Eastern Shore of Maryland
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U.S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties. As of the 2010 census, its population was 449,226, with just under 8 percent of Marylanders living in the region. The term "Eastern Shore" distinguishes a territorial part of the State of Maryland from the Western Shore of Maryland, land west of the Chesapeake Bay.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Elections
- 5 Economy
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Secession
- 8 Sports
- 9 Cultural
- 10 Media references
- 11 Notables
- 12 Towns and cities
- 13 Notes
- 14 External links
The Eastern Shore consists of nine Maryland counties on the Chesapeake Bay's eastern side—or eastern side of the Susquehanna River (the western border of Cecil County with Harford County. Pennsylvania borders across the Mason-Dixon Line), with Delaware to the east and north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, and Virginia's own Eastern Shore on the south. Maryland's and Virginia's Eastern Shore and all of Delaware form the Delmarva Peninsula.
The counties comprising the Eastern Shore are Caroline, Cecil, Dorchester, Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Talbot, Wicomico, and Worcester counties. To the south, the Calvert-Scarborough Line separates Maryland from Virginia. A modern Worcester County highway map (PDF) shows this location. While comprising different boundaries than in the 17th-18th century, the Eastern Shore's geographic definition was set once everyone agreed on where Watkins Point—on the western side of the peninsula—is and where the Bay's shoreline began (since the bay side peters out into marshes and wetlands).
In 1668, Philip [Calvert] obtained Virginia recognition of Maryland's claims to present-day Somerset County, surveying a dividing line between the two colonies with Surveyor General of Virginia, Edmund Scarborough. Meanwhile, he negotiated treaties with Lower Eastern Shore Indian tribes harassing English settlers. These treaties defined standards of conduct for Indian-English relations, establishing an overall peace in the region.
The northern limit is harder to locate. Some dispute Cecil County as a true Shore territory due to I-95's presence with its surrounding developments, proximity to and influence from nearby urban areas like Philadelphia and Wilmington, and a position straddling the Elk River–leaving 50% west of the Shore.
Like New Castle County, Delaware, Cecil County is crossed by the fall line, a geologic division where the rockier highlands of the Piedmont region meet the Atlantic coastal plain, a flat, sandy area that forms the coast. The coastal plain includes the Delmarva Peninsula and hence the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The geology of Delmarva is an inseparable part of the Eastern Shore, which has few rocky outcrops south of Kent County.
The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal crosses from Back Creek on the Elk River to Port Penn, Delaware. While it was a shallow canal with locks after its construction in 1829, it was deepened in the early 20th century to sea level, and physically separates the Delmarva Peninsula from the rest of the United States. Maryland south of the canal is considered the Eastern Shore by residents. The term Western Shore is used by Eastern Shore residents to describe all the counties of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay, but especially those of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area and Southern Maryland.
The north-south section of the Mason-Dixon Line forms the border between Maryland and Delaware. The border was originally marked every mile by a stone, and every five miles by a "crownstone". The line is not quite due north and south, but is as straight as survey methods of the 1760s could make it. It was surveyed as a compromise solution to a century-long wrangle between the Penn and Calvert families of England. If the Chesapeake Bay/Delaware Bay watershed divide had been taken as the borderline, Delaware would be about half its current size.
Finally, although this has received less attention than other parts of Eastern Shore culture, commercial east-west ties between Delaware towns and Maryland towns were culturally significant in Colonial and Early American periods despite the border line (which largely cut through woods and swamps). Trade with Philadelphia was conducted by overland routes to Delaware towns like Odessa (then called Cantwell's Bridge) and Smyrna (then called Duck Creek). Agricultural products and milled grain were taken up the Delaware River by "shallop men" in small vessels called shallops. These cultural connections continue to this day.
William Claiborne was granted land (part of the Colony of Virginia) in 1629 and named the land "Kent County". In 1631, he sailed north up the Chesapeake Bay from its south and west side to the area known today as Kent Island. There he made a fortified settlement that is considered to be the first English settlement within the Province of Maryland. Talbot County was formed in 1662. Cecil County was formed in 1674, by proclamation of the Governor, from eastern portions of Baltimore County and the northern portion of Kent County. Wicomico County was formed in 1867, as the 9th and last county, created from Somerset and Worcester counties.
Formation and etymology of the counties
- 1642 Kent County-In 1642, the governor and council appointed commissioners for the Isle and County of Kent. This act appears to have led to the establishment of Kent County, name after Kent County, England.
- 1661 Talbot County- named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Irish statesman, and the sister of Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore.
- 1666 Somerset County-named for Mary, Lady Somerset, the wife of Sir John Somerset and daughter of Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour.
- 1669 Dorchester County-Named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts (the founding family of the Maryland colony).
- 1674 Cecil County.
- 1706 Queen Anne's County- formed from northern parts of Talbot and southern portions of Kent. Name after Queen Anne of Great Britain who reigned when the county was established.
- 1742 Worcester County-named for an Earl of Worcester.
- 1773 Caroline County- formed from parts of Dorchester and Queen Anne's counties. The county derives its name from Lady Caroline Eden, wife of Maryland's last colonial governor of the Province of Maryland, Robert Eden.
- 1867 Wicomico County.
Ocean City was founded on July 4, 1875, when the Atlantic Hotel opened on Assateague Island. At the time, Assateague Island was continuous from the Delaware state line to well south of Ocean City: the Ocean City Inlet wasn't formed until a hurricane in August 1933 cut across the south end of the town, although the inlet was cut not by waves sweeping inland, but by 4 or 5 days' worth of freshwater runoff from the coastal creeks running seaward. By 1935, government money had built jetties to make the inlet permanent, dividing Fenwick Island (north) from Assateague Island (south). Early transportation to the island was by train.
Until the 1820s, travel and commerce between the Eastern Shore and Baltimore were less important than the connections between it and Philadelphia. Water travel by sailboat and steamer linked the Eastern Shore to Baltimore more tightly beginning about 1813, when the first steamboat traveled the Bay. By the 1880s, railroad lines linked the Eastern Shore to Philadelphia and later, Norfolk, Virginia, by way of a railroad line straight south from Wilmington to Dover, Delmar, Salisbury, and Cape Charles. Maryland's Eastern Shore was served by branch lines running generally southwest from the main route. See List of railroad lines in the Delmarva Peninsula. The Eastern Shore's many branchlines were built after the Civil War by local companies; eventually all were controlled by the Pennsylvania Railroad (which also bought control of the steamboat and ferry routes), then Conrail, and now Norfolk Southern.
An east-west rail route ran from a ferry terminal at Claiborne, west of St. Michaels, to Ocean City, via the Baltimore and Eastern Shore Railroad and the Wicomico and Pocomoke Railroad. Travelers could also take a ferry to Love Point on Kent Island, board a Queen Anne's Railroad train, and travel east to Lewes and Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.
Automobile transportation across the Chesapeake Bay was by ferryboat until 1952, when the first Chesapeake Bay Bridge was opened for traffic.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s developers began selling lots on Assateague Island, south of the inlet. However, a storm on March 6, 1962 destroyed houses, shacks, and roads. The state and federal governments intervened before reconstruction by creating the Assateague Island National Seashore and Assateague State Park.
Although the Eastern Shore comprises more than a third of Maryland's land area, it has a population of 420,792 (2004 census estimate), about 8% of Maryland's population.
The most populous city on the Eastern Shore is Salisbury, and the most populous county is Wicomico County. The Salisbury metropolitan area is the only metropolitan statistical area and the only Combined Statistical Area is the Salisbury-Ocean Pines CSA.
Though five of the nine counties have a majority of Democratic-registered voters, most of the counties on the Shore tend to support Republicans in presidential and gubernatorial elections. At the local level, three of the state senators representing substantial portions of the Shore are Republicans and two are Democrats, while 11 of the region's state delegates are Republicans and four are Democrats.
Currently the entire Eastern Shore is in Maryland's 1st Congressional district. Nine-term Republican congressman Wayne Gilchrest was defeated for his party's nomination in February 2008. The 2008 race for the U. S. Congress was won by Frank Kratovil, the first Democrat to represent the district since 1991, defeating Republican Andy Harris by less than 3,000 votes. Harris defeated Kratovil in 2010.
Marylanders visit Ocean City.[clarification needed] The city composes a distinct culture of the Shore. The skyline, containing tall hotels and condominiums, stands out within Delmarva. On Ocean City's southern end a recreational boardwalk spans over thirty blocks, containing carnival rides and games, restaurants, bars, arcades, and clothing boutiques.
Tourists visit St. Michaels on a neck surrounded by water; the colonial former port of Oxford; Chestertown; and isolated Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay. North of Crisfield is Janes Island State Park, with camping and kayaking trails through marshlands.
At the southern end of the Chesapeake coast of Maryland, the town of Crisfield is home to a fishing, crabbing, and seafood processing industry.
The main economic activities on the Eastern Shore are vegetable and grain farming, seafood, large-scale chicken breeding (Perdue Farms was founded in Salisbury and is headquartered there today), and tourism. Tobacco was grown during colonial times. The agricultural economy switched to grain in the second quarter of the 18th century.[unreliable source?]
There are three major routes onto the Shore:
- The Chesapeake Bay Bridge spans 4.35 miles (7.00 km) of the Chesapeake Bay, and at the time of construction in 1952, was the longest continuous over-water steel structure. A second parallel span was added in 1973 and a third has been discussed, most recently in 2006. A third span will not open, according to state officials, until about 2025. The bridges made Kent Island, site of the first English settlement on the Shore, into a bedroom community for Washington, Annapolis, and Baltimore. Kent Island is part of Queen Anne's County.
- U.S. Route 13
- Maryland Route 213
The two major highways on the Eastern Shore are U.S. Route 13 and U.S. Route 50, which meet in Salisbury.
Airports for private planes include:
- Bay Bridge Airport in Stevensville
- Cambridge-Dorchester Airport in Cambridge
- Crisfield Municipal Airport in Crisfield.
- Easton Airport, in Easton
- Ocean City Municipal Airport in Ocean City
The Eastern Shore has made several attempts to separate from Maryland. Proposals were debated in Maryland's General Assembly in 1833-1835, 1852, and 1998. There were earlier proposals visualizing a state encompassing the Delmarva Peninsula. The 1998 proposal by state Senators Richard F. Colburn and J. Lowell Stoltzfus did not specify a status for Eastern Shore's nine counties following secession, but suggested the new state's name could be "Delmarva".
Salisbury hosts the largest bicycling event east of the Mississippi - the Seagull Century; the nation's second-largest KCBS barbecue competition - Pork in the Park; and two major Maryland wine and craft beer festivals.
Easton hosts a three-day artist event, the Waterfowl Festival, every November. Duck and goose hunting from blinds is a popular activity using carved wooden duck decoys, which can also be prized works of art.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
- John Andrews, clergyman. Born in Cecil County.
- Frank "Home Run" Baker, baseball player
- Gilbert Byron, "Poet of the Chesapeake"
- William Claiborne, first English settler within Maryland. Settled in Kent County.
- Frederick Douglass, abolitionist. Born in Talbot County.
- Jimmie Foxx, baseball player. Born in Sudlersville, MD in Northern Queen Anne's County.
- Robert Goldsborough, delegate to the Continental Congress
- Edward Lloyd, delegate to the Continental Congress. Born in Talbot County.
- Bill Nicholson, baseball player
- Matthew Tilghman, delegate to the Continental Congress
- Tench Tilghman, aide-de-camp to George Washington
- Harriet Tubman, the Underground Railroad
- Harold Baines, baseball player. Born in Talbot County.
Towns and cities
- Denton – Caroline County
- Elkton – Cecil County
- Cambridge – Dorchester County
- Chestertown – Kent County
- Centreville – Queen Anne's County
- Princess Anne – Somerset County
- Easton – Talbot County
- Salisbury – Wicomico County
- Snow Hill – Worcester County
- See this essay by Dr. Lois Green Carr and Dr. Edward C. Papenfuse.
- City on the Sand, Mary Corddry. Tidewater Publishers, 1991.
- Ocean City History. ococean.com. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- Assateague Island Administrative History The Becoming of the Seashore
- MLB Top 100 Teams. MLB.com. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- Maryland Election Districts Map
- The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge, Encyclopedia Americana Corp., 1919, p. 352, retrieved 2008-03-02
- Baltimore Sun - Chesapeake Bay Bridge Summary. baltimoresun.com. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- Wicomico County Tourism Transportation
- Queen Anne's County Bay Bridge Airport
- Dorchester County, Maryland Airport Division
- Somerset County, Maryland Airport
- Talbot County Government Airport Information
- Town of Ocean City Official Ocean City Municipal Airport
- Michael Dresser (February 11, 1998). "Saying so long to city bullies". The Baltimore Sun.
- Waterfowl Festival