Echo-class submarine

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Echo II class submarine
Nuclear-powered cruise-missile submarine of Project 675 (Echo II)
Class overview
Builders: Komsomolsk-on-Amur, shipyard No. 199
Severodvinsk, shipyard No. 402
Operators:  Soviet Navy
 Russian Navy
Preceded by: Whiskey Long Bin
Succeeded by: Juliett class submarine
In commission: 19 November 1960–15 July 1994
Completed: Echo I : 5
Echo II : 29
General characteristics
Type: Nuclear submarine
Displacement: Echo I :
3,768 long tons (3,828 t) surfaced
4,920 long tons (4,999 t) submerged
Echo II :
4,415 long tons (4,486 t) surfaced
5,760 long tons (5,852 t) submerged
Length: Echo I : 111.2 m (364 ft 10 in)
Echo II : 115.4 m (378 ft 7 in)
Beam: Echo I : 9.2 m (30 ft 2 in)
Echo II : 9.3 m (30 ft 6 in)
Draught: Echo I : 7.1 m (23 ft 4 in)
Echo II : 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Propulsion: Echo I : 2 pressurized water-cooled reactors 44,500 hp (33 MW) each, 2 steam turbines, 2 shafts
Echo II : 2 pressurized water-cooled reactors 70,000 hp (52 MW) each, 2 steam turbines, 2 shafts
Speed: Echo I :
15.1 knots (17.4 mph; 28.0 km/h) surfaced
24.2 knots (27.8 mph; 44.8 km/h) submerged
Echo II :
14 knots (16 mph; 26 km/h) surfaced
22 knots (25 mph; 41 km/h) submerged
Range: 18,000–30,000 miles (29,000–48,000 km)
Endurance: 50 days
Test depth: 300 m (984 ft)
Complement: 104-109 men (including 29 officers)
Armament: Echo I :
6 × P-5 Pyatyorka cruise missiles
4 × 533 mm (21 in) bow torpedo tubes
2 × 400 mm (16 in) bow torpedo tubes
2 × 400 mm (16 in) stern torpedo tubes
Echo II :
8 × P-6 cruise missiles
4 × 533 mm (21 in) bow torpedo tubes
2 × 400 mm (16 in) stern torpedo tubes
Echo II mod :
P-6 replaced with 8 × P-500 or P-1000 (SS-N-12 "Sandbox") missiles

The Echo class were nuclear cruise missile submarines of the Soviet Navy built during the 1960s. Their Soviet designation was Project 659 for the first five vessels, and Project 675 for the following twenty-nine. Their NATO reporting names were Echo I and Echo II. All were decommissioned by 1994.[1][2]

Echo I class[edit]

The Soviet Echo I class (Project 659 class) were completed at Komsomolsk in the Soviet far east in 1960 to 1963. The Echo I class were classed as SSGNs armed with six launchers for the P-5 Pyatyorka (SS-N-3C, "Shaddock") land-attack cruise missile. The Echo I class had to operate in a strategic rather than anti-shipping role because of the lack of fire control and guidance radars.

Nuclear-powered submarine of Project 659 (Echo I) re-equipped into attack submarine of Project 659T
Project 659

As the Soviet SSBN force built up, the need for these boats diminished so they were converted to the Project 659T SSN's between 1969 and 1974. The conversion involved the removal of the cruise missiles, the plating over and the streamlining of the hull to reduce underwater noise of the launchers and the modification of the sonar systems to the standard of the November-class SSNs.

All the Echo Is were deployed in the Pacific Fleet although K-122 was damaged by a fire in compartment VII during a patrol mission near Okinawa in August 1980 and had to be towed back to Vladivostok for emergency dry docking (the submarine was removed from active service in October 1985). The last two boats were scrapped in the early 1990s.

Ships[edit]

Echo I class — significant dates
# Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-45 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure December 20, 1958 May 12, 1960 June 28, 1961[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping
K-59 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure September 30, 1959 September 25, 1960 December 16, 1961[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping
K-66 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure March 26, 1960 July 30, 1961 December 28, 1961[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1985 for scrapping
K-122 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure January 21, 1961 September 17, 1961 July 6, 1962[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1985 for scrapping
K-151 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure April 21, 1962 September 30, 1962 July 28, 1963[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping

Echo II class[edit]

The Echo II class (Project 675 class) were built at Severodvinsk (18 vessels) and Komsomolsk (11 vessels) between 1962 and 1967 as anti-carrier missile submarines. The Echo II class carried eight P-6 (SS-N-3a "Shaddock") anti-ship cruise missiles mounted in pairs above the pressure hull.

Launch of cruise missile P-6 (SS-N-3A) from submarine of Project 675 (Echo II)
Project 675

To fire the missiles, the ship had to surface and the missile was elevated to 15[3] degrees. The Echo II class also had fire control and guidance radar. The Echo II class could fire all eight missiles in 30 minutes, but would have to wait on the surface until the missile mid-course correction and final target selection had been sent unless guidance had been handed over to a third party.

From the mid-1970s, fourteen of the 29 Echo II class were converted during overhauls to carry the P-500 Bazalt (SS-N-12 "Sandbox") anti-ship cruise missile, with a range of 550 kilometres (340 mi). The conversions (Project 675M) could be distinguished by the fitting bulges either side of the sail.

Three of these modified units were further upgraded under Project 675MKV towards the end of the Cold War. The P-1000 Vulkan (GRAU 3M70) flies faster (Mach 2.3-2.5)[4] than the P-500 and its range was extended to 700 kilometres (430 mi).[4] It replaces steel components with titanium to reduce weight, and has an improved propulsion system. It appears to have used a similar fire-control system to the P-500, the Argon-KV and Argument radar.[5] P-1000 was installed on three units of the Northern Fleet between 1987 and 1993; the conversion of two boats of the Pacific Fleet, the K-10 and K-34, was abandoned due to lack of funds.[5]

The Echo II class were divided evenly between the Pacific and Northern Fleets. The boats were obsolete by the mid-1980s, and were deleted in 1989 and 1995.

Ships[edit]

Echo II class — significant dates
# Shipyard Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
K-166 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk May 30, 1961 September 6, 1962 October 31, 1963[3] Northern Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping
K-104 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk January 11, 1962 June 16, 1963 December 15, 1963[3] Northern Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-170 "K-86", "KS-86" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk May 16, 1962 August 4, 1963 December 26, 1963[3] Northern Decommissioned 1991 for scrapping
K-175 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure March 17, 1962 September 30, 1962 December 30, 1963[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-184 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure February 2, 1963 August 25, 1963 March 31, 1964[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-172 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk August 8, 1962 December 25, 1963 July 30, 1964[3] Northern Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-47 "B-47" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk August 7, 1962 February 10, 1964 August 31, 1964[3] Northern Decommissioned 1994-5 for scrapping
K-1 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk January 11, 1963 April 30, 1964 September 30, 1964[3] Northern Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-28 "K-428" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk April 26, 1963 June 30, 1964 December 16, 1964[3] Northern Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-35 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk January 6, 1964 January 27, 1965 June 30, 1965[3] Northern Decommissioned 1993 for scrapping
K-189 "K-144" Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure April 6, 1963 May 9, 1964 July 24, 1965[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1991 for scrapping
K-74 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk July 23, 1963 September 30, 1964 July 30, 1965[3] Northern Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-22 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk October 14, 1963 November 29, 1964 August 7, 1965[3] Northern Decommissioned 1995[5] for scrapping
K-90 "K-111" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk February 29, 1964 April 17, 1965 September 25, 1965[3] Northern Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping
K-31 "K=431" Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure January 11, 1964 September 8, 1964 September 30, 1965[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1987 for scrapping
K-116 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk June 8, 1964 June 19, 1965 October 29, 1965[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1985 for scrapping
K-57 "K-557" Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure October 19, 1963 September 26, 1964 October 31, 1965[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-125 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk September 1, 1964 September 11, 1965 December 18, 1965[3] Northern Decommissioned 1991 for scrapping
K-48 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure April 11, 1964 June 16, 1965 December 31, 1965[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-128 "K-62" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk October 29, 1964 December 30, 1965 August 25, 1966[3] Northern Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-56 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure May 30, 1964 August 10, 1965 August 26, 1966[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-131 "B-131" SEVMASH, Severodvinsk December 31, 1964 June 6, 1966 September 30, 1966[3] Northern Decommissioned 1994 for scrapping
K-10 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure October 24, 1964 September 29, 1965 October 15, 1966[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1989 for scrapping
K-135 SEVMASH, Severodvinsk February 27, 1965 July 27, 1967 November 25, 1966[3] Northern Decommissioned 1988 for scrapping
K-94 "K-204" Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure March 20, 1965 May 20, 1966 December 27, 1966[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-108 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure July 24, 1965 August 26, 1966 March 31, 1967[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-7 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure November 6, 1965 September 25, 1966 September 30, 1967[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1990 for scrapping
K-23 Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure February 23, 1966 June 18, 1967 December 30, 1967[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1992 for scrapping
K-34 "K-134" Leninskiy Komsomol Shipyard, Komsomolsk-na-Amure June 18, 1966 September 23, 1967 December 30, 1968[3] Pacific Decommissioned 1994 for scrapping

Accidents[edit]

Submarines of the Echo class were involved in several accidents :

20 June 1970
K-108 (Echo II) collided with submarine USS Tautog (SSN-639) in the Sea of Okhotsk at a depth 45 metres. The outer hull of K-108 was damaged in the area of compartments VIII and IX, and the conning tower of Tautog was damaged and flooded. There were no fatalities.
14 June 1973
K-56 (Echo II) collided with the Soviet large refrigerating trawler "Akademik Berg". The submarine was holed in the bow, and 27 were killed when compartments I and II flooded.
20 August 1973
K-1 (Echo II) struck Hagua Bank (21°35′00″N 80°40′00″W / 21.5833°N 80.6667°W / 21.5833; -80.6667) in the Caribbean Sea at a depth of 120 metres at 16 knots (30 km/h). The bow was significantly damaged.
28 August 1976
K-22 (Echo II) collided with frigate USS Voge (FF-1047) in the Mediterranean Sea (36°02′00″N 20°36′00″E / 36.0333°N 20.6000°E / 36.0333; 20.6000), and both ships were seriously damaged. K-22 had damage to missile container No. 1, extension devices and the fin structure, and went to Kithira in the Aegean Sea for repairs. The American frigate was damaged at the stern, and had to be towed to Crete.[6]
24 September 1976
K-47 (Echo II) while in the North Atlantic a fire broke out in compartment VIII (living quarters) due to short circuit. Three were killed by carbon monoxide poisoning.
2 July 1979
K-116 (Echo II) suffered a reactor accident (a leak of core coolant from the port reactor) in the Bay of Vladimir, Sea of Japan. Some of the crew received a large dose of radiation, but there were no fatalities.
21 August 1980
K-122 (Echo I) had a fire in compartment VII (turbo-electric) when 85 miles (137 km) to the east of Okinawa. Fourteen dead due to carbon monoxide poisoning.
10 September 1981
K-45 (Echo I) collided with Soviet fishing trawler Novokachalinsk at night. The bow of the outer hull and the sonar system of the submarine was seriously damaged. The trawler sank.
18 June 1984
K-131 (Echo II) a fire broke out in compartment VIII due to violation of safety methods by an electrician, while in the Barents Sea. Thirteen dead.
10 August 1985
K-431 (ex-K-31) (Echo II) had a reactor explosion while refueling in the shipyard at Chazhma Bay, Sea of Japan. Ten dead (300 men from rescue parties received various doses of radiation, several died later).
November 1986
K-175 (Echo II), while at its homebase (Pacific Fleet), suffered an explosion in the reactor compartment, causing radioactivity discharge and contamination of nearby territory. No fatalities.
1989
K-1 (Echo II mod) reactor accident.[5]
26 June 1989
K-192 (ex-K-172) (Echo II) had a reactor accident (a break in the first loop of the starboard reactor) while off Bear Island, Barents Sea. The crew received a dose of radiation, but there were no fatalities.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.deepstorm.ru/DeepStorm.files/45-92/nsrs/659/list.htm
  2. ^ http://www.deepstorm.ru/DeepStorm.files/45-92/nsrs/675/list.htm
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Podvodnye Lodki Rossii, Atomnye Pervoye Pokoleniye, Tom IV, Chast 1, Defense Ministry Central Design Bureau No.1 & Central Marine Equipment Design Bureau Rubin, Sankt Peterburg, 1996
  4. ^ a b Friedman, Norman (1997). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute Press. p. 789. 
  5. ^ a b c d Friedman, Norman (1997). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute Press. p. 246. 
  6. ^ "Collision with Soviet submarine". United States Department of State. 1976-08-29. Retrieved 2010-04-02.