|Ebrahim Yazdiابراهیم یزدی|
|Leader of the Freedom Movement|
25 January 1995 – 20 March 2011
|Preceded by||Mehdi Bazargan|
|Succeeded by||Abdolali Bazargan|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Iran|
4 February 1979 – 1 March 1979
|Prime Minister||Mehdi Bazargan|
|Succeeded by||Abbas Amir-Entezam|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran|
12 April 1979 – 12 November 1979
|Prime Minister||Mehdi Bazargan|
|Preceded by||Karim Sanjabi|
|Succeeded by||Abulhassan Banisadr|
5 April 1931 |
|Political party||Freedom Movement of Iran|
|Alma mater||University of Tehran|
Ebrahim Yazdi (ابراهیم یزدی; born 4 April 1931) is an Iranian politician and diplomat who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in the interim government of Mehdi Bazargan, until his resignation in November 1979, in protest at the Iran hostage crisis. From 1995 to 2011, He was Leader of the Freedom Movement of Iran, which is considered an "illegal party" potentially terrorist by some factions within the Iranian government. The stated goals of the Freedom Movement include guarding against abuses of the constitution and abuses of civil rights, expanding opportunities for the growth of democracy and a multi-party system, as well as safeguarding economic, social and cultural rights for all Iranians.
Early life and studies 
After the military coup of 1953, which deposed the government of Mohammad Mossadegh, Yazdi joined the underground National Resistance Movement of Iran, and was active in this organization from 1953-1960. This organization was active against the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Yazdi traveled to the United States in 1960 to continue his education and in the US, continued his involvement in political activities against the Shah. He was a founding member of the Freedom Movement of Iran, Abroad, along with Mostafa Chamran, Ali Shariati, and Sadegh Qotbzadeh in 1961. Because of these activities, he was unable to return to Iran and remained in the United States until the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In 1975, Yazdi was tried in absentia in an Iranian military court and condemned to ten years imprisonment, with orders issued for his arrest upon return to Iran.
US Embassy Capture and Resignation 1979 
On November 4 of the same year, the US embassy was taken over again by a group calling itself “Students Following the Line of the Imam (i.e. Ayatollah Khomeini)” and led by Mohammad Mousavi Khoeiniha, who had closer ties to certain revolutionary leaders.
As before, Yazdi was asked to go to the embassy and resolve the crisis. He asked and received permission of Khomeini to expel the occupiers, but shortly thereafter found out Khomeini had changed his mind and appeared on state television openly endorsed the takeover of the embassy. The entire cabinet of the Interim Government, including Ebrahim Yazdi and Mehdi Bazargan, resigned in protest the next day. They stated that they opposed the embassy takeover as “contrary to the national interest of Iran”.
The embassy takeover is considered to have been motivated in part by an internal struggle between various factions within the revolutionary leadership, with Yazdi and Bazargan on one side, and more radical clergy on the other. The embassy attackers, in subsequent statements have indicated that one of their primary objectives in the takeover of the US embassy in November 1979 was to force the resignation of Yazdi, Bazargan, and the entire Interim Government.
Islamic Revolutionary Court 
Among the areas of conflict between the two factions was the behavior of the Revolutionary Courts and the Revolutionary Committees. Yazdi and Bazargan supported a general amnesty for all members of the Shah’s regime, provided that they cease to act against the revolution. They publicly opposed the secret trials and the summary executions carried out by the Revolutionary Courts, led by Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhaali. Bazargan and other members of the Interim Government called for fair and open trials for those accused of crimes committed under the Shah’s regime. The radical clerics, on the other hand, stated that the rapid trials and executions were essential to protect the revolution.
After resignation from the government, Yazdi and other members of the Freedom Movement of Iran ran in elections for the first post-revolutionary Islamic Consultative Assembly or parliament. Yazdi, Bazargan, and four other members of the Freedom Movement (Mostafa Chamran, Ahmad Sadr, Hashem Sabbaghian, and Yadollah Sahabi) were elected. They served from 1980 to 1984.
After the Iraqi invasion of Iran in September 1980, Yazdi fully supported the Iranian war effort against the invasion, but opposed the continuation of the war after the Iranian victory in Khorramshahr in 1982. The war continued for an additional six years. During these six years, Yazdi and others in the Freedom Movement issued several open letters to Ayatollah Khomeini opposing the continuation of the war. These letters and other public statements resulted in the firebombing of Yazdi’s residence in Tehran in 1985, and the arrest and imprisonment of several member of the Freedom Movement.
In subsequent elections in Iran for president, parliament, and city councils, Yazdi and other members of the Freedom Movement filed for candidacy but were barred from running by the Guardian Council, because of their opposition to policies and actions of the government.
In December 1997, Yazdi was arrested on unknown charges and detained in Evin prison in Tehran. Even after his release, he was barred from leaving the country for many years, and summoned on a regular basis to answer questions before the revolutionary council, with his lawyer, Nobel prize winning Shirin Ebadi. As of 2008 Yazdi is still accused of “attempting to convert the rule of velaii (jurisprudence) into democratic rule.”
Recent life and works 
2009 arrests 
On June 17, 2009, during the 2009 Iranian election protests, it was reported that Yazdi was arrested while undergoing tests at the Tehran hospital according to the Freedom Movement of Iran website. On June 22, he was released back to the hospital for a medical procedure. On December 28, 2009, Yazdi was arrested again in the wake of renewed protests, according to the Jaras reformist website.
2010 arrest 
Yazdi and several others were arrested on October 1, 2010 in Isfahan for participating in an "illegal Friday prayer." All others were freed within days. Ebrahim Yazdi remains in "temporary custody" -- first in Evin prison and now in a "secure" facility under the control of Iran's security forces until March 2011. He was released on March 19, 2011.
Selected works 
Aakhareen Talaash-ha Dar Aakhareen Rooz-ha (Final Efforts, Final Days), Qalam Publications, 1984 (13th Edition, 1999) (a report and analysis on the Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979)
Principles of Molecular Genetics (Third Edition), Ettela’aat Publications, Tehran, 2000
Mutational Changes in Generic Materials, Matin Cultural Foundation, Tehran, 1986
Seh Jumhuri (The Three Republics), Jaameye Iranian Publications, 2000 (a compilation of political essays and articles by Ebrahim Yazdi published in Iranian journals from 1997–2000)
Khatti Dar Darya (A Line in the Sea), Qalam Publications, Tehran, 2000 (a new interpretation of the verse of the Quran on “Marajul Bahrain”)
Khaak-haa-ye Rosi va Paydaayesh-e Hayaat (Clay Minerals and the Origin of Life), Qalam Publications, 2001 (a new interpretation of the verses of the Quran on “Teen-e Laatheb”)
Kalbod Shekaafee-ye Towte-e: Barresee-ye Kudetaa-ye Beestohasht-e Mordaad 1332 (The Anatomy of a Plot: An Analysis of the Coup of August 1953), Qalam Publications, 2002 (a collection of essays on the US and British led military coup against the national government of Mohammad Mossadegh)
Docterin-e Amniyyat-e Melli (National Security Doctrine), Sarai Publications, Tehran, 2004 (a compilation of political essays on Iranian foreign affairs from 1980–2004)
Jonbesh-e Daaneshju-yi-e Iran 1320-1340 (The Iranian Student Movement from 1941–1961), Qalam Publications, 2004 (a history and memoirs of the student movement and activities of Ebrahim Yazdi during this period)
- J D Stempel, Inside the Iranian Revolution, Indiana Univ Press, 1981
- Sadegh Khalkhali, Khateraateh Khalkhaali (Memoirs of Khalkhaali), Sayeh Publications, Tehran, 2003
- Abdolali Bazargan, ed, Moshketaal va Masa’ele Av’valeen Saale Enghelaab Az Zabaane Mohandes Bazargaan (Issues of the First Year of the Revolutions as Explained by Mehdi Bazargan), Tehran, 1981
- Link to MEI website for podcast of speech in April 2008: 
- Bowden, Guests of the Ayatollah, (2006) p.93
- Tait, Robert (2009-06-17), Iran elections: mass arrests and campus raids as regime hits back, London: The Guardian, retrieved 2009-06-18
- Daily Show interview with Yazdi's son., June 22, 2009
- Iran 'at point of no return', By Middle East correspondent Anne Barker for AM, Dec 29, 2009
3. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article6527580.ece 2009/06/18 Times Online
|Foreign minister of Iran
|Party political offices|
|Leader of Freedom Movement of Iran