Ruins of the outer wall and the "Damascus Gate"
|Alternate name||Tell Mardikh (Arabic: تل مرديخ)|
|Location||Idlib Governorate, Syria|
|Founded||c. 3500 BC|
|Abandoned||7th century AD|
Ebla (Arabic: إبلا, modern: Tell Mardikh تل مرديخ, Idlib Governorate, Syria) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria, located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. It was an important center throughout the third millennium BC and in the first half of the second millennium BC, its discovery in 1968 proved the Levant to be an equal center of ancient centralized civilization next to Egypt and Mesopotamia, and ruled out the view that the former two were the only important centers in the Near East during the early Bronze Age.
Starting as a small settlement in the early Bronze Age (c. 3500 BC), it developed into a trading empire and later turned into an expansionist power that imposed its hegemony over much of northern and eastern Syria. Its language, Eblaite, is now considered the earliest attested Semitic language after Akkadian. The site is most famous for the Ebla tablets, an archive of about 20,000 cuneiform tablets found there, dated to around 2350 BC.[a] Written in both Sumerian and Eblaite and using the Sumerian Cuneiform, the archive has allowed a better understanding of the Sumerian language.
Ebla was destroyed during the 23rd century BC; it was then rebuilt and was attested in the records of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The second Ebla was a continuation of the first, ruled by a new royal dynasty. It was destroyed at the end of the second millennium BC, which paved the way for the Amorite tribes to settle in the city and form the third Ebla. The third kingdom flourished again as a trade center; it became a subject and an ally to Yamhad (modern Aleppo) until its final destruction by the Hittite king Mursili I in c. 1600 BC.
Ebla maintained its prosperity through a vast trading network. Artifacts from Sumer, Cyprus, Egypt and as far as Afghanistan were recovered from the palaces of the city. The political organization of Ebla had unique features different from the Sumerian model. Women enjoyed a special status and the queen had major influence in the state and religious affairs. The pantheon of gods was mainly north Semitic and included deities exclusive to Ebla.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and organization
- 3 People, language and culture
- 4 Economy
- 5 Religion
- 6 Discovery and excavation
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
A possible explanation of the word "Ebla" is "white rock", referring to the limestone outcrop on which the city was built. Ebla was first settled around 3500 BC, and its growth was supported by many satellite agricultural settlements. The city benefited from its role as an entrepôt of growing international trade, which probably began with an increased demand for wool in Sumer. This early habitation period is designated by archaeologists Mardikh I, and ended around 3000 BC. It is followed by the first and second kingdoms era from about 3000 to 2000 BC, designated Mardikh II.
|First Eblaite Kingdom|
The first kingdom territories under the direct rule of the king, only southern vassals are shown.
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|-||Established||c. 3000 BC|
|-||Disestablished||c. 2300 BC|
|Today part of||Syria|
During the first kingdom period between about 3000 and 2300 BC, Ebla was the most prominent kingdom amongst the Syrian states, especially during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, which is known as the age of the archives after the Ebla tablets.
The early period between 3000 and 2400 BC is designated Mardikh IIA. The first part of this period is identified with buildings located on the southern slopes of the acropolis in an area designated as CC, the most important of which was building G2. The dates of the earliest kings have been estimated from king lists, and they suggest that the first royal dynasty started at the same period that G2 was built. This was apparently a royal palace built c. 2700 BC. A sequence of 21 Kings ruling in this period has been constructed.
The archive period, which is designated Mardikh IIB1, lasted from c. 2400 BC until c. 2300 BC. The end of the period is known as the "first destruction", mainly of the palace (called palace G and built over the earlier G2) and much of the acropolis. In the archive period Ebla had political and military dominance over the other Syrian city-states of northern and eastern Syria, which are mentioned in the tablets. Most of the tablets, which date from that period, are about economic matters, but they also include royal letters and diplomatic documents.
In the middle of the 25th century BC, Mari was defeated by Ebla, perhaps by King Kun-Damu, whose reign over Ebla can be dated to this period.[b] The power of Ebla then declined,[c] and during the reign of King Igrish-Halam in the mid-24th century it paid tribute to Mari. Ebla recovered under King Irkab-Damu in about 2340 BC; becoming prosperous and launching a successful counteroffensive against Mari. At its greatest extent Ebla controlled an area roughly half the size of modern Syria, half of which was under the direct control of the king and administered by governors, while the rest consisted of vassal kingdoms paying tribute and supplying military assistance to Ebla. One of the most important of these vassals was Armi, which was the city most often mentioned in the Ebla tablets. In total Ebla had more than sixty vassal kingdoms and city-states, including Khashshum, Gasur, Emar and Burman.
The king's chief official was called the vizier, the holder of this office started to acquire substantial authority during the reign of Irkab-Damu. Important viziers included Darmiya and Arrukum (Ar-Ennum), but the most powerful was Ibrium, who campaigned against the city of Abarsal (probably located along the Euphrates river east of Ebla) during the term of his predecessor Arrukum. In the last two years of Irkab-Damu's reign Ibrium was appointed vizier, and he continued to hold office during the succeeding reign of Isar-Damu. He kept his position for about 20 years in the mid-24th century BC, and was succeeded by his son Ibbi-Sipish, thus establishing a parallel dynasty of viziers after to the royal family. In his ninth year as vizier, Ibrium defeated the rebellious vassal state of Armi near a town called Batin, which may be northeast of Aleppo. He also conducted several campaigns against other rebellious vassals and concluded a peace and trading treaty with the vassal state of Abarsal, one of the first recorded treaties in history.
Ibbi-Sipish conducted a military campaign in his third year against a city called Bagara, and also launched several attacks on Armi, in one of which he received linen textiles. He also campaigned against the city of Ibal in the south (close to Qatna), and made an alliance with Nagar and Kish to defeat Mari in a battle near Terqa. The alliance then attacked Armi and occupied it, leaving Ibbi-Sipish's son Enzi-Malik as governor, Ebla itself suffered its first destruction a few years after the campaign making Isar-Damu the last king of the first kingdom and preventing Dubuhu-Ada the designated son and heir of Ibbi-Sipish from inheriting his father's office.
First destruction of Ebla
The first destruction occurred during the 23rd century BC. Palace G was burned, baking the clay tablets of the royal archives, and thus preserving the Ebla tablets. Many theories have been suggested for the cause, the date and the perpetrator:
- High (early) dating hypothesis: Giovanni Pettinato supports a high dating for Ebla which would put the destruction at around 2500 BC.[d] Pettinato, while preferring the date of 2500 BC later accepted that the event could have happened in 2400 BC. If the event took place in 2400 BC, Pettinato suggests that the city was destroyed by a Mesopotamian such as Eannatum of Lagash, who boasted of taking tribute from Mari, or Lugalzagesi of Umma, who claimed to have reached the Mediterranean. However, Michael Astour argues that according to the high chronology, Eannatum's reign ended in 2481 BC and Ebla was not destroyed until 2400 BC; according to the same chronology Lugalzagesi's reign would have just started in 2400, and at this stage he faced powerful enemies near his kingdom in southern Mesopotamia and Mari, so he could not have attacked distant Ebla.
- Akkadian hypothesis: both Kings Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin claimed to have destroyed a town called Ibla, The discoverer of Ebla, Paolo Matthiae considers Sargon more likely,[e] and his view is supported by Trevor Bryce. However, Astour believes that Sargon and his grandson were referring to a city with a similar name in Iraq called Ib-la. Astour points that the archives of Ebla at the time of their destruction correspond to the political situation that predate the establishment of the Akkadian empire not just the reign of Naram-Sin. It is also unlikely that Sargon was responsible as the Ebla tablets at the time of their destruction describe Kish as independent, and Lugalzagesi sacked Kish and was himself killed by Sargon before Sargon destroyed Ibla or Ebla.
- Mari revenge: The destruction happened three years after the battle of Terqa, Amanda Podany and Mario Liverani suggest that the destruction was caused by Mari in retaliation for its humiliating defeat in Terqa.
- Natural catastrophe: Astour suggests that a natural catastrophe caused the blaze which ended the archive period, as the destruction was limited to the area of the royal palace, and there is no convincing evidence for looting. He dates the fire to c. 2290 BC (Middle Chronology).
The second kingdom is designated Mardikh IIB2. It lasted until the second destruction between 2050 and 1950 BC. During the reign of Naram-Sin (c.2254–c.2218), the whole of northern Syria including Ebla became a part of the Akkadian Empire.
A new local dynasty ruled the second kingdom of Ebla, but there was continuity with its first kingdom heritage. Ebla maintained its earliest features including its architectural style, religion and the sanctity of the acropolis. The transition from the archive period is marked only by the destruction of the palace G. A new royal palace was built in the northern part of the lower city, the archaic palace P5, and a new temple that was built in the same area (designated D) as the old temple in the acropolis. However little is known about the second kingdom as no tablets have been discovered and only one inscription which dates to the end of the period.
Ebla continued to be a center of trade.[f] An inscription by Gudea of Lagash asked for cedars to be brought from Urshu in the mountains of Ebla, indicating that Ebla's territory included Urshu, north of Carchemish in modern Turkey. A text that dates to the seventh year of Amar-Sin (c. 2040 BC), a ruler of the Third Dynasty of Ur, mentions a messenger of the Ensí (Megum) of Ebla, showing that the kingdoms were in communication. Megum is thought to have been a title of the ruler of Ebla rather than a personal name.[g]
The second kingdom ended with the destruction of the city by fire, although evidence has only been found on the western side outside of the temple and in the area of residence E on the acropolis. The reason for the destruction is not known.
|Third Eblaite Kingdom|
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|-||Established||c. 2000 BC|
|-||Disestablished||c. 1600 BC|
The third kingdom is designated Mardikh III, and is divided into periods A (c. 2000–1800 BC) and B (c. 1800–1600 BC). In period A the kingdom was settled by the Amorites and Ebla was quickly rebuilt as a planned city. The foundations covered what remained of Mardikh II; new fortifications were built in two circles, one for the low city and one for the acropolis, in addition to new palaces and temples in the lower city. The city was laid out on regular lines and large public buildings were built on the acropolis including royal palace E. Further construction took place in period B.
The first known third kingdom king is Ibbit-Lim, who described himself as the Mekim of Ebla.[h] A basalt votive statue bearing his inscription was discovered in 1968 and helped to identify the site of Tell-Mardikh with the ancient kingdom Ebla. The names of the king and his father Igrish-Heba (who is not known to have been a king) are Amorite, and in the view Giovanni Pettinato it is therefore probable that the inhabitants of third kingdom Ebla were predominantly Amorites, as were most of the inhabitants of Syria at that time.
By the beginning of the 18th century BC Ebla had become a vassal of Yamhad, an Amorite kingdom centered on Aleppo, a status which it kept until the end of both kingdoms. One of the known rulers of Ebla during this period was Immeya; a silver bowl bearing his name was found in the "tomb of the lords of the goats", together with an Egyptian ceremonial mace presented by Pharaoh Hotepibre to the Eblaite king. The mace and other Egyptian jewels in the tomb indicate the continuing wide connections and importance of Ebla. Ebla is mentioned in tablets from the Yamhadite vassal city of Alalakh in modern Turkey; an Eblaite princess married a son of King Ammitaqum of Alalakh, who belonged to a branch of The royal Yamhadite dynasty.
Ebla and Yamhad were destroyed by the Hittite King Mursili I in about 1600 BC. Indilimgur was probably the last king of Ebla; a seal of his crown prince was discovered in the western palace Q.
The destruction of Ebla is mentioned in the fragmentary Hurro-Hittite epic Song of Release, discovered in 1983. In the epic an Eblaite assembly led by a man called Zazalla prevents King Meki from showing mercy to prisoners from its former vassal city Ikinkalis, provoking the wrath of the storm god Teshshub and causing him to destroy the city.
Ebla never recovered from its third destruction. It was a small village in the phase designated Mardikh IV (1600–1200 BC). Mardikh V (1200–535 BC) was a rural early Iron Age settlement which grow in size during its later periods. Further development occurred during Mardikh VI, which lasted until c. 60 AD. The site was largely abandoned in the 2nd century AD during Mardikh VII, between 60 AD and the seventh century AD. Some parts were sparsely populated until the third century AD, and perhaps to the middle of the 1st millennium AD, after which the site was forgotten until its rediscovery in 1968.
Government and organization
Ebla was a large city protected by a fortified rampart and towers. A raised acropolis in the centre was surrounded by the lower city, which was divided into four districts each with its own gate in the outer wall. During the first kingdom the gates were double chambered. The acropolis was fortified and included the king's palace (Palace G) and the main temple of Ishara. The lower city had many public buildings including the Vizier Palace,[i] the temple of Shapash (Temple N) and two other palaces.[j] The royal cemetery and the temple of Resheph (Temple B1) were located in the south of the lower city and the temple of Hadad in the southeast.[k]
During the second kingdom, the royal palace (Archaic Palace P5) was built north west of the acropolis, in addition to the western palace (in area Q), while the intermediate palace, palace E and Ishtar temple (in area D) were built during the third kingdom.
The government consisted of the king (styled Malikum) and the grand vizier who headed the elders (Abbu) council and the administration. The central administration was located in the acropolis. The queen had a share with the king in running the affairs of the state, and the crown prince was involved in the internal matters while the second prince was involved in foreign affairs. Most affairs including military ones were handled primarily by the grand vizier and the administration, which consisted of 13 court dignitaries, each of whom controlled between 400 and 800 men forming a bureaucracy with a total of 11,700 people. Each of the four quarters of the lower city was governed by a chief inspector and many deputies. Smaller cities were governed by governors, and each governor was under the authority of the grand vizier. Women received salaries equaled to men and could accede to important positions and head government agencies.
Kings of Ebla
The Eblaites worshipped dead kings as gods. For the first kingdom monarchs, tablets listing offerings to kings mention 10 names, and another list mentions a total of 26 kings.[l] No kings are known from the second kingdom, and only three from the third kingdom, Ibbit-Lim (c. 2000 BC), Immeya (c. 1750 BC), and Indilimgur (c. 1600 BC). All dates are estimates according to the Middle chronology.
First Kingdom monarchs
|Enmanu||c. 2740 BC|
|Namanu||c. 2720 BC|
|Da .. .||c. 2700 BC|
|Sagishu||c. 2680 BC|
|Dane'um||c. 2660 BC|
|Ibbini-Lim||c. 2640 BC|
|Ishrut-Damu||c. 2620 BC|
|Isidu||c. 2600 BC|
|Isrut-Halam||c. 2580 BC|
|Iksud||c. 2560 BC|
|Talda-Lim||c. 2540 BC|
|Abur-Lim||c. 2520 BC|
|Agur-Lim||c. 2500 BC|
|Ibbi-Damu||c. 2480 BC|
|Baga-Damu||c. 2460 BC|
|Enar-Damu||c. 2440 BC|
|Eshar-Malik||c. 2420 BC|
|Kun-Damu||c. 2400 BC|
|Adub-Damu||c. 2380 BC||short reign|
|Igrish-Halam||c. 2360 BC||ruled at least 12 years|
|Irkab-Damu||c. 2340 BC||rise of vizier Ibrium|
|Isar-Damu||c. 2320 BC||ruled about 30 years, rise of vizier Ibbi-Sipish|
People, language and culture
During the Mardikh I & II periods the population is estimated to have numbered around 40,000 people in the capital, and over 200,000 people for the whole Kingdom.
The Eblaites were Semites. Giovanni Pettinato and Mitchell Dahood believed that the Eblaite language was a West Semitic language, but I. J. Gelb and others suggested it was an East Semitic dialect, closer to the Akkadian language, a view which is now generally accepted.
The Eblaite gods mostly belonged to the northwestern semitic pantheon and some deities were unique to Ebla. Ebla held several religious and social festivals such as the rituals for the succession of a new king, which normally lasted for several weeks.
Society was less centered around the palace and the temple than in Mesopotamian kingdoms. The Eblaite palace was designed around the courtyard, which was open toward the city, thus making the administration approachable. This contrasts with Mesopotamian palaces which resembled citadels, with narrow entrances and limited access to the external courtyard.
The Mardikh III population was predominately Semitic Amorite. The Amorites were mentioned in the first kingdom tablets as neighbors and as rural subjects. They came to dominate Ebla after the destruction of the second kingdom, and formed the bulk of its population. The city witnessed a great increase in construction, and many palaces, temples and fortifications were built. The Amorite Eblaites worshiped the same deities as the Eblaites of earlier periods, and maintained the sanctity of the acropolis in the center of the city.
During the first kingdom period, the palace controlled the economy, but wealthy families managed their financial affairs without government intervention. The system was redistributive, and the palace distributed food to its permanent and seasonal workers. It is estimated that around 40,000 persons contributed to this system, but in general (unlike Mesopotamia) lands stayed in the hands of the villages which paid an annual share to the palace. The agriculture was mainly pastoral; large herds of cattle were managed by the palace, and the city's inhabitants owned about 200,000 head of sheep, goats, and cows.
The prosperity of Ebla derived from trade, much of it with Mesopotamia, and the kingdom's wealth was equal to that of the most important Sumerian cities. Finds in the palaces include a small sculpture made out of precious materials, such as black stones and gold. The kingdom's major commercial rival was Mari. Ebla's main articles of trade were probably timber from the nearby mountains (and perhaps from Lebanon) and textiles, which are mentioned in Sumerian texts from the city-state of Lagash.
Ebla possessed a wide commercial network reaching as far as modern Afghanistan. It also shipped textiles to Cyprus possibly through the port of Ugarit, but most of its trade seems to have been directed (by river-boat) towards Mesopotamia (chiefly Kish). The main palace G was also found to contain "antiques" dating from Ancient Egypt with the names of pharaohs Khafra and Pepi I. Handicrafts may also have been a major export, and exquisite artifacts have been recovered from the ruins, including wood furniture inlaid with mother-of-pearl and composite statues created from different colored stones.
Ebla was a polytheistic state. During the first kingdom, the pantheon had three genres of deities; in the first and most common there were pairs of gods, such as the deity and his female consort, or divine twosomes such as the deities that cooperate to create the cosmos, as in the Egyptian and Mesopotamian pantheons. The second genre included single deities, while the third genre consisted of divine duos who were actually a single deity that had two different names. Eblaites worshipped few Mesopotamian and Hurrian deities, preferring northern Semitic gods, some of them unique to Ebla.
The first genre included the eastern semitic chief god Dagan and his consort, Belatu, meaning his wife. The patron gods of the city were Kura (who was unique to Ebla) and his consort Barama. Other major deities included Hadad (Hadda) and his consort Habadu, Rasap and his consort Adamma.
The second genre included the Hurrian goddess Ishara, who was the goddess of the royal family. Ishtar was also worshiped, but Ishara was far more important, appearing 40 times in one of the monthly offering lists, while Ishtar was mentioned only five times. Other deities included Nidakul, who was exclusive to Ebla, the Mesopotamian god Utu, the Hurrian god Ashtapi, and Shipish the goddess of the sun, who had a temple dedicated to her cult.
The third genre included many gods such as the artisan god Kamish/Tit, Kothar-wa-Khasis, and the planet Venus represented by Shahar as the morning star and Shalim as the evening star. Eblaites also practiced the deification of dead kings. The four city gates were named after the gods Dagan, Hadda, Rasap and Utu, but which gate had which name is unknown. Overall, about forty deities are mentioned in the offering lists as receiving sacrifices.
During the third kingdom, Amorites worshipped common northern Semitic gods, and the unique Eblaite deities disappeared. Hadad, (whose consort became Atargatis) was the most important god, while Ishtar took Ishara's place and became the city's most important deity apart from Hadad.
Biblical connection theories
Among Pettinato's controversial claims, he suggested that there was a change in the Theophoric names (names of gods) shown in many of the tablets from *El to *Yah (represented by the cuneiform sign NI)[m] indicated in the example of the transition from Mika'il to Mikaya. He regards this as evidence for an early use of the divine name Yah, a god who he believes later emerged as the Jewish Yahweh (YHWH). Jean Bottéro has suggested that this shift may instead indicate the Akkadian god Ea (Ia).
On the other hand, both Archi and Anson Rainey, have suggested that the "-ya" is actually a diminutive ending used in shortened forms of personal names, while Hans-Peter Müller has argued that the cuneiform sign (NI) should be in this case interpreted as an abbreviation for ì(-lí) ("god") rather than as ià (*Yah), a view that Archi has since adopted with a modification, his reading been ì or lí. No list of gods or offerings mentions a deity by the name of Ya, and the connection with Yahweh is largely rejected today by scholars.
Many ancient Hebraic names that have not been found in other Near Eastern languages have been reported to occur in similar forms in Eblaite (Adamu, H'à-wa, Jabal, Abarama, Bilhah, Ishma-el, Isûra-el, Esau, Mika-el, Saul, David). A large number of Biblical locations (many of them known from other sources) have also been reported to occur in the texts, for example Ashtaroth, Sinai, Hazor, Lachish, Gezer, Dor, Megiddo, Joppa, Ur etc. Giovanni Pettinato has also claimed to find references to Sodom and Gomorrah.
However, much of the initial media excitement about supposed Eblaite connections with the Bible, based on preliminary guesses and speculations by Pettinato and others, is now widely deplored as "exceptional and unsubstantiated claims" and "great amounts of disinformation that leaked to the public". Contrary to many earlier claims, the present consensus is that "Ebla has no bearing on the Minor Prophets, the historical accuracy of the biblical Patriarchs, Yahweh worship, or Sodom and Gomorra". In Ebla studies, the focus has shifted away from comparisons with the Bible, and Ebla is now studied above all as a civilization in its own right. The tide turned after a bitter personal and scholarly conflict between the scientists involved, as well as what some described as interference by the Syrian authorities on political grounds.
Three versions of a text described as an Eblaite creation hymn have been found. They have been translated by Pettinato as :
- Lord of heaven and earth:
- the earth was not, you created it,
- the light of day was not, you created it,
- the morning light you had not [yet] made exist.
These lines seem to have points in common both with known Sumerian creation stories and with the Biblical account. Nevertheless, Alfonso Archi has objected that the original text is unclear to the point of being incomprehensible, (texts from Ebla are difficult to read in general), leading him to conclude that "there is no Genesis creation story" in the Ebla documents.
Discovery and excavation
In 1964, Italian archaeologists from the University of Rome La Sapienza under the direction of Paolo Matthiae began excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968, they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim mentioning him as king of Ebla. That identified the city, long known from Egyptian and Akkadian inscriptions. In the next decade the team discovered a palace (palace G) dating c. 2500 – 2000 BC. About 2,500 well-preserved cuneiform tablets were discovered in the ruins. About 80% of the tablets are written using the usual Sumerian combination of logograms and phonetic signs, while the others exhibited an innovative, purely phonetic representation using Sumerian cuneiform of a previously unknown Semitic language, which was called Eblaite. Bilingual Sumerian/Eblaite vocabulary lists were found among the tablets, allowing them to be translated.
Ebla's close link to southern Mesopotamia, where the script had developed, further highlights the links between the Sumerians and Semitic cultures at that time. The tablets provide many important insights into the cultural, economic, and political life in northern Mesopotamia around the middle of the third millennium BC. They also provide insight into the everyday life of the inhabitants, as well as containing information about state revenues, Sumerian-Eblaite dictionaries, school texts, an archive of provisions and tribute, law cases, diplomatic and trade contacts, and a scriptorium where apprentices copied texts. The tablets also includes writings on Ebla's hymns, legends, scientific observations, and magic. The larger tablets had originally been stored on shelves, but had fallen onto the floor when the palace was destroyed. The location where tablets were discovered where they had fallen allowed the excavators to reconstruct their original position on the shelves, and it was found that they were originally shelved according to subject.
- All dates in the article are estimated by the Middle Chronology.
- It is suggested that he was a contemporary of king Ishtup-Ishtar of Mari (who is also mentioned in the tablets).
- The political weakness started during the short reign of Adub-Damu.
- At first Pettinato supported the Sargon theory before proposing the High dating.
- At first Matthiae supported the Naram-Sin theory then switched to Sargon.
- Archaeologist Alessandro de Maigret (judging by the surrounding cities that appeared during this period and were destroyed along with Mardikh IIB2) deduced that Ebla retained its trading position.
- King Ibbit-Lim of the later third kingdom of Ebla also used this title, an Eblaite seal that reads the sentence Ib-Damu Mekim Ebla, was used in the 19th century BC by an Assyrian merchant named Assur-Nada from Kültepe, Ib Damu was the name of an Eblaite king from the early period of the first kingdom.
- This led Astour, David I. Owen and Ron Veenker to identify Ibbit-Lim with the pre-Amorite Megum of the Third Ur era, however this identification is now refused.
- Called the southern palace (in area FF), it was located at the foot of the acropolis southern side.
- In the northern part.
- Area HH.
- Tablet TM.74.G.120 discovered by Alfonso Archi.
- Cuneiform sign NI is ascribed the unicode codepoint U+1224C, it is number 380 according to the sign numbers (MesZL) of Riekele Borger.
- Jimmy Jack McBee Roberts (2002). The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Collected Essays. p. 12.
- Anne Porter (2012). Mobile Pastoralism and the Formation of Near Eastern Civilizations: Weaving Together Society. p. 199.
- Frank Kidner,Maria Bucur,Ralph Mathisen,Sally McKee,Theodore Weeks (2013). Making Europe: The Story of the West, Volume I to 1790. p. 23.
- Margreet L. Steiner,Ann E. Killebrew (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: C. 8000–332 BCE. p. 284.
- Niels Peter Lemche (2008). The Old Testament Between Theology and History: A Critical Survey. p. 422.
- Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire. p. 210.
- Cyrus Herzl Gordon (1987). Forgotten scripts: their ongoing discovery and decipherment. p. 155.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 248.
- Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti (2013). Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 182.
- William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 239.
- Ian Shaw,Robert Jameson (2008). A Dictionary of Archaeology. p. 211.
- Gwendolyn Leick (2009). Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia. p. 54.
- Paolo Matthiae, Nicoló Marchetti. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 37.
- Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 37.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 246 + 247.
- Hartmut Kühne,Rainer Maria Czichon,Florian Janoscha Kreppner. 4 ICAANE. p. 66.
- Paolo Matthiae,Nicoló Marchetti. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. p. 239.
- Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 15.
- Hartmut Kühne, Rainer Maria Czichon, Florian Janoscha Kreppner. 4 ICAANE. p. 68.
- Lisa Cooper (2006). Early Urbanism on the Syrian Euphrates. p. 64.
- William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 240.
- Giovanni Pettinato. Ebla, a new look at history. p. 135.
- Mark William Chavalas (1992). New horizons in the study of ancient Syria. p. 33.
- Mario Liverani. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 207.
- Joan Aruz,Ronald Wallenfels (2003). Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. p. 462.
- Diane Bolger, Louise C. Maguire (2010). The Development of Pre-State Communities in the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of Edgar Peltenburg. p. 132.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 484.
- Stephen C. Neff (2014). Justice Among Nations. p. 14.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 485.
- Paolo Matthiae,Licia Romano (2010). 6 ICAANE. p. 486.
- Mario Liverani. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 208.
- Cyrus Herzl Gordon,Gary Rendsburg,Nathan H. Winter (2002). Eblaitica. p. 24.
- Amanda H Podany, Marni McGee (2005). The Ancient Near Eastern World. p. 62.
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