Martin was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives from South Dakota and served from March 4, 1901 to March 3, 1907. He decided to run for the United States Senate from South Dakota in 1906 instead of running for re-election to the House but failed in his bid for election. After the death of William H. Parker, Martin won a special election to fill his seat in the House of Representatives and was later re-elected to three more terms, serving from November 3, 1908 to March 3, 1915. He died in Hot Springs, South Dakota.
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