Eating disorder not otherwise specified
|Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)|
|Classification and external resources|
Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is an eating disorder that does not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Individuals with EDNOS usually fall into one of three groups: sub-threshold symptoms of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, mixed features of both disorders, or extremely atypical eating behaviors that are not characterized by either of the other established disorders.
More people are diagnosed with EDNOS than anorexia and bulimia combined.[medical citation needed] The symptoms and behaviors of people with EDNOS are similar to those with anorexia and bulimia. People with EDNOS can face the same dangerous risk as people with anorexia and bulimia.
Research is required into how many of these "residual" EDNOS diagnoses were eventually replaced by that of a recognized medical condition, whether psychologically or organically caused. While all organic causes should be ruled out prior to making a diagnosis of an eating disorder, it is difficult to diagnose people with eating disorders due to different factors.
Rather than providing specific diagnostic criteria for EDNOS, the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) listed six non-exhaustive example presentations, including individuals who:
- Meet all criteria for anorexia nervosa except their weight falls within the normal range
- Meet all criteria for bulimia nervosa except they engage in binge eating or purging behaviors less than twice per week or for fewer than three months
- Purge after eating small amounts of food while retaining a normal body weight
- Repeatedly chew and spit out large amounts of food without swallowing
- Meet criteria for binge eating disorder
Despite its subclinical status in DSM-IV, available data suggest that EDNOS is no less severe than the officially recognized DSM-IV eating disorders. In a comprehensive meta-analysis of 125 studies, individuals with EDNOS exhibited similar levels of eating pathology and general psychopathology to those with anorexia nervosa and binge eating disorder, and similar levels of physical health problems as those with anorexia nervosa. Although individuals with bulimia nervosa scored significantly higher than those with EDNOS on measures of eating pathology and general psychopathology, EDNOS exhibited more physical health problems than bulimia nervosa.
The three general categories for an EDNOS diagnosis are subthreshold symptoms of anorexia or bulimia, a mixture of both anorexia or bulimia, and eating behaviors that are not particularized by anorexia and bulimia. Thus, these symptoms describe a person who is predominantly likely to develop, or recover from, anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The symptoms an individual undergoes depends on the phase of the disorder the individual is in.[medical citation needed]
Although EDNOS (formerly called atypical eating disorder) was originally introduced in DSM-III to capture unusual cases, it is the most commonly diagnosed eating disorder. EDNOS was found to have a higher prevalence than other eating disorders.[medical citation needed] Specifically, EDNOS accounts for up to 60% of cases in eating disorder specialty clinics. EDNOS is an especially prevalent category in populations that have received inadequate research attention such as young children, males, ethnic minorities, and non-Western groups.
- Fairburn CG, Bohn K (June 2005). "Eating disorder NOS (EDNOS): an example of the troublesome "not otherwise specified" (NOS) category in DSM-IV". Behav Res Ther 43 (6): 691–701. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.06.011. PMC 2785872. PMID 15890163.
- "Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)". National Alliance of Mental Illness. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- Thomas JJ, Vartanian LR, Brownell KD (May 2009). "The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: meta-analysis and implications for DSM". Psychol Bull 135 (3): 407–33. doi:10.1037/a0015326. PMC 2847852. PMID 19379023.
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.[page needed]
- Becker AE, Thomas JJ, Pike KM (November 2009). "Should non-fat-phobic anorexia nervosa be included in DSM-V?". Int J Eat Disord 42 (7): 620–35. doi:10.1002/eat.20727. PMID 19655370.