Eastern Ganga dynasty
|Eastern Ganga Empire|
|-||1178–1198||Ananga Bhima Deva II|
|-||1238–1264||Narasimha Deva I|
|-||1414–1434||Bhanu Deva IV|
|Historical era||Classical India|
The Eastern Ganga dynasty reigned from Kalinga and their rule consisted of the whole of the modern day Indian state of Odisha as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from the 11th century to the early 15th century. Their capital was known by the name Kalinganagar, which is the modern Srimukhalingam in Srikakulam District of Andhra Pradesh bordering Odisha. Today, they are most remembered as the builders of the Konark Sun Temple an UNESCO World Heritage site at Konark, Odisha.
The dynasty was founded by King Anantavarman Codaganga, descendents of the Western Ganga Dynasty that rule southern parts of modern Karnataka state from the 4th century to the end of the 10th century. Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. He is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri in Odisha. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264).
The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century.
The history of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty can be traced to the period when the Nandas ruled over this region in 5th century B.C. After Mahapadma Nanda subjugated northern India, he assimilated Kalinga into his vast empire. Pre-Mauryan black polished potteries and punch marked coins belonging to that era indicate that Kalinga was a prosperous state under the Nanda rule. Chandra Gupta Maurya overthrew the last Nanda king in 322 B.C. During the time of Chandra Gupta, Kalinga declared herself independent. His grandson Asoka invaded Kalinga in 261 B.C. and incorporated Kalinga into his extensive empire. The Kalinga war is recorded as the bloodiest war ever in the history of India. Over a hundred thousand were killed and half as many taken prisoners. The terrible bloodshed caused by the war filled Asoka with guilt and remorse; subsequently he embraced Buddhism and followed the principle of Dharma Vijaya.
In the early 1st century B.C. Kalinga became independent under a Chedi chief Mahameghavana.The third ruler of the Mahameghavana dynasty Kharavela who reigned in the second half of the 1st century B.C was the most illustratous king to have ever ruled over Kalinga. The Hathigumpha inscription found in Udayagiri (now in Orissa) furnishes a detailed account on the life and military expeditions of this great king.
After the fall of Mahameghavahana Dynasty Kalinga was divided into different kingdoms under feudatory chiefs. Each of these chiefs bore the title Kalingadhipathi(Lord of Kalinga). The reality is that most of these Kalingadhipathis actually ruled over only a part of the Kalinga region. A new dynasty known as the early Eastern Gangas established themselves during this period in southern Kalinga. Indravarma-I the founder of this dynasty defeated the Vishnukundin king Indrabhattaraka and established his rule over the region with Kalinganagara as his capital. They also had a secondary capital at Dantapura. The Ganga kings assumed various titles viz. Trikalingadhipathi or Sakala Kalingadhipathi(Lord of tri-Kalinga or entire Kalinga). Mukhalingam near Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh boardering Orissa has been identified as Kalinganagara, the capital of the early Eastern Gangas. After the decline of the early Eastern Gangas reign, the Chalukyas of Vengi took control of the region. Vajrahastha-I, a descendent of the early Eastern Ganga dynasty took advantage of the internal strife and revived the power of the Ganga dynasty. It was during their rule that Saivism or the worship of Lord Shiva took precedence over Buddhism and Jainism. The magnificent Madhukeswara temple at Mukhalingam was built during this period. In the middle of the 11th century the Chola general Karunakara brought Kalinga under the rule of the Chola dynasty for a short period.
Chodaganga Deva (1077–1150), the greatest of the Eastern Ganga kings, was born to Rajasundari Chola, daughter of emperor Virarajendra Chola. The king rebuilt the temple of Jagannath on the ruins of the old one. It is said that King Chodaganga was originally a Shaivite from Srimukhalingam who became a Vaishnava under the influence of Ramanuja when he visited Jagannath Puri. Despite Kulothunga Chola I being his maternal uncle, it did not stop the Chola sovereign from burning Anantavarman's empire. Historians propose that it was probably because the king failed to pay his rent for two consecutive years. He was ousted by Kulothunga's general Karunakara Thondaiman and this victory is detailed in the Tamil classic Kalingattupparani. Monarchs of the subcontinent assumed the title Chodaganga Deva throughout the ancient and medieval periods to allude to their Chola and Ganga heritage.
From various inscriptions it is known that King Anantavarman Codaganga Deva established the present temple some time near the end of the eleventh century. A copper plate inscription made by King Rajaraja III found on the Tirumala temple near the north entrance states that Jagannath temple was built by Gangesvara, i.e., Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva.
Later, King Ananga Bhima Deva II (1170–1198) did much to continue the work of Chodaganga Deva, building the walls around the temple and many of the other shrines on the temple grounds. He is thus often considered one of the builders of the temple. He also did much to establish the regulations around the service to the Deity.
A scion of this dynasty made rich donations to the Koneswaram temple, Trincomalee on Puthandu, 1223 CE in the name of King Chodaganga Deva. Shortly afterwards, the Konark temple was constructed in Orissa.
Rise and fall
The Eastern Gangas arose to intermarry with and challenge the Cholas and Chalukyas in the period when the Western Gangas had been forced to abandon this role. Early ancestors of the Eastern Gangas ruled in Orissa from the 8th century. Vajrahasta III's son Devendra Varma Rajaraja Deva I waged war on the Cholas and the Eastern Chalukyas and strengthened the dynasty by marrying Chola princess, Rajasundari, daughter of emperor Virarajendra Chola and cousin of Kulothunga Chola I. Their son, Anantavarman Chodagangadeva, ruled from the mouth of the Ganges (Ganga) River in the north to the mouth of the Godavari River in the south; he founded the Eastern Ganga Dynasty and began building the great Jagannath Temple at Puri at the end of the 11th century. He assumed the title of Trikalingadhipathi (ruler of the three Kalingas which comprise Kalinga, Utkal and Koshal) in 1076, the first to rule all three divisions of Kalinga. The name Chodaganga alludes to this dynasty's Ganga and Chola heritage.
Rajaraja III ascended the throne in 1198 and did nothing to resist the Muslims of Bengal, who invaded Orissa in 1206. Rajaraja’s son Anangabhima III, however, repulsed the Muslims and built the temple of Megheshvara at Bhuvaneshvara. Narasimhadeva I, the son of Anangabhima, invaded southern Bengal in 1243, defeated its Muslim ruler, captured the capital (Gauda), and built the Sun Temple at Konark to commemorate his victory. With the death of Narasimha in 1264, the Eastern Gangas began to decline; the sultan of Delhi invaded Orissa in 1324, and Vijayanagar defeated the Orissan powers in 1356. Narasimha IV, the last known king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty, ruled until 1425. The “mad king,” Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35. The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture.
- Indravarman (?-893)
- Devendravarman IV (893-?)
- Vajrahasta Anantavarman (1038-?)
- Rajaraja I (?-1078)
- Anantavarman Codaganga (1078–1147)
- Ananga Bhima Deva II (1178–1198)
- Rajaraja II (1198 - 1211)
- Ananga Bhima Deva III (1211–1238)
- Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264)
- Bhanu Deva I (1264–1279)
- Narasimha Deva II (1279–1306)
- Bhanu Deva II (1306–1328)
- Narasimha Deva III (1328–1352)
- Bhanu Deva III (1352–1378)
- Narasimha Deva IV (1378–1424)
- Bhanu Deva IV (1424–1434)
- Ganga Dynasty www.britannica.com.
- Eastern Ganga Dynasty in India. India9.com (2005-06-07). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Controversies in History: Origin of Gangas. Controversialhistory.blogspot.com (2007-10-09). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- "Kharavela". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 24 Jun. 2012
- Ganga dynasty (Indian dynasties) - Encyclopedia Britannica. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
|Indo-Gangetic Plain||Central India||Southern India|
|Northwestern India||Northern India||Northeastern India|
|Culture||Late Vedic Period||Pre-history|
|6th century BCE||Gandhara||Magadha||Adivasi (tribes)|
|Culture||Shramanic reforms (500-200 BCE)
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga
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|4th century BCE||(Greek conquests)|
|Culture||Shramanic reforms (continued)||Pre-history||Sangam period
(300 BCE – 200 CE)
|3rd century BCE||Maurya Empire||Early Cholas|
|Culture||Preclassical Hinduism[a] - "Hindu Synthesis"[b] (ca. 200 BCE-300 CE)[c][d]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
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|1st century BCE||Yona||Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty|
|1st century CE||Kuninda Kingdom|
|2nd century||Pahlava||Varman dynasty|
|3rd century||Kushan Empire||Western Satraps||Kamarupa kingdom||Kalabhras dynasty|
|Culture||"Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. 320-650 CE)[e]
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
|4th century||Gupta Empire||Kadamba Dynasty|
|5th century||Maitraka||Adivasi (tribes)||Vishnukundina|
|Culture||Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. 650-1100 CE)[f]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
|7th century||Indo-Sassanids||Vakataka dynasty, Harsha||Mlechchha dynasty||Adivasi (tribes)||Pallava|
|8th century||Kidarite Kingdom||Kalachuri|
|9th century||Indo-Hephthalites (Huna)||Gurjara-Pratihara||Chalukya|
|10th century||Pala dynasty||Rashtrakuta|
|Culture||Islamic rule and "Sects of Hinduism" (ca. 1100-1850 CE)[g] - Medieval and Late Puranic Period (500–1500 CE)[h]|
|11th century||(Islamic conquests)