Eastern mud turtle

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Eastern mud turtle
Kinosternon subrubrum.jpg
Kinosternon subrubrum
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Family: Kinosternidae
Genus: Kinosternon
Species: K. subrubum
Binomial name
Kinosternon subrubrum[1]
(Bonnaterre, 1789)[1]
Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum
  • Testudo subrubra Lacépède, 1788
  • Testudo pensylvanica Gmelin, 1789
  • Emydes pensilvancia Brongniart, 1805 (ex errore)
  • Emys pensylvanica Schweigger, 1812
  • Terrapene boscii Merrem, 1820
  • Terrapene pensylvanica Merrem, 1820
  • Cistuda pensylvanica Say, 1825
  • Sternotherus pensylvanica Gray, 1825
  • Kinosternon pennsylvanicum Bell, 1825 (ex errore)
  • Sternothaerus boscii Bell, 1825
  • Kinosternum pensylvanicum Bonaparte, 1830
  • Cinosternon pensylvanicum Wagler, 1830
  • Emys (Kinosternon) pennsylvanica Gray, 1831
  • Clemmys (Cinosternon) pensylvanica Fitzinger, 1835
  • Kinosternon pensylvanicum DeKay, 1842
  • Kinosternon (Kinosternon) doubledayii Gray, 1844
  • Kinosternon (Kinosternon) oblongum Gray, 1844
  • Kinosternum doubledayii LeConte, 1854
  • Kinosternum pennsylvanicum LeConte, 1854
  • Kinosternon punctatum Gray, 1856
  • Cinosternon pennsylvanicum Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternum doubledayii Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternum oblongum Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternum pennsylvanicum Agassiz, 1857
  • Cistudo pennsylvanica Agassiz, 1857
  • Terrapene pennsylvanica Agassiz, 1857
  • Thyrosternum pennsylvanicum Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternum doubledayi Agassiz, 1857 (ex errore)
  • Cinosternum punctatum Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternon doubledayii Strauch, 1865
  • Swanka fasciata Gray, 1869
  • Cinosternum pensylvanicum Boulenger, 1889
  • Kinosternon pensilvanicum Lönnberg, 1894 (ex errore)
  • Cinosternonus pensylvanicum Herrera, 1899
  • Cinosternum pensilvanicum Siebenrock, 1907
  • Cinosternum pensilvanium Siebenrock, 1909 (ex errore)
  • Testudo pensilvanica Siebenrock, 1909
  • Kinosternon subrubrum subrubrum Stejneger & Barbour, 1917
  • Kinonsternon subrubrum Liner, 1954
  • Kinosternum subrubrum Schwartz, 1961
  • Kinosternon subrum Richard, 1999 (ex errore)
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis
  • Kinosternon hippocrepis Gray, 1856
  • Cinosternum hippocrepis Agassiz, 1857
  • Cinosternon hippocrepis Strauch, 1865
  • Kinosternon louisianae Baur, 1893
  • Cinosternum louisianae Ditmars, 1907
  • Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis Stejneger & Barbour, 1917

The eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum) or common mud turtle[1] is a common species of turtle found in the United States.


The eastern mud turtle is a small and often hard to identify species. It measures 3-4 inches in length. The carapace is keel-less, lacks any pattern, and varies in color from yellowish to black. The plastron is large and double hinged, and can be yellowish to brown, and may sometimes have a dark pattern. The chin and throat are a yellowish grey, streaked and mottled with brown, while the limbs and tail are grayish. The eye, or iris, of the eastern mud turtle is yellow with dark clouding, and its feet are webbed.


Eastern mud turtles dwell in ponds and other freshwater habitats. They feed mainly on insects and small fish. Raccoons are known to eat this species' eggs, while herons and alligators often hunt the adults.


Eastern mud turtles are found in the US states of Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.[1]

In Indiana, the eastern mud turtle is listed as an endangered species.[3]


  • K. s. subrubrum (nominate subspecies) - eastern mud turtle
  • K. s. hippocrpis - Mississippi mud turtle

The Florida mud turtle (Kinosternon steindachneri) is no longer recognized as a subspecies of K.subrubrum


  1. ^ a b c d e f Rhodin, Anders G.J.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Inverson, John B.; Shaffer, H. Bradley (2010-12-14). "Turtles of the world, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status". Chelonian Research Monographs 5: 000.98. doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010. Archived from the original on 2010-12-15. 
  2. ^ Fritz Uwe; Peter Havaš (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World". Vertebrate Zoology 57 (2): 259–260. ISSN 18640-5755. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  3. ^ Indiana Legislative Services Agency (2011), "312 IAC 9-5-4: Endangered species of reptiles and amphibians", Indiana Administrative Code, retrieved 28 Apr 2012 

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