Eastern Slavic naming customs
Eastern Slavic naming customs are the traditional ways of determining a person's name in countries influenced by East Slavic linguistic tradition, mainly Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan.
The standard structure of the full name is the following:
|Name||Example (Cyrillic typing)||Example (Latin typing)|
|First name (given name)||Илья́||Ilyа́|
|Family name (surname)||Ежо́в||Yezhо́v|
The ordering is not as strict in languages other than Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian.
- 1 Given first name
- 2 Patronymic
- 3 Family name (surname)
- 4 Cross-cultural communication
- 5 Forms of address
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading (in Russian)
- 9 External links
Given first name
As with most cultures, a person has a given name chosen by the parents. First names in East Slavic languages mostly originate from two sources: Orthodox church tradition (which is itself of Greek origin) and native pre-Christian Slavic lexicons, although some also come from Turkic languages.
All the first names are single, non-doubled. Doubled first names (to a French style) are a very rare foreign-influenced instance. Most doubled first names are spelled with the dash (e.g., Mariya-Tereza).
Common male first names
|Russian variant||Ukrainian variant||Latin typing transliteration||Origin||Comments|
|Ива́н||Іва́н||Ivа́n||Hebrew||equivalent to John|
|Никола́й||Мико́ла||Nikolа́y / Mykо́la||Greek||equivalent to Nicholas, meaning "Victory Of The People"|
|Бори́с||Бори́с||Boris||Slavonic (Bulgarian)||meaning "Fighter"|
|Влади́мир||Володи́мир||Vladimir / Volodymyr||Slavonic||meaning "The Lord of the World / Peace"|
|Пётр||Пе́тро||Pyо́tr / Pе́tro||Greek||equivalent to Peter|
|Андре́й||Андрій||Andrе́y / Andriy||Greek||equivalent to Andrew|
|Александр||Олександр / Олекса||Aleksandr / Oleksandr / Olexa||Greek||equivalent to Alexander. The analogue is Алексей (Alexey)|
|Дмитрий||Дмитро||Dmitry / Dmytro||Greek||meaning "Of Demetra"|
|Серге́й||Сергій||Sergе́y / Sergiy||Latin||-|
|Леони́д||Леонід||Leonid||Greek||from Greek "Leonidas"|
|Ви́ктор||Віктор||Viktor||Latin||- meaning "(He who) Conquers"|
|Гео́ргий||Гео́ргiй||Geо́rgy||Greek||the analogues are Егор (Yegor), Юрий (Yury)|
|Па́вел||Па́вло||Pа́vel / Pа́vlo||Latin||equivalent to Paul|
|Константи́н||Костянти́н||Konstantin / Kostyantyn||Latin||equivalent to Constantine|
|Кири́лл||Кири́ло||Kirill / Kyrylo||Greek||equivalent to Cyril|
|Васи́лий||Васи́ль||Vasily / Vasyl||Greek||equivalent to Ваsіl|
|Владисла́в||Владисла́в||Vladislа́v||Slavonic||meaning "The Lord Of The Fame"|
|Михаи́л||Миха́йло||Mihail / Myhа́ilo||Hebrew||equivalent to Michael|
|Игорь||Ігор||Igor||Old Norse||derivative from Scandinavian "Ingwar"|
|Макси́м||Макси́м||Maxim / Maksym||Latin||meaning "The Greatest"|
|Тимyр||Тимyр||Timur||Turkic (Tatar)||meaning "Iron". Non-Slavonic / Christian|
|Русла́н||Русла́н||Ruslа́n||Turkic (Tatar)||meaning "Lion". Non-Slavonic / Christian|
Common female first names
|Russian variant||Ukrainian variant||Latin typing transliteration||Origin||Comments|
|Анна||Ганна||Anna / Hanna||Hebrew||equivalent to Anne or Hannah|
|Еле́на, Алёна||Oле́нa||Yelе́na, Alyо́na / Olе́na||Greek||equivalent to Helen|
|Ната́лья||Ната́лія||Natа́l'ya / Nataliya||Latin||equivalent to Natalie|
|Ольга||Ольга||Olga||Old Norse||derivative from Scandinavian Helga|
|Алекса́ндра||Олекса́ндра||Aleksа́ndra / Oleksandra||Greek||equivalent to Alexandra|
|Ксе́ния||Окса́на||Kseniya / Oksа́na||Greek||in Russian Oksana is the separate name of the same origin|
|Екатери́на||Катери́на||Yekaterina / Kateryna||Greek||equivalent to Catherine|
|Татьяна||Тетяна||Tatyana / Tetiana||Latin||derivative from the Latinized name of Sabin king|
|Светла́на||Світла́на||Svetlа́na / Svitlа́na||Slavonic||meaning "The Shining One"|
|Юлия||Юлія||Yulia||Latin||equivalent to Julia or Julie|
|Ве́ра||Віра||Vе́ra / Vira||Slavonic||meaning "Faith". Calque from Greek Πίστη|
|Наде́жда||На́дя||Nadе́zhda / Nа́dya||Slavonic||meaning "Hope". Calque from Greek Ελπίς|
|Любо́вь||Любо́в||Lyubо́v' / Lyubо́v||Slavonic||meaning "Love". Calque from Greek Αγάπη|
|Софи́я, Со́фья||Софія||Sofia, Sо́fya / Sofia||Greek||equivalent to Sophia|
Forms of first name
||This section may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2014)|
|This article may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards, as section. (June 2014)|
The fact that Eastern Slavonic languages are synthetic languages rather than analytic languages implies the ability to convey fine shades of emotions via changing of words by using different suffixes. That's why some name forms considered below are not able in English which one is typical analytic language. The cases with reflecting of emotions considered below are not about names only but about all nouns in Eastern Slavonic languages. That's why it would be correct to state that the common rules of using suffixes in nouns for conveying of emotions in East-Slavonic languages are considered below by names example.
|The form of name||Russian name||English analogue||German analogue||Comments|
|Full form||Анна (Anna)||Anne||Anna||-|
|Short form||Аня (Anya)||Anny||-||used in routine communication|
|Diminutive form||Анечка (Anyechka)||-||Ännchen||may be used to express tender attitude|
|Colloquial type of diminutive form||Анька (Anka)||-||-||may be used to express (dependently on context) (1) familiarity or (2) arrogant or slighting attitude (rare)|
Let's consider each form in details below.
A short form exists for almost each name. The typical tool for providing a short form of East-Slavonic name is suffix -a or -я ("ya"). The English analogue of that suffix is suffix -y in the name forms like Tommy, Katty. The short form is almost always used in routine communication. Short forms are always emotionally neutral. Some common names and their short forms are the further:
|Full name (Cyrillic typing)||Full name (Latin typing)||Short forms (Cyrillic typing)||Short forms (Latin typing)|
|Александр||Aleksandr (m)||Саша, Саня, Шура, Сашко (укр.), Лесь (укр.)||Sasha, Sanya, Shura, Sashko (ukr.), Les' (ukr.)|
|Александра||Aleksanda (f)||Саша, Шура, Леся (укр.)||Sasha, Shura, Lesya (ukr.)|
|Анна||Anna (f)||Аня, Анюта, Нюта, Нюша||Anya, Anyuta, Nyuta, Nyusha|
|Дмитрий||Dmitry (m)||Дима, Митя (редко)||Dima, Mitya (rare)|
|Георгий||Georgy (m)||Гоша, Жора||Gosha, Zhora|
|Григорий||Grigory||Гриша, Гриць (укр.) (m)||Grisha, Gritz (ukr.)|
|Людмила||Lyudmila (f)||Люда, Люся, Мила (редко)||Lyuda, Lyusya, Meela (rare)|
|София||Sofia, Sofya (f)||Соня||Sonya|
|Валентин / Валентина||Valentin (m) / Valentina (f)||Валя||Valya|
|Владимир||Vladimir (m)||Вова, Володя||Vova, Volodya|
|Елена||Yelena (f)||Лена, Алёна||Lena, Alyona|
|Евгений / Евгения||Evgeniy (m) / Evgeniya (f)||Женя||Zhenya|
There are diminutive forms as well. They differ with short forms in the sense that they are not emotionally sterile, they express some attitude (for example, tenderness, or disregarding, or being "one of the lads" etc. dependently on context and linguistic tools used). Diminutive forms are formed basing on the short form of name, not on the full form of the first name. The typical linguistic tool for emphasizing the tenderness to recipient are suffixes -еньк- (-yenk-), -оньк- (-onk-), -ечк- (-yechk-), -ушк (-ushk). The analogue in German are suffixes -chen and -lein. Some examples of diminutive forms are below.
|Full form of first name (Cyrillic typing)||Full form of first name (Latin typing)||Short form (Cyrillic typing)||Short form (Latin typing)||Diminutive form (Cyrillic typing)||Diminutive form (Latin typing)|
Colloquial diminutives formed by adding the -к- ("-k-") suffix are usually derived from short forms. In Russian, such variants dependently on context may be perceived as the feature of familiar communication or (rare) arrogant or slighting attitude. Some example of Colloquial diminutives are stated below.
|Full form of first name (Cyrillic typing)||Full form of first name (Latin typing)||Short form (Cyrillic typing)||Short form (Latin typing)||Colloquial diminutive form (Cyrillic typing)||Colloquial diminutive form (Latin typing)|
Slang forms distinguished by some linguists are in fact the particularities of colloquial diminutives. The emotion they transfer is the familiarity as well; being "one of the guys". Their specialities are that they are applicable with male names only, use the another suffixes -ян (-yan) or -он (-on). But the cornerstone which makes some linguists to distinguish them is their derivation from prison slang during the Soviet era and strong integration into vernacular speech during 1990s. The last fact may be considered as about the dark times of the East Slavonic society during the transitional crisis and the role of language as "the social mirror". These forms of names are seems to be normal for now anyway, and their origins are not obvious for the typical speaker of any East Slavonic language. They are used be teenagers broadly now. Some examples of them are stated below.
|Full form of first name (Cyrillic typing)||Full form of first name (Latin typing)||Short form (Cyrillic typing)||Short form (Latin typing)||Slang form (Cyrillic typing)||Slang form (Latin typing)|
Given names derivation in Early Soviet Union
During the days of revolutionary enthusiasm, as part of the campaign to get rid of bourgeois culture there was a drive to invent new, revolutionary names. This produced a large number of Soviet people with bizarre names. Commonly the source were initialisms.
|Name (Cyrillic typing)||Name transliteration (Latin typing)||Origin||Comments|
|Даздрапертрак||Dazdrapertrak||Да здравствует первый трактор! (Da zdravstvuet pervy traktor!)||Means "Hail, the first tractor!". Long and dissonant name for a speaker of East European language|
|Даздраперма||Dazdraperma||Да здравствует первое мая! (Da zdravstvuet pervoye maya!)||Means "Hail, the May day!". Long and dissonant name for a speaker of East European language|
|Вил, Вилен, Владлен, Владлена||Vil, Vilen, Vladlen (m) / Vladlene (f)||Владимир Ильич Ленин (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin)||-|
|Мэл||Mel||Маркс, Энгельс и Ленин (Markx, Engels and Lenin)||-|
|Баррикада||Barricade||-||Refers to the revolutionary activity|
|Ревмир, Ревмира||Revmir (m) / Revmira (f)||Революция мира (Revolyutsiya mira)||Means "The revolution of the World"|
|Гертруда||Gertrude||Герой труда (Geroy truda)||Means "The Hero of Labour"|
|Марлен||Marlene||Маркс и Ленин (Marx and Lenin)||-|
|Стэн||Stan||Сталин и Энгельс(Stalin and Engels)||-|
|Ким||Kim||Коммунистический интернационал молодёжи (Kommunistichesky Internatsional Molodyozhi)||Youth Communist International|
The common trend is that names like mentioned above are rare for now and sound bizarre for an Eastern Slavonic language speaker. They are tattoed upon the language which can be considered as social mirror reflecting the evidences of the processes in the East Slavonic society during the Early Soviet Era. People with dissonant names were the subjects of mockery which frequently made them change given names.
The patronymic of a person is based on the first name of the father and is written in all legal and identity documents. Respectively, the meaning of patronymic is "the child of ...". If used with the first name, the patronymic always follows it.
The patronymic is formed with the help of name of father and suffixes. The suffix -ович (-ovich) is used for son, suffix -овна (-ovna) - for daughter. For example, if the father's name was Иван (Ivan), then the patronymic will be Иванович (Ivanovich) for a son, and Ивановна (Ivanovna) for a daughter. The common rule may be complemented with fine points which are to be considered as the exceptions because of the effect of comprehensive East-Slavonic language system:
- if the suffix is being appended to a name ending in [[й]] ("y") or a soft consonant, the initial o in the suffixes -ович (-ovich) and -овна (-ovna) becomes a е ("ye"), and the suffixes transform themselves into -евич (-yevich) and -евна (-yevna). For example, if the father was Дмитрий (Dmitry), then the patronymic will be Дмитриевич (Dmitrievich) for a son and Дмитриевна (Dmitrievna) for a daughter, but not Дмитрович (Dmitrovich) or Дмитровна(Dmitrovna), because the name Дмитрий (Dmitry) ends on "й" ("y");
- names ending with -слав (-slav) derive patronyms with suffix -вович (-vovich) to avoid double в ("v") in suffix. For example, if the father was Владислав (Vladislav) then the patronym will be Владиславович (Vladislavovich) for a son, and Владиславовна (Vladislavovna) for a daughter;
- the patronymic for Илья (Ilya) is always Ильич (Ilyich), not Ильевич (Ilyevich) for a son, and Ильинична (Ilyinichna) for a daughter;
- the patronymic for Яков (Yakov) is Яковлевич (Yakovlevich, male) or Яковлевна (Yakovlevna, female).
- in the Ukrainian language the female patronymic is more likely to end with -iвна (-ivna) rather than -евна (-evna).
The things described above may be considered by the particular examples below:
|Father's name (Cyrillic typing)||Father's name (Latin typing)||Patronym for son (Cyrillic typing)||Patronym for son (Latin typing)||Patronym for daughter (Cyrillic typing)||Patronym for daughter (Latin typing)|
Patronyms are the old phenomenon in Russian society; the first reference could be found among the charts of the year 945. But patronyms were not of intensive usage until the 19th century. Originally patronyms were the feature of the royal dynasty (Рюриковичи, Ruerikovichi, Rurikids), that makes the Russian patronym in its original meaning being similar to German von. As from the 17th century, the second name with suffix -ович (-ovich) was the privilege given by tsar to commoners. For example, in 1610, tsar Vasili IV gave to the Stroganovs who were merchants the privilege to use patronyms. As the tribute for developing of salt industry in Siberia he let Pyotr Stroganov and all his issue to have and write the name with -ovich. The tsar wrote in the chart dated by May 29, literally: "... to write him with ovich, to try [him] in Moscow only, not to fee [him] by other fees, not to kiss a cross by himself [what means not to swear during any processions]" In the 18th century, Stroganovs were the only family of merchants who had patronyms. During the 19th century, patronyms were spread to commoners.
The full analogue of the East Slavonic patronyms building system in its general device can be found in the modern Iceland (except matronyms are used there as well). In the modern Icelandic variant, the suffix -sson plays the role of the suffix -ович (-ovich), and the suffix -dottir plays the role of the suffix -овна (-ovna). That similarity may be explained by the fact that Russian concept of patronyms was borrowed from Scandinavian culture.
Everyone in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus is supposed to have three names. Foreigners who adopt Russian citizenship are able not to have the patronym or to have it. Nowadays, an adult person is entitled to legally change their patronymic if necessary at any reason, for instance in order to alienate from the biological father (or show respect for the adopted one) as well as to decide the same for their underage child.
Family name (surname)
Family names generally function in the same manner that English family names do.
Derivation and meaning
Eastern-Slavonic languages being rather synthetic languages than analytic languages use special linguistic tools to make a surname. In Russian, these are suffixes -ов (-ov), -ев (-yev) or -ский (-sky) meaning "belonging to". For example Медведев (Medvedev) conveys (but not equal to) belonging to bear, Разумовский (Razumovsky) conveys (but not equal to) belonging to mind etc. Ukrainian and Belorussian languages use another suffixes which convey the same sense; generally these are suffixes -ко (-ko), -ук (-uk), and -ич (-ych). For example the sense of the surname Писаренко (Pisarenko) conveys (but not equal to) belonging to scribe, Ковальчук (Kovalchuk) - belonging to smith etc.
The general cases are described above, but sometimes the special models are used to make a surname. For example the surname Лебедь (Lebed') being pure Slavonic means literally "swan" and lost its possessive sense.
Double surnames like Иванов-Петров (Ivanov-Petrov) are allowed as well; they are rare although.
Eastern Slavonic languages are synthetic languages. The feature of the last are grammar cases and grammar gender. Unlike analytic languages which use prepositions (like "to", "at", "on" etc. in English) to convey the links and relations between words in a sentence, suffixes are used much more broadly rather than prepositions. It means that it is required to change the word with the help of some suffix to integrate it into the sentence and to built a grammatically correct sentence. Names are not the exceptions (in contradistinction to the German language which uses grammar cases and grammar genders too, but makes the exception to names what means its less synthetical structure). Family names are declined basing on the Slavonic case system.
As with all Slavic adjectives, family names have different forms depending on gender — for example, the wife of Борис Ельцин (Boris Yel'tsin) is Наина Ельцина (Naina Yel'tsina). The only surnames with neutral grammatical gender are non-changing (surnames which ends on -енко (-yenko) for example).
Note that this change of grammatical gender is not considered to be changing the name received from a woman's father or husband (compare the equivalent rule in Czech or Polish). The correct transliteration of such feminine names in English is debated: sometimes women's names are given in their original form, sometimes in the masculine form (technically incorrect).
Let's consider the phenomenon described above using the example of Иванов (Ivanov), a surname:
|Grammar case||Example of question||Masculine form, Cyrillic typing||Masculine form, Latin typing||Feminine form, Cyrillic typing||Feminine form, Latin typing|
|Genitive||[to born] Whom?||Иванова||Ivanova||Иванову||Ivanovu|
- family names are generally inherited from one's parents. On marriage, women usually adopt the surname of their husband (as with English names), or (very rarely) vice versa; both choices are voluntary;
- in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries -off was a common transliteration of -ov when spelling Russian surnames in foreign languages such as French (e.g., the Smirnoff brand or the Davidoff brand).
Germanization of East Slavonic names
When translating Russian-styled names into English, the patronymic is not equivalent to an English middle name. The exponential example of comparability of second name with East Slavonic patronym sketches us Tom Clancy in his book, The Hunt for Red October. The character called Sergey Golovko calls his American counterpart, John Patrick Ryan, "Ivan Emmetovich," because his father was Emmet Ryan: as an Irish-American, Ryan had not had a patronymic before.
While translating into English, the patronymic can be omitted (e.g. Vladimir Putin or V. Putin); both the first name and the patronymic can be written out in full (Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin); or both the first name and the patronymic can be abbreviated (V. V. Putin). The variants like "Vladimir V. Putin" may be considered as suitable as well.
Slavicization of foreign names with no patronyms
Accordingly the law, foreign persons who adopt Russian citizenship may have patronymic or not to have it. Hence, there are non-Slavonic patronymics as well. For example, Irina Hakamada, a Russian politician whose father was Japanese, has a patronymic Муцуовна (Mutsuovna) since her father's first name was Mutsuo. The ethnicity of origin generally remains recognizable in russified names.
Bruno Pontecorvo, after he emigrated to the USSR, was known as Бруно Максимович Понтекорво (Bruno Maximovich Pontekorvo) in the Russian scientific community, because his father's given name was Massimo (corresponding to Russian Максим (Maksim)). Pontecorvo's sons have been known by names Джиль Брунович Понтекорво (Jil' Brunovich Pontecorvo), Антонио Брунович Понтекорво (Antonio Brunovich Pontecorvo) and Тито Брунович Понтекорво (Tito Brunovich Pontekorvo).
Vic Ivan Wild, the olympic champion on slalom who adopted Russian citizenship beside the USA citizenship has the slavicazed form of his name as Виктор Иванович Уайлд (Viktor Ivanovich Wild) since he made his second name being patronymic.
Such conversion of foreign names is unofficial and optional in many cases of communication and translation.
Slavicization of foreign names with patronyms of other forms
Some Turkic languages also use patronymics, formed using the Turkic word meaning 'son' or 'daughter'. These languages were official in the countries which were in Russian Empire firstly and USSR later caused the necessity to sort these patronyms with Slavonic patronyms. Let's consider the way of that issue resolving.
For example, Kazakh ұлы (ûlı; transcribed into English as -ulı, as in Nursultan Äbishulı Nazarbayev) or Azeri оглы/оғлу (oğlu) (as in Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev); Kazakh қызы (transcribed into English as -qyzy, as in Dariga Nursultanqyzy Nazarbayeva). Such kinds of patronymic for Turkic peoples were officially allowed in the Soviet times.
Some surnames in those languages have been russified since the 19th century and remain so; e.g. the surname of Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev has a Russian "-yev" suffix, which literally means "of Nazar-bay" (where "bay" is a Turkic native noble rank – compare Turkish "bey", Uzbek "beg", and Kyrghyz "bek"). This surname russification practice is not common, varying greatly by country.
Some ethnic groups use more than one name, one official, another unofficial. Official names are made with Russian patronymics, unofficial names are noble or tribal names, which were prohibited after the revolution. After the fall of the Soviet Union, some people returned to using these tribal or noble names as surnames (e.g. Sarah Naiman — a Kazakhstan singer, whose surname means that she is from Naimans). Some Muslim people changed their surnames to an Arabic style (e.g. Tungyshbay Zhamankulov — famous Kazakhstan actor who often plays role of Khans in movies, changed his name to Tungyshbay al-Tarazy).
Forms of address
The common rules are the further:
- the full three-name form (for instance, Иван Иванович Петров, Ivan Ivanovich Petrov) is used in official documents only. Everyone in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus is supposed to have three names;
- the form "first name + patronymic" (for instance, Иван Иванович, Ivan Ivanovich):
- is the feature of official communication (for instance, students in schools and universities call their teachers in the form of "first name + patronymic" only);
- may convey the speaker's respect for the recipient. Historically patronymic was the feature of the royal dynasty only (Рюриковичи, Ruerikovichi), that's why traditionally the form "name + patronymic" convey the respect. That custom is remained to some degree (for example, younger people may call older people "first name + patronymic"), but that's not such a persistent nowadays anyway.
- the surname only (Петров, Petrov) is used in formal communications, but much more rare. There's some trend in informal Russian to call a recipient with his/her surname expressing the irony as well;
- for informal communication two names are usually omitted and only the first name is used (for instance, Иван, Ivan).
The choice of addressing format is closely linked to the choice of second-person pronoun. Russian language distinguishes between:
- informal ты (ty, "you");
- formal вы (vy, "you"). Respectful Вы ("Vy", "You") may be capitalized, while plural вы ("vy", "you") is not.
Вы ("Vy") also being the plural of both forms, used to address a pair or group. Historically that feature was borrowed from German during the Peter the Great age (the full analogue is German addressing format "du - Sie".) Excluding the usage of patronymics, forms of address in Russian are very similar to the English ones. Fine detailes of stated above are considered below.
Let's consider the forms of addressing with ты (ty, "you") by the particular example. For example, some speaker contacts his counterpart Елена Ивановна Петрова (Yelena Ivanovna Petrova) and ask her:
|Придёшь ли ТЫ сегодня, ...|
|Will you come today, ...|
|Form of name||Name (Latin typing)||Format||Comments|
|..., Леночка?||..., Lenochka?||Diminutive form||conveys the tender attitude. The speaker cares about Елена (Yelena)|
|..., Ленка?||..., Lenka?||Colloquial diminutives form||the feature of familiarity; Елена (Yelena) is a friend of the speaker|
|..., Лена?||..., Lena?||Short form||conveys no emotions. The routine appeal to Елена (Yelena) in informal communications|
|..., Елена?||..., Yelena?||Full form||conveys no emotions. The speaker and Елена (Yelena) are a little bit more distant from each other as the speaker uses the full form of her name, but not such a distant formal communication as the speaker uses the informal form ты (ty, "you") (not formal вы (vy, "You").|
|..., Ивановна?||..., Ivanovna?||Patronym||conveys close relationships and the kind of joke. The speaker and Елена (Yelena) are probably good friends|
|..., Петрова?||..., Petrova?||Surname||may convey a familiarity and kind of joke or slight dependently on other conditions. The speaker uses Елена's (Yelena's) surname, that is some feature of formal communication, but the respectful pronoun вы (vy, "You") is required then. The last is rejected by the speaker, hence, the emotions he conveys depend on other conditions of the conversation|
Let's consider the examples of addressing formats with using of pronoun вы (vy, "You") in the conditions of the previous example. It will be formal communication always.
|Приедете ли ВЫ сегодня, ...|
|Will You come today, ...|
|Form of name||Name (Latin typing)||Format||Comments|
|..., Елена?||..., Yelena?||Full form||this form emerged in the last 20 years due to Western influence; it is now gradually superseding the next one, especially in business practice English analogue for Ronald Reagan: Ronald.|
|..., Елена Ивановна?||..., Yelena Ivanovna?||Full form + Patronym||the example of using may be the fact that students in schools and universities use this form for communication with their teachers. Sometimes it could be applied by a younger speaker to an older recipient to convey some kind of respect|
|..., Петрова?||..., Petrova?||Short form||respectively rarely used. Underlines the formality without any emphasis to respect|
|..., госпожа Петрова?||..., gospozha [i.e. Ms] Petrova?||prefix + Surname||respectively rarely used because of negative connotations of alike prefixes in Soviet period (as it means master / mistress or lord / lady). The emotions conveying are the same as in English (respect)|
We'll consider the cases of using the adjectives before names by the example or Russian language of Eastern Slavonic group. Other Eastern Slavonic languages use the same adjectives of their literal translation, if they differ from Russian analogue. All the Eastern Slavonic languages are synthetic languages so the grammar genders are used what implies that the suffix of an adjective varies dependently on the sex of a the recipient.
In Russian, adjectives before name are generally restricted to written forms of communication. Adjectives like Любимый / Любимая (lyubimiy / lyubimaya, "beloved") and Милый / Милая (miliy / milaya, "sweetheart") are informal, while Уважаемый / Уважаемая (uvazhayemiy / uvazhayemaya, literally "respected") is highly formal. Some adjectives, like Дорогой / Дорогая (dorogoy / dorogaya, "dear"), can be used in both formal and informal letters.
- List of surnames in Russia
- Romanization of Russian
- Russian personal name
- Slavic names
- Slavic surnames
- Ukrainian name
- "Сеть кинотеатров сети Киномакс" [Everybody Dies But Me]. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- писать его с вичем, судить только в Москве, излишних пошлин с товаров не брать, креста самому не целовать. Собр. Гос. Грам. II, № 196.
- Federal Law of the Russian Federation on Acts of Civil Statements, Clauses: 58, 59.
- Family Code of Russian Federation. pp. Clause 18.4 "A child's patronym is formed from father's name if the opposite is not based on the national cusom".
- М.А. Кронгауз (March 2001). "Новое в речевом этикете" (in Russian). Русский язык. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
Further reading (in Russian)
- Балановская Е. В., Соловьева Д. С., Балановский О. П. и др. «Фамильные портреты» пяти русских регионов / Медицинская генетика. 2005.№ 1. С. 2–10.
- Таблицы и рисунки к статье «Фамильные портреты» пяти русских регионов
- Подробный популярный пересказ Report in the journal «Химия и жизнь»
- Article in «Коммерсантъ ВЛАСТЬ» № 38 от 26 сентября 2005 г. и реакция на нее авторов работы.
- Article in «Коммерсантъ ВЛАСТЬ»Лицо русской национальности. 38 (641) (Власть ed.). 2005. pp. 54–60.
- Paul Goldschmidt's Dictionary of Russian Names; discussion of patronymics; also interesting historical exceptions to the current pattern