boeing's 757, which was ordered in 1978. Borman felt that its low cost of operation would make it an invaluable asset to the airline in the years to come. However, higher oil prices failed to materialize and the debt created by this purchase coupled with the Airbus A300 purchases in 1977 contributed to the February 1986 sale to Frank Lorenzo's Texas Air. At that time, Eastern was paying over $700,000 in interest each day before they sold a ticket, fueled, or boarded a single aircraft.
Starting about 1985, Eastern offered "Moonlight Specials", with passenger seats on overnight flights scheduled for cargo from thirty freight companies. The flights, which operated between midnight and 7 am, stopped at 18 cities in the United States. Eric Schmitt of The New York Times said that the services were "a hybrid of late-night, red-eye flights and the barebones People Express approach to service." The holds of the aircraft were reserved for cargo such as express mail, machine tool parts, and textiles. Because of this, the airline allowed each passenger to take up to two carry-on bags. The airline charged $10 for each checked bag, which was shipped standby. The airline charged between 50 cents and $3 for beverages and snacks. Bunny Duck, an Eastern flight attendant quoted in The New York Times, said that the passengers on the special flights were "a cross section of families, college kids, illegal aliens and weirdos from L.A.".
Eastern began losing money as it faced competition from no-frills airlines, such as People Express, which offered lower fares. In an attempt to differentiate itself from its bargain competitors, Eastern began a marketing campaign stressing its quality of service and its rank of highly experienced pilots.
Sale to Texas Air
Unable to keep up, Borman agreed to the sale of the airline in 1986 to Texas Air, led by Frank Lorenzo. Lorenzo (who was named as one of Time's 10 "worst bosses of the century") was known as a ruthless corporate raider and union buster. He had already purchased Continental Airlines and lost a bidding war for TWA to Carl Icahn.
In February 1987, the Federal Aviation Administration imposed a $9.5 million fine against Eastern Air Lines for safety violations, which was the largest fine assessed against an airline until American Airlines was fined $24.2 million in 2010.
In 1988, Phil Bakes, the president of Eastern Air Lines, announced plans to lay off 4,000 employees and eliminate and reduce service to airports in the Western United States; he said that the airline was going "back to our roots" in the East. At the time, Eastern was the largest corporate employer in the Miami area and remained so after the cuts. John Nordheimer wrote in a The New York Times article that the prominence of Eastern in the Miami area decreased as the city became a finance and trade center and as the area had a population increase-based economic growth, instead of a purely tourism-based growth.
During Lorenzo's tenure, Eastern was crippled by severe labor unrest. Asked to accept deep cuts in pay and benefits, on March 4, 1989, Frank Lorenzo locked out Eastern's mechanics and ramp service employees, represented by the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM). Concerned that if Lorenzo was successful in breaking the IAM he would do the same to the pilots' and flight attendants' unions, the pilots represented by Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and flight attendants represented by the Transport Workers Union (TWU) called a sympathy strike. Those actions effectively shut down the airline's domestic operations. Non-contract employees, including airport gate and ticket counter agents and reservation sales agents, did not honor the strike. Due to the lockout and sympathy strike, cancelled flights resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in revenue.
In 1989, Lorenzo sold Eastern Air Lines Shuttle to real estate magnate Donald Trump (who named it the Trump Shuttle) while selling other parts of Eastern to his Texas Air holding company and its subsidiary, Continental Airlines, at terms disadvantageous to Eastern. In 1989 George Berry, the Georgia Industry and Trade Commissioner, asked Eastern to consider moving its headquarters from the Miami area to the Atlanta area.
As a result of the strike, weakened airline structure, high fuel prices, inability to compete after deregulation and other financial problems, Eastern filed for bankruptcy protection on March 9, 1989. This allowed Lorenzo to continue operating the airline with non-union employees. When control of the airline was taken away from Lorenzo by the courts and given to Marty Shugrue, it continued operations in an attempt to correct its cash flow, but to no avail.
The airline stopped flying at midnight Saturday, January 19, 1991. On the previous evening company agents, unaware of the decision, continued to take reservations and told callers that the airline was not closing. Following the announcement, 5,000 of the 18,000 employees immediately lost their jobs. Of the remaining employees, reservation agents were told to report to work at their regular times, while other employees were told not to report to work unless asked to do so. The Eastern shutdown eliminated many airline industry jobs in the Miami and New York City areas.
|1960||4764||27||22||(merged Mackey)||(merged EA)|
Eastern Air Lines flew many different types of aircraft throughout its history. Number of individual aircraft operated in parentheses.
- Pitcairn Mailwing with which began operations as Eastern Air Transport Inc.
- Ford Tri-Motor from 1930–1932.
- Fokker F.VII
- Curtiss Condor from 1930–1934.
- Lockheed Model 10 Electra from 1935–1936. (5)
- Douglas DC-2 (14)
- Douglas DC-3 from 1936–1953. (76)
- Curtiss Commando (15)
- Martin 4-0-4 1951-1962 of which Eastern had the largest fleet with 60 of the type in operation.
- Douglas DC-4 1946-1960. (38)
- Convair 340 (2)
- Convair 440 Metropolitan 1957-1970. (20)
- L-1049 Super Constellation from 1951–1968. (76)
- Douglas DC-7B from 1953–1966. (54)
- Lockheed L-188 Electra 1959-1977. (40)
- DC-8-21 1960-1973. (16)
- DC-8-50 1964-1971. (5)
- DC-8-61/63 -61 1969-1973 (17), -63 1969-1974. (6)
- Boeing 720 1961-1970. (15)
- Boeing 727-100 beginning in 1 February 1964 with Eastern as the launch customer. (75)
- Boeing 727-200 Advanced beginning in 1968. (99)
- DC-9-14 beginning in February 1965 to January 1980. (15)
- DC-9-31 entered service March 1967. (82)
- DC-9-50 entered service May 1978. (26)
- Boeing 747-100 leased from Pan Am before the L-1011s arrived, summer season 1971, 72 and 73. (3)
- Boeing 747-200 Not delivered. For planned services to Europe, bought from QANTAS, 1 painted but never delivered, 1978.
- Lockheed L-1011-1 beginning in 1972 with Eastern as co-launch customer (along with TWA) (40)
- Airbus A300B4 with Eastern as the first U.S. airline operator, entered service August 1977. (34)
- Boeing 757-200 entered service January 1, 1983 with Eastern as co-launch customer (along with British Airways) (25)
- Douglas DC-10 (long-range DC-10-30's formerly operated by Alitalia leased to operate long range service to Europe and South America 1985-1990, including Miami-London, Miami-Buenos Aires and Miami-Los Angeles-Santiago) (3)
- Lockheed JetStar for corporate use. 1970-1973 (2)
New Eastern Air Lines
In the 2000s, the Eastern Air Lines Group purchased the intellectual property, including trademarks, of Eastern Air Lines. The group announced in early 2014 that it had filed an application with the United States Department of Transportation for a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity, which will be followed by certification with the Federal Aviation Administration. The ownership group points out that it is unrelated to the previous Eastern Air Lines, and it plans to launch charter flights with the Boeing 737-800 out of Miami International in late 2014.
Eastern weathered crashes over the years of varying damage to the company and passenger injuries and deaths. Some of the crashes contributed to the future safety of American air transportation, such as Eastern's first accident caused by the construction of temporary utility poles at the end of a runway.
- On 26 February 1941, Eastern Air Lines Flight 21, a Douglas DC-3, crashed near Atlanta, almost killing Eddie Rickenbacker, who was traveling on airline business. His recovery in the hospital received broad press coverage; during his initial recovery several news reports claimed that he had died.
- On 12 July 1945, a US Army Air Forces A-26C-35-DT Invader, 44-35553, on a training flight had mid-air collision with Eastern Air Lines Flight 45 from Washington, D.C. to Columbia, S.C., a DC-3-201C, NC25647, c/n 2235, at ~3100 feet, 11.9 miles WNW of Florence, South Carolina at 1436 hrs. The A-26's vertical tail fin struck the port wing of the airliner, displacing the DC-3's engine which cut into fuselage; A-26 tail sheared off, two crew parachuted but only one survived. DC-3 pilot belly landed in a cornfield, one passenger, an infant, of 24 total on board killed.
- On November 1, 1949, Eastern Air Lines Flight 537, registration N88727, was a Douglas DC-4 en route from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. via intermediate points on November 1, 1949. NX-26927 was a Lockheed P-38 Lightning being test-flown for acceptance by the Government of Bolivia by Erick Rios Bridoux of the Bolivian Air Force. The two aircraft collided in mid-air at an altitude of 300 feet about half a mile southwest of the threshold of Runway 3 at Washington National Airport, killing all 55 aboard the DC-4 and seriously injuring the pilot of the P-38. At the time it was the deadliest airliner incident in United States history.
- On 19 July 1951, Eastern Air Lines Flight 601, Lockheed L-749A Constellation N119A suffered severe buffeting after an access door opened in flight. A flapless wheels-up landing was made at Curles Neck Farm, Virginia. The aircraft was later repaired and returned to service.
- On 19 October 1953, an Eastern Air Lines flight from Idlewild International Airport to San Juan, Puerto Rico, operated by Lockheed L-749A Constellation N119A crashed on take-off. Two passengers were killed.
- On October 4, 1960, Eastern Air Lines Flight 375 (a Lockheed L-188 Electra) departing Boston's Logan International Airport for Philadelphia crashed on takeoff after striking a flock of birds. Sixty-two of the 72 passengers and crew were killed.
- On November 30, 1962, Eastern Air Lines Flight 512 (a Douglas DC-7) crashed during a go around after failing to land due to fog at Idlewild Airport (now JFK) in New York City. Of the 51 passengers and crew on board, 25 were killed.
- On February 25, 1964, Eastern Air Lines Flight 304 (a Douglas DC-8) flying from New Orleans International Airport to Washington-National Airport crashed into Lake Pontchartrain en route due to "degradation of aircraft stability characteristics in turbulence, because of abnormal longitudinal trim component positions." All 51 passengers and seven crew aboard were killed.
- On February 8, 1965, Eastern Air Lines Flight 663, a Douglas DC-7 departing from New York City to Richmond, Virginia, crashed at Jones Beach State Park after takeoff from JFK when it was forced to evade inbound Pan Am Flight 212. All 84 onboard died. The evasive action was blamed for leaving the plane out of control.
- On March 17, 1970: Eastern Air Lines Shuttle Flight 1320, carrying passengers from Newark to Boston was hijacked around 7:30 P.M. by John J. Divivo who was armed with a .38 caliber revolver. Captain Robert Wilbur Jr., 35, a former Air Force pilot who was promoted to captain just six months prior, was shot in the arm by the suicidal hijacker. With a .38 slug in his arm and bleeding profusely, he landed his aircraft safely while talking to the tower, telling them his copilot was shot (but not himself) and needed an ambulance. His copilot, First Officer James Hartley, 31, was shot without warning by Divivo and collapsed. Divivo then turned the gun on the captain, causing his arm injury. Despite being fatally wounded Hartley recovered sufficiently to rip the gun from Divivo's hand, and shoot the would-be hijacker three times before lapsing into unconsciousness, and eventually death. Although wounded and slumped between the seats, Divivo arose and began clawing at Captain Wilbur, attempting to force a crash. Wilbur hit Divivo over the head with the gun he had retrieved from the center console. The pilot was able to land the plane safely at Logan International Airport, and the hijacker was arrested immediately.
- On December 29. 1972, Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 (a brand new Lockheed L-1011) was preparing to land in Miami, when the flight crew became distracted by a non-functioning gear light. The flight crashed in the Everglades. This was the first major crash of a widebody jet aircraft.
- On September 11, 1974, Eastern Air Lines Flight 212, a DC-9-31 carrying 78 passengers and four crew operating a scheduled flight from Charleston, South Carolina, to Chicago, Illinois, with an intermediate stop in Charlotte, North Carolina, crashed while conducting an instrument approach in dense ground fog at Douglas Municipal Airport (now called Charlotte/Douglas International Airport). The aircraft crashed just short of the runway, killing 71 occupants. Thirteen people survived the initial impact, but three subsequently died from their injuries. One of the initial survivors died of injuries 29 days after the accident. The aircraft was destroyed by the impact and resulting post-crash fire. Also killed on this flight were James, Peter, and Paul Colbert, the father and older brothers (respectively) of comedian Stephen Colbert.
- On June 24, 1975, Eastern Air Lines Flight 66 (a Boeing 727) crashed into the runway approach lights, as it penetrated a thunderstorm which was astride the ILS localizer course line to that runway, at JFK in New York City, killing 113 people. The official cause of the accident was a sudden high rate of descent, caused by severe downdrafts from the thunderstorm, and the continued use of that runway by both flight crews and ATC, after they became aware of the location of the hazardous weather. The aircraft hit a motorcyclist on impact, and ABA basketball star Wendell Ladner was one of the passengers killed in the crash. Most of the deceased were killed by fire after impact rather than the crash itself. The two flight attendants in the rear of the plane survived the fire because they were doused with the liquid contents of the rear lavatories, which kept them alive. The aircraft that landed on the same runway just prior was an Eastern L-1011 that managed to fight through the wind shear by both pilots putting their feet on the instrument panel and pulling back on the control column with all of their strength. After landing, they radioed the tower to close that runway, but it was too late for EAL Flight 66.
- On May 5, 1983, Eastern Air Lines Flight 855 (a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar) three engines shut down in flight. The pilot got one of the engines going before landing back at Miami International Airport.
- On January 1, 1985, Eastern Air Lines Flight 980 (a Boeing 727) struck Mount Illimani on a flight from Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Asunción, Paraguay, to El Alto International Airport in La Paz, Bolivia. All 25 passengers and 4 crew were killed on impact.
- Commercial Eastern Air Lines 1983. YouTube (2010-11-11). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 30, 1985. 72. Retrieved on June 17, 2009.
- "Eastern Airlines". US Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "1991 - January 1 - Eastern Airlines Timetables, Route Maps, and History". Airchive. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "1982 - August 1 - Eastern Airlines Timetables, Route Maps, and History.". Airchive. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Smith, F. (1982). Legacy of Wings: The Story of Harold F. Pitcairn. Jason Aronson / T.D. Associates. (June 1982)
- Rickenbacker, 1967
- Eastern Air Lines History
- "Eastern to study Airbus buy". The Pittsburgh Press. 11 May 1977. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Commercial Airplanes". Boeing Company. Retrieved June 26, 2011.
- Thomas Petzinger, Hard landing: The Epic Contest for Power and Profits that Plunged the Airlines into Chaos (Random House, 1996)
- World Airline Directory. Flight International. March 20, 1975. "484. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
- Bernstein, Aaron. Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction of Eastern Airlines. Beard Books, 1999. p. 22. 22. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
- Schmitt, Eric. "OVERNIGHT FLIGHT - BARGAIN FOR SPONTANEOUS FLYERS". New York Times, 9 March 1987. Retrieved on 2010-04-30.
- "EASTERN WILL PAY $9.5M FINE". Associated Press, Washington D.C., 11 February 1987. Retrieved on 2010-03-16.
- "Record $24.2 million fine proposed for American Airlines". Reuters, Washington D.C., 26 Aug. 2010. Retrieved on 2010-08-26.
- Nordheimer, John. "Cuts by Eastern Shaking Miami In Many Ways". The New York Times. Sunday July 24, 1988. New York Edition Section 1, Page 14. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
- "Stock market pulls out of dive Series: Business Digest." St. Petersburg Times. June 23, 1989. Business 1E. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
- Bernstein, Aaron (1990). Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction of Eastern Airlines. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 166. ISBN 0-671-69538-X.
- "Eastern looks better with Lorenzo gone". Boca Raton News. 20 April 1990. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Salpukas, Agis. "Eastern Airlines Is Shutting Down And Plans to Liquidate Its Assets". The New York Times. Saturday January 19, 1991. 1. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
- Salpukas, Agis. "Its Cash Depleted, Pan Am Shuts". The New York Times. Thursday December 5, 1991. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
- 1951-75 from CAB's Handbook of Airline Statistics, 1981-89 from IATA's World Air Transport Statistics
- Sampson, Hannah (29 January 2014). "Group plans to bring Eastern Air Lines back to Miami Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/2014/01/29/3899717/group-plans-to-bring-eastern-air.html#storylink=cpy". Miami Herald. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Eastern Air Lines Group, Inc. files with the U.S. Dept. of Transportation as the first step in launching the new Eastern Air Lines - See more at: http://easternairlines.aero/news/eastern-air-lines-group-inc-files-with-the-us-dept-of-transportation-as-the-first-step-in-launching-the-new-eastern-air-lines-1390992281787.html#sthash.Hh9kxicK.dpuf" (Press release). Eastern Air Lines Group, Inc. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-3-201C NC25647 Florence, SC. Aviation-safety.net (1945-07-12). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 March 2010.
- "Stephen Colbert On Insincerity", 60 Minutes, April 27, 2006
- Rickenbacker, Edward V. Rickenbacker: An Autobiography. New York: Prentice Hall, 1967.
- Robinson, Jack E. Freefall: The Needless Destruction Of Eastern Air Lines. New York: HarperBusiness, 1992. ISBN 0-88730-556-3
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eastern Air Lines.|
-  has timetables from the 1960s to 1990s, showing actual route maps, schedules, and pricing information.
-  has many timetables from the 1930s to 1960, showing where Eastern flew, how often, how long it took and how much it cost.
- Aviation Safety Network list of Eastern Air Lines accidents from 1943 to 1990
- Eastern Airlines Indicted in Scheme Over Maintenance - The New York Times
- SHUGRUE RECOUNTS EASTERN'S FINAL DAYS SAYS FINAL NAIL WAS DECEMBER'S DISMAL SHOWING - Miami Herald
- Airlinecolors.com Images, historical overview, and promotional materials