Basildon Town Centre

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Basildon Town Centre in Basildon, Essex, is a planned town centre developed during the town's creation in the 1950s. The architect Sir Basil Spence worked on its design.

The St Martin's Belltower in Basildon Town Centre was official opened by Queen Elizabeth II[1] and is claimed to be 'the world’s first and only glass bell tower'.[2]

History[edit]

Basildon was one of England's first post WW2 new towns: it was officially named a new town in 1949, under the New Towns Act, with the first house constructed in 1951.[3] A large illuminated sign stood next to the railway line stating "This is the site of Basildon Town Centre" from 1956, with the first shops in Basildon Town Centre opening to the public in 1958.[4] Initially only the Town Square (south side), Market Square & Pavement and half of East Walk were opened with several business based in portacabins (Barclays Bank for one). By 1959 the north side of Town Square was opened along with South Walk, followed by the second phase of East Walk in 1961. Block S which closed the west end of Town Square was completed in 1971.

By 1971 Basildon Town Centre comprised 70 acres (280,000 m2) and 205 stores of all sizes totalling 1,100,000 sq ft (100,000 m2) of retail space. It was one of the largest pedestrian precincts in Britain, with entertainment and leisure facilities, an open-air market, car parking for 5,000 vehicles and bus and railway stations. Its anchor stores were London Co-operative Society, Taylors department store, Littlewoods and Marks & Spencers.

However by the mid-1970s, shopping and commercial facilities had not kept pace with an expanding population and increased visitors. A decision was therefore taken by Basildon Development Corporation to dedicate more space to better shopping facilities to give Basildon added status as a major town centre for retailers leading to the building of the Eastgate Centre.[5]

Eastgate development[edit]

Entrance to Eastgate from Basildon Town Square.

During the 1980s the Eastgate International Shopping Centre (informally Eastgate) was built in two phases. At the time it was the largest indoor shopping centre in Europe and brought 2,000 jobs to the area.[6] Eastgate Shopping Centre was opened in stages between 1980 and 1985. The first phase opened in 1980 with the first store to open being SavaCentre. The first phase included the shop units on the former road Nether Priors (units 1-5 the original structures can be seen at the rear in the delivery bay) onto which Eastgate phase 1 was built. Phase 2 of development was started in 1982 by J Laing [7] and was completed in 1985 on the site of the Southernhay car park. The centre was officially opened to much acclaim by Prince Edward, with the anchor store being Allders department store. The original owner of Eastgate was Norwich Union who moved into offices on the site shortly after it opened. Today, Eastgate is owned by InfraRed Capital Partners. Today Eastgate pulls in over 1 million visitors a month.[8]

Eastgate has undergone a number of facelifts since 1985. Its most recent substantial refurbishment was in 2007, at a cost of more than £10m, which included the opening of new toilets and baby care facilities, and replacing lifts, lighting, escalators, floors and fascias, plus a completely redesigned Food Terrace area with expanded seating for around 50% more covers. In 2012 Eastgate's multi story car park underwent a major refurbishment including new lighting, bigger parking spaces, new tarmac and a new paint scheme.[9] The centre has over 2000 car parking spaces, a third of the town centre's 6000 spaces. Eastgate anchor stores are now Debenhams (opened 2005) and Asda (opened 2002).

Eastgate owners, Infared Capital partners announced in November 2014 that they planned to redevelop the Galleries and upper levels of the shopping centre into a £15 million 15 screen cinema with a scheduled completion date of 2017.[10]

Transportation[edit]

Basildon Bus Station was opened on its current site Southernhay in 1958 although it only was a double parallel island arrangement and South Walk shops had not yet been developed. In 1966 a new "Saw tooth" arrangement was added fronting onto the South Walk Shops. With the completion of Eastgate in 1985, the Bus Station had a new closed in weatherproof facia added which is still in place today.[11] Since 1990 a Taxi rank has been operational with the Bus Station.

Basildon Train Station is on the c2c line and opened in 1974. It was refurbished in both the 1990s and 2000s.[12]

The Town centre currently has 10 operational car parks that can hold more than 6000 cars. All car parks charge fees Monday to Saturday but Sunday is currently free.[13]

Features[edit]

The Mother and Child fountain in Basildon Town Centre.

Located on the ground floor of Eastgate is a plaque commemorating the opening with a time capsule. A copy of the Evening Echo of the day it opened is thought to be inside.[14]

On the Upper level of Eastgate is the Cats Cradle Pussiwillow III Clock. It was created by Rowland Emett in 1981. and was originally placed outside what is now ASDA on the Lower Mall of the shopping centre.[15] It was officially unveiled by Michael Bentine.

The clock is one of a number of notable Basildon works of contemporary art. The Mother and Child statue in the Town Square was created by Maurice Lambert and is Grade II listed.[16] It was commissioned in 1959 to symbolise the growth of Basildon as a New Town. Above the Bus Station, just outside Eastgate, is a 315 ft (96 m) x 13 ft (4.0 m) mosaic of 16,000 individual tiles created by the artist John Gordon in the 1960s. On a wall of Freedom House in East Walk is the oldest piece of public sculpture in the new town: installed in 1957, it is a wire and aluminium relief by the sculptor A. J. Poole titled "Man Aspires".

Slightly further away from the shopping centre stands St. Martin's Bell Tower, a glass tower, unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II on 12 March 1999.[17]

Community radio[edit]

Gateway 97.8 FM logo

In December 2003 and December 2004 a radio station, Eastgate FM, was launched on a 28-day restricted-service license (RSL). The station broadcast during the run up to Christmas. A previous incarnation of Eastgate FM broadcast in June 1999.[citation needed]

These were the forerunners of a community radio project and since 2007 Eastgate has sponsored and hosted Gateway 97.8 (formally Gateway FM) which broadcasts from a shop studio unit in the Upper Galleries with other facilities dotted around the community.[citation needed]

Gateway won a full-time community licence for the area to broadcast for five years from 25 September 2010 on 97.8FM, and provides media and broadcasting training for the community from its Eastgate home. Gateway was declared a winner of Prime Minister David Cameron's Big Society Awards for outstanding community work in December 2011 and in 2012 The Queen gave Gateway the Queens award for voluntary service the MBE for groups.[citation needed]

Westgate development[edit]

The most recent development to the Town Centre was the Westgate development (officially known as the Westgate Park Shopping Centre) which was built during 1998-1999.[18] Westgate is an open air development of 10 large units and with parking on multiple levels. This was built on the site of Basildon Council's former temporary residence, which they had moved out of in the 1990s into the newly constructed Basildon Centre, and the site of the original Towngate Theatre (formerly The Arts Centre closed 1988). It had originally been planned to be called the Fodderwick Shopping Park.

Regeneration[edit]

Freedom House (pictured) is one of several areas of Basildon Town Centre subject to regeneration proposals.

In the 1990s Basildon Council planned a regeneration of the Town Square and the former home of the council offices. Westgate, listed above, was developed onto the former council office site. In the town square, the 1960s town clock was removed, as was the escalators up to High Pavement (replaced initially by a temporary staircase, now a permanent structure containing stairs and lifts). Also removed was part of Keay House, what is now called Southgate House, which had jutted out into the Town Square. The town square was re-paved and the building of two retail pavilions, now operated by Toni & Guy and Costa, were completed in 1998.

The late 2000s downturn in the global economy negatively impacted on Basildon Town Centre and a 2013 survey found 31 empty retail units with retailers including KFC, McDonald's[19] Pizza Hut, Adams and Peacocks leaving the Town Centre.[20] As a result of a period characterized as a "rapid decline" by developers CZWG[21] £1bn regeneration proposals were announced by Basildon Council in 2012. The proposals include the creation of a cinema, the creation of between 1,500 and 2,000 homes, a 150 room hotel and a college for up to 2,000 students.[22] So far the only development given planning permission is the building of the new South Essex College campus on current site of Basildon market, which is due to open in 2015-16.[23] Basildon Market has been earmarked to move to St Martins Square.[24]

In 2013, SEEVIC announced that they would be opening New Campus Basildon Studio School, which would be temporary housed in their facility in the ICON building but will transfer in September 2014 into Northgate House.[25]

There are ongoing attempts to sell Trafford House a building that was used by Ford Motor Company up until 2005 but which has been vacant for almost a decade.[26] Developers were given planning permission in 2014 to turn the building into flats.[27] Another vacant building, The Aviva Building, has been vacant since 2008 when the insurance company laid off staff. Proposals to turn this building into flats was rejected in 2013.[28]

Leisure[edit]

The town centre was formally home of numerous leisure facilities but this has dwindled since the opening of Festival Leisure Park. In 1971, ABC opened a two screen cinema, but this closed in 1999[29] and has been converted into a unit for the British Heart Foundation and Flats. In 1962 its first bowling alley opened on Southernhay, but this was cut in half in 1975 when part of it was converted to a bingo hall, and in 1985 this was converted fully to a bingo hall and is now home to Gala Bingo. Since the 1990s Basildon Bowl has been located in Northgate House on High Pavement. From 1961 to 1998 a nightclub (last known as Racquels) was based on Market Pavement in Blenheim House (this was a Rileys snooker club until Dec 2014), while between 1971-1988 Sweeneys Discothèque was at High Pavement (now Palmers Solicitors).[30] The only nightclub in the town centre is now Colors, a gay focused nightclub[31] above the Beehive Pub. The only other pub in the Town Centre is The Moon on the Square. There had formerly been public houses on High Pavement and Fodderwick.

Eastgate owners, Infrared Capital Partners announced in November 2014 to convert part of the shopping centre into a £15 million 15 screen cinema to open in 2017.

Architectural Significance[edit]

Brooke House, showing its v-shaped pylons

The largest structure in the new town's town centre is Brooke House, a 14-story residential tower block that fronts the west side of the town centre's East Square. Dating from 1962, it was designed by Sir Basil Spence and Anthony B Davies, with Ove Arup and Partners as the structural engineers.[32][33] It has a 1960s Brutalist design, elevated on 8 massive V-shaped concrete pylons. The building was chosen to have a residential function, as opposed to commercial office space, to retain life in the town centre after the shops had closed. Shops were positioned to the rear of the building, with Brooke House acting as a covered forecourt. It was conceived as a structure to define Basildon's urban status and to act as marker to identify the Town Centre's location within a largely low-rise settlement set in a flat landscape.[34] It was named after the then Minister of Housing and Local Government, Henry Brooke MP.[citation needed]

East of Brooke House is East Square, a sunken open-air public plaza accessed from Brooke House by a monumental staircase and a curved ramp. The east side of the square is fronted by Freedom House, containing shops on two levels, and the north side by the Post Office building, a 5-story structure. On a wall of Freedom House is the oldest piece of public sculpture in the new town: installed in 1957, it is a wire and aluminium relief by the sculptor A. J. Poole titled "Man Aspires".[35][36] The whole ensemble was designed to create a formal setting for Brooke House, and has a similar Brutalist design, though softened by other architectural features. The Town Centre extends from East Square towards the southwest. Down the middle of this zone runs a rectangular raised pool. Within the pool is a bronze sculpture and fountain, titled "Mother and Child", by the sculptor Maurice Lambert and dating from 1959.[37]

Sections of Basildon Town Centre, including Brooke House[38] and the raised pool,[39] are Grade II listed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.stmartinsbasildon.co.uk/bell-tower/
  2. ^ http://www.basildon.gov.uk/CHttpHandler.ashx?id=5651&p=0
  3. ^ Pete May, "The Joy of Essex". 2012.
  4. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/basildon/btc.html
  5. ^ Basildon New Town Corporation Report 15/10/1977
  6. ^ Spence, S. (2011) Just Can't Get Enough: The Making of Depeche Mode, (Google eBook) [1]
  7. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/chronology/19801989.html
  8. ^ http://www.eastgateshoppingcentre.com/leasing/
  9. ^ http://www.eastgateshoppingcentre.com/leasing/
  10. ^ "New 15-screen cinema coming to Basildon - Evening Echo p.26 Nov 2014". 
  11. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/buses/buses1.html
  12. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/railway/brs.html
  13. ^ http://www.basildon.gov.uk/article/1139/Car-Parks-in-Basildon-Town-Centre
  14. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/chronology/19801989.html
  15. ^ https://www.flickr.com/photos/essexrunner/4907817938/
  16. ^ "Mother and child to get makeover - Evening Echo p.1 Aug 2009". Retrieved 15 Dec 2014. 
  17. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/churches/smot.html
  18. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/basildon/btc.html
  19. ^ http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/10485306.McDonald_s_closes_in_Basildon_Town_Centre/?ref=ar
  20. ^ http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/10543480.Town_has_shut_up_shop___Basildon_traders_claim_they_are_cripped_by_high_rents_and_rates/
  21. ^ http://www.czwg.com/works/basildon-town-centre-masterplan
  22. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-essex-16598704
  23. ^ http://www.southessex.ac.uk/article/south-essex-college%E2%80%99s-new-town-centre-campus-basildon-a-step-closer-reality
  24. ^ http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/local_news/11025273.Town_centre_market_move_to_kickstart_Basildon_regeneration/
  25. ^ http://www.ncbstudioschool.org.uk/media/12061/NCB-Studio-School-Education-Plan.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/11025207.New_pictures_show_how_Basildon_s_Trafford_House_could_be_transformed_if_it_is_sold/
  27. ^ http://www.echo-news.co.uk/news/11092608.Iconic_Basildon_tower_block_to_finally_be_sold_/
  28. ^ http://www.basildonrecorder.co.uk/news/10632812.Plans_to_turn_tower_block_to_flats_rejected/?ref=rss
  29. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/basildon/btcscac7.html
  30. ^ http://www.basildon.com/history/basildon/btcscac10.html
  31. ^ http://www.essexclubbing.co.uk/view/club/colors
  32. ^ English Heritage, listing information for Brooke House
  33. ^ http://www.ribapix.com/index.php?a=indexes&s=item&key=IYToxOntpOjA7czo3OiJQaWxvdGlzIjt9&pg=137
  34. ^ Jennie Humphrey, "Basildon Town Centre Heritage Assessment", 2012
  35. ^ "Our Basildon, exploring past, present and future, heritage trail", http://www.visitessex.com/discover/cultural/Basildon_Heritage_Trail.aspx
  36. ^ George Thorpe, "Treble Clef's 54-year secret solved at last", The Echo, 5 January 2011. [2]
  37. ^ Jennie Humphrey, "Basildon Town Centre Heritage Assessment", 2012
  38. ^ Maev Kennedy, "Oxford, Edinburgh, York ... and Basildon? New town paves way for heritage trail" The Guardian, 2 June 2008.[3]
  39. ^ English Heritage, listing information

External links[edit]

  • 1960s photographs of Basildon Town Centre, Francis Firth collection: [4]
  • Photographs of Basildon Town Centre, Courtauld Institute of Art collection: [5]