The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to c. 1550 BC. Among the oldest and most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, it was purchased at Luxor (Thebes) in the winter of 1873–74 by Georg Ebers. It is currently kept at the library of the University of Leipzig, in Germany.
The papyrus was written in about 1500 BC, but it is believed to have been copied from earlier texts. The Ebers Papyrus is a 110-page scroll, which is about 20 meters long. Along with the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (c. 1800 BC), the Edwin Smith papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Hearst papyrus (c. 1600 BC), the Brugsch Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the London Medical Papyrus (c. 1300 BC), the Ebers Papyrus is among the oldest preserved medical documents. The Brugsch Papyrus provides parallel passages to the Ebers Papyrus, helping to clarify certain passages of the latter.
The Ebers Papyrus is written in hieratic Egyptian writing and preserves for us the most voluminous record of ancient Egyptian medicine known. The scroll contains some 700 magical formulas and remedies. It contains many incantations meant to turn away disease-causing demons and there is also evidence of a long tradition of empirical practice and observation. The papyrus contains a "treatise on the heart". It notes that the heart is the center of the blood supply, with vessels attached for every member of the body. The Egyptians seem to have known little about the kidneys and made the heart the meeting point of a number of vessels which carried all the fluids of the body—blood, tears, urine and semen. Mental disorders are detailed in a chapter of the papyrus called the Book of Hearts. Disorders such as depression and dementia are covered. The descriptions of these disorders suggest that Egyptians conceived of mental and physical diseases in much the same way. The papyrus contains chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses and tumors, bone-setting and burns.
Examples of medical remedies
Examples of remedies in the Ebers Papyrus include:
- Recounting a "tumor against the god Xenus", it recommends "do thou nothing there against".
- Birth control
- To prevent conception, smear a paste of dates, acacia, and honey to wool and apply as a pessary.
- Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm)
- Wrap the emerging end of the worm around a stick and slowly pull it out. (3500 years later, this remains the standard treatment.)
Medicinal use of ochre clays
One of the more common remedies described in the papyrus is ochre, or medicinal clay. It is prescribed for intestinal  and eye complaints. Yellow ochre is also described as a remedy for urological complaints.
Modern history of the papyrus
Like the Edwin Smith Papyrus, the Ebers Papyrus came into the possession of Edwin Smith in 1862. The source of the papyrus is unknown, but it was said to have been found between the legs of a mummy in the Assassif district of the Theban necropolis. The papyrus remained in the collection of Edwin Smith until at least 1869 when there appeared, in the catalog of an antiquities dealer, an advertisement for "a large medical papyrus in the possession of Edwin Smith, an American farmer of Luxor." (Breasted 1930) The Papyrus was purchased in 1872 by the German Egyptologist and novelist Georg Ebers (born in Berlin, 1837), after whom it is named.
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In 1875, Ebers published a facsimile with an English-Latin vocabulary and introduction, but it was not translated until 1890, by H. Joachim. Ebers retired from his chair of Egyptology at Leipzig on a pension and the papyrus remains in the University of Leipzig library. An English translation of the papyrus was published by Paul Ghalioungui. The papyrus was published and translated by different researchers (the most valuable is German edition Grundriss der Medizin der alten Ägypter, and based on this Paul Ghalioungui edition).
- Ludwig Christian Stern (1875). Ebers G, ed. Papyros Ebers: Das hermetische Buch über die Arzeneimittel der alten Ägypter in hieratischer Schrift, herausgegeben mit Inhaltsangabe und Einleitung versehen von Georg Ebers, mit Hieroglyphisch-Lateinischem Glossar von Ludwig Stern, mit Unterstützung des Königlich Sächsischen Cultusministerium (in German) 2 (1 ed.). Leipzig: W. Englemann. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- U. S. National Medical Library at the National Institutes of Health.
- A Brief History of Birth Control, Time Magazine
- Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. "Dracunculiasis". Tropical Medicine Central Resource. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- Papyrus Ebers, 1937 translation.
- Recipes for Treating the Eyes: Papyrus Ebers
- Pommerening, Tanja, "Altägyptische Hohlmasse Metrologisch neu Interpretiert" and relevant pharmaceutical and medical knowledge, an abstract, Phillips-Universitat, Marburg, 8-11-2004, taken from "Die Altägyptsche Hohlmasse" in studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Beiheft, 10, Hamburg, Buske-Verlag, 2005
- Scholl, Reinhold, Der Papyrus Ebers. Die größte Buchrolle zur Heilkunde Altägyptens (Schriften aus der Universitätsbibliothek 7), Leipzig 2002; ISBN 3-910108-93-8.
- , 1937 translation by B. Ebbell
- 1889 German edition from the Internet Archive
- Brief note of Ebers and the papyrus
- Univ. of Leipzig's catalog description (in German), photograph[dead link]
- Indiana University: Medicine in Ancient Egypt
- The Ebers Papyrus: passages possibly related to Diabetes Mellitus (PDF file): Interlinear Transliteration and English
- The Papyrus Ebers (book)